Language Focus & Structure
In your opinion, what is value?
value ----A principle, standard, or quality considered
worthwhile or desirable
Some quotations on values
One should eat to live, not live to eat.
The value of life lies not in the length of days but in the use you
make of them; he has lived for a long time who has little lived.
----Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592),
French essayist. Essays.
That man is the richest whose pleasures are the cheapest.
--Henry David Thoreau
If money is your hope for independence you will never have it.
The only real security that a man will have in this world is a
reserve of knowledge, experience, and ability.
To travel hopefully is a better thing than to arrive, and the true
success is to labor.
--Robert Louis Stevenson
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
Wal-Mart’s operations include Wal-Mart discount stores,
Wal-Mart Supercenters, Bud’s Discount City stores, and
Sam’s Club warehouse stores. In 1945 Wal-Mart’s
founder, Sam Walton, became manager of a Ben
Franklin variety store franchise in Newport, Arkansas.
Sam Walton’s guiding philosophy for his stores from the
beginning was to offer consumers a wide selection of
goods at a discounted price. The company saved money
by keeping advertising costs low and located stores in
small towns where residents had few options for retail
Quotation from Sam Walton
There is only one boss: the customer.
And he can fire everybody in the
company, from the chairman on down,
simply by spending his money
Sam Walton (1918 - 1992)
U.S. retail executive.
Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Ltd.
manufacturer of luxury automobiles based in
Crewe, England. The world’s premier maker of
luxury cars for much of the 20th century.
In 1906 Charles Stewart Rolls, the owner of a
London car dealership, and Frederick Henry
Royce, an engineer who had built his own two-
cylinder car, formed a partnership in Manchester
to produce state-of-the-art automobiles.
What happened to Abraham Lincoln
How is the story related to the theme
of the unit—value?
THE RICHEST MAN IN AMERICA,
ad.，prep. on or into (a ship, train,
aircraft, bus, etc.) 在（船、车、飞机等）
come aboard (fig) become a new
member of an organization 入伙，加盟
e.g. New employees who came
aboard in the last six weeks have not
v. mix together thoroughly（将…）混合
blend in mix harmoniously 融洽，十分
e.g. As a newlly-appointed manager,
he was not sure whether he could blend
by/from all accounts
according to what everyone says 人人都
e.g. The Chinese football team will
play the Koreans tonight. It should be a
match worth watching, by all accounts.
behave in a wild or improper way；
e.g. There's nothing unusual about
them. They carry on just like everybody
n. famous person 名人
e.g. celebrities of stage and screen 演
a. (of a person) happy in a lively way;
(of sth.) making one feel happy 愉快的；
e.g. They are both very cheerful in
spite of their colds.
e.g. Corporate executives usually
have high salaries.
e.g. This is the time for democrats
and not dictators（独裁者）.
vt. be worthy of 应受，值得
e.g. I am only partly responsible for
the success of this book. My
n. amount of money, which may be
taken off the full price 折扣
e.g. Traditional retailers who've
opened cyberstores （网上商店）may
offer special discounts to online
n., a. 经营管理方面的（人员）；行政方
e.g. She's an executive in a computer
a. attracting attention by being too
smart and decorated 浮华的, 华而不实
e.g. a flashy sports car
n. (usu. pl) people in general 人们；人民
e.g. They got married and had kids and
lived like other folks.
a. simple and friendly 友好的，坦率的
e.g. Steven comes from a folksy town in
n. the quality of being willing to give
money, help, etc. 慷慨，大方
e.g. There are stories about his
generosity, the massive amounts of
money he gave to charities.
get away with
do (sth.) without being caught or
e.g. They claimed that they knew
how to play the system and get away
keep to 遵守, 不改变
e.g. John holds to his belief that you
can be successful as long as you work
e.g. Conditions for membership are
laid down in the soccer club rules.
a. likely (to do sth.) 有可能做…的
e.g. The sports meeting is liable to be
postponed until next week because of
the bad weather.
n. being true and faithful (to) 忠诚
e.g. My father is a soccer fan. His
loyalty to the local team has taken him
all over the country to see them play.
form; constitute 构成，组成
e.g. Women make up nearly 50% of
n. a large house, usu. belonging to a rich
e.g. His mansion is located up a small hill.
n. a note of sth. to be remembered 备忘录
e.g. an inter-office memo 内部备忘录
on the run
in flight; continuously active 奔逃，逃避；
e.g. I have been on the run all day
and I am exhausted.
e.g. Open up, or I break in.
n. the act of becoming or making open, esp.
e.g. The minister made a speech at the
opening of the bridge.
n. (infml) keen activity and energy 劲头，活
e.g. The young man is full of pep.
n., v. 集会
e.g. They held an antiwar rally.
a gathering intended to encourage the
ranking n. 地位; 等级
e.g. He is currently ranked second in
the world as a tennis player.
a. far away in space or time 遥远的
e.g. The supply of electricity to
remote mountainous villages is one of
the local development projects in
vt. keep for a special use; book (a seat,
room, table, etc.) 将…留作专用；预定
e.g. Some seats on the buses are
reserved for the old.
schemer n. 阴谋家
e.g. All the schemes and intrigues
（阴谋诡计）are doomed to failure.
steer clear of keep away from 避开，避
e.g. Children are told to steer clear of
vt. make (sb.) very surprised 使惊吓
e.g. We were completely stunned by
her hostile reaction.
e.g. Like everyone else, I resent his
cruel treatment of his old father.
1 He put on a dinner jacket to serve
as a waiter at the birthday party of The
Richest Man in America. He imagined
what surely awaited: a mansion, a
"Rolls-Royce for every day of the
week," dogs with diamond collars,
2 Then he was off to the house,
wheeling past the sleepy town square in
Bentonville, a remote Arkansas town of
9,920, where Sam Walton started with
a little dime store that grew into a $6
billion discount chain called Wal-Mart.
He drove down a country road, turned
at a mailbox marked "Sam and Helen
Walton," and jumped out at a house in
3 It was nice, but no palace. The
furniture appeared a little worn. An old
pickup truck sat in the garage and a
muddy bird dog ran about the yard. He
never spotted any servants.
4 "It was a real disappointment,"
sighs waiter Jamie Beaulieu.
5 Only in America can a billionaire
carry on like plain folks and get away
with it. And the 67-year-old discount
king Sam Moore Walton still travels
these windy back roads in his 1979 Ford
pickup, red and white, bird dogs by his
side, and, come shooting season, waits
in line like everyone else to buy shells
at the local Wal-Mart.
6 "He doesn't want any special treatment,"
says night manager Johnny Baker, who
struggles to call the boss by his first name as
a recent corporate memo commands. Few
here think of his billions; they call him "Mr.
Sam" and accept his folksy ways. "He's the
same man who opened his dime store on the
square and worked 18 hours a day for his
dream," says Mayor Richard Hoback.
7 By all accounts, he's friendly, cheerful, a fine
neighbor who does his best to blend in, never flashy,
never throwing his weight around.
8 No matter how big a time he had on Saturday night,
you can find him in church on Sunday. Surely in a
reserved seat, right? "We don't have reserved seats,"
says Gordon Garlington III, pastor of the local church.
9 So where does The Richest Man in America sit?
Wherever he finds a seat. "Look, he's just not that way.
He doesn't have a set place. At a church supper the
other night, he and his wife were in back washing
10 For 19 years, he's used the same
barber. John Mayhall finds him waiting
when he opens up at 7 a.m. He chats
about the national news, or reads in his
chair, perhaps the Benton County Daily
Democrat, another Walton property that
keeps him off the front page. It buried
the Forbes list at the bottom of page 2.
11 "He's just not a front-page person," a
newspaper employee explains.
12 But one recent morning, The Richest
Man in America did something that would
have made headlines anywhere in the world:
He forgot his money. "I said, 'Forget it, take
care of it next time, '" says barber Mayhall.
"But he said. 'No, I'll get it,' and he went
home for his wallet."
13 Wasn't that, well, a little strange? "No
sir," says Mayhall, "the only thing strange
about Sam Walton is that he isn't strange."
14 But just how long Walton can hold firm
to his folksy habits with celebrity hunters
keeping following him wherever he goes is
anyone's guess. Ever since Forbes magazine
pronounced him America's richest man, with
$2.8 billion in Wal-Mart stock, he's been a
rich man on the run, steering clear of
reporters, dreamers, and schemers.
15 "He may be the richest by Forbes
rankings," says corporate affairs
director Jim Von Gremp, "but he doesn't
know whether he is or not -- and he
doesn't care. He doesn't spend much.
He owns stock, but he's always left it in
the company so it could grow. But the
real story in his mind is the success
achieved by the 100,000 people who
make up the Wal-Mart team."
16 He's usually back home for Friday
sales meetings, or the executive pep
rally Saturday morning at 7 a.m., when
Walton, as he does at new store
openings, is liable to jump up on a chair
and lead everyone in the Wal-Mart
cheer: "Give me a W! Give me an A!
Give me an L! Louder!"
17 And louder they yell. No one admits to
feeling the least bit silly. It's all part of the
Wal-Mart way of life as laid down by Sam:
loyalty, hard work, long hours; get ideas into
the system from the bottom up, Japanese-
style; treat your people right; cut prices and
margins to the bone and sleep well at night.
Employees with one year on board qualify for
stock options, and are urged to buy all they
18 After the pep rally, there's bird
hunting, or tennis on his backyard court.
But his stores are always on his mind.
One tennis guest managed to put him
off his game by asking why a can of
balls cost more in one Wal-Mart than
another. It turned out to be untrue, but
the move worked. Walton lost four
19 Walton set up a college scholarship fund
for employees' children, a disaster relief fund
to rebuild employee homes damaged by fires,
floods, tornadoes, and the like. He believed in
cultivating ideas and rewarding success.
20 "He'd say, 'That fellow worked hard,
let's give him a little extra,'" recalls retired
president Ferold F. Arend, who was stunned
at such generosity after the stingy employer
he left to join Wal-Mart. "I had to change my
way of thinking when I came aboard."
21 "The reason for our success," says Walton, in a
company handout, "is our people and the way they're
treated and the way they feel about their company.
They believe things are different here, but they
deserve the credit."
22 Adds company lawyer Jim Hendren: "I've never
seen anyone yet who worked for him or was around
him for any length of time who wasn't better off. And
I don't mean just financially, although a lot of people
are. It's just something about him -- coming into
contact with Sam Walton just makes you a better
Do the exercises and then compare your
answers with a partner.
The text can be divided into three parts. The first part
serves as an introduction, the second part gives a
detailed account of the richest American's folksy
ways, and the third describes his devotion to the
Wal-Mart team. Now put down the paragraph
numbers of each of the three parts and then give its
Parts Main Ideas
The waiter was disappointed to
Part One Paras 1-4 find that the Richest Man in
America led so simple a life.
Being friendly, easy-going and
never flashy, Walton carries on like
Part Two Paras 5-13
plain folks and never wants any
With the Wal-Mart team in mind,
Part Walton devotes himself heart and
Three soul to making the business a
In part II and part III, we can see a character sketch of the
richest man in America. List some of his character traits and
the details that reveal those traits.
Character Traits Details
waits in line like everyone else to buy shells
1 free of self-importance at the local Wal-Mart; has no reserved seat
asks his employees to call him by his first
friendly and easy-going
3 steers clear of reporters, dreamers, and
never flashy schemers; manages to keep himself off
the front page
4 hard working
attends sales meetings, the executive pep
5 generous set up a college scholarship fund and a
disaster relief fund
Language Focus & Structure
1) Although we may not always notice the effects of
industrial pollution at a _______ level, globally it has
without doubt caused climatic (气候的) warming.
2) The only two _______ that most business people
would be pleased to see in the newspapers are "Interest
Rates Down" and "VAT (Value Added Tax 增值税) To Be
3) I'm glad Ruth got the first prize in the speech contest --
she richly _______ it.
4) Whenever we arrived at a new place, the guide
would repeat the words: "I'm sure all you _______
will like to visit this amazing place. "
5) Sophia doesn't seem to use any sort of logical
_______ for keeping her accounts.
6) It was reported that in negotiation (协商) with the
representatives of the company the local government
was trying to __________ the vital issues.
7) The geological prospecting (地质勘探的) team went
to _______ regions of the country in search of mineral
8) If you try to cheat in the exam, you will never it.
9) Three armed men were waiting when the
postmaster (邮政局长) and his wife arrived to
__________ the post office at 9 a.m.
10) I still _______ the belief that parents should allow
their children to fully develop their talents by
11) At the age when most people _______, he is ready to start
a new career.
12) About three thousand faculty members and students held a
_______ to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the founding of
13) Tony was informed that a double room with a balcony (阳台)
overlooking (俯瞰) the sea had been _______ for him.
14) If the French team wins, it will _______ for a place in the
15) The teachers of the College English Center are making great
efforts to _______ in their students the habit of speaking
1) local 2) headlines 3) deserved
4) folks 5) system 6) steer clear
7) remote 8) get away with 9) open up
10) hold to 11) retire 12) rally
13) reserved 14) qualify 15) cultivate
2. Rewrite each sentence with the word or phrase in brackets,
keeping the same meaning. The first part has been written
1) It is worthwhile to give careful consideration to
these serious problems in restructuring our
These serious problems
2) It is likely that the college will stop her
scholarship because of her failure in the final
3) People say that San Francisco is a city easy to fall in
San Francisco is, ______________________________.
(by all accounts)
4) Snow White's step-mother treated her so badly that
she had to flee from her home.
Snow White received ___________________________.
5) North America comprises the United States, Canada,
The United States ______________________. (make
1) These serious problems deserve careful
consideration in restructuring our educational
2) The college is liable to stop her scholarship
because of her failure in the final examination.
3) San Francisco is, by all accounts, a city easy to fall
in love with.
4) Snow White received such bad treatment from her
step-mother that she had to flee from her home.
5) The United States, Canada, and Mexico make up
Complete the following, using the words or phrases in
brackets. Make additions or changes where necessary.
1) The principal's daughter didn't
receive special ________ her teachers.
She was ______ her excellent
performance. When she graduated from
high school in 1998, she had straight
A's and ______ offers from some of the
most famous universities in the country.
(treatment, reward, scholarship)
2) Our boss is fully aware that his employees feel a
lot of _______ the company because they are
treated right. Besides a handsome paycheck and a
stock option, he _________ a system under which
employees are granted _______ for their retirement.
(stock option, loyalty, lay down)
3) You are _______ be offered a ______ or a
reduction on things you buy at the _______
supermarket on weekends. (liable, discount, local)
1) treatment from rewarded for
2) loyalty to has laid down stock
3) liable to discount local
Intransitive Verb + Preposition
1) As I sat waiting outside the office, the more I thought ____ the
coming interview, the more nervous I got.
2) People on low incomes may qualify ____ a mortgage at low
3) You will have to work ____ the weak points in your English if
you want to pass the examination.
4) The minute Mr. Samaranch announced that the host city for the
2008 Olympic Games was Beijing, all of us burst ____ tears.
5) We have to compete ____ many other companies
for the contract for the construction of the bridge.
6) Adam finally had to admit ____ the theft of the
notebook computer (笔记本式电脑).
7) Many unfortunate misunderstandings have
proceeded ____ this small error.
8) If ever there was any sort of argument, she'd always
side ____ my father.
1. about 2. for 3. at/on 4.into
5. with 6. to 7. from 8. with
Plural form of nouns as attributes
1) A bank account that pays interest on the money you
have in it is ____________.
2) A race among nations in which each tries to become
militarily stronger than the others is ____________.
3) A train that transports goods and not people is
4) Equipment which is used to communicate or
broadcast information is ____________.
5) A tax on sales is called ____________.
6) An officer who works in the government
department that collects import duties is
7) A program on current affairs of public interest is
8) A shop where you can buy clothes is
1. a savings account 2. arms race 3. a
goods train 4. communications
5. a sales tax 6. a customs officer 7. a
current affairs program 8. a clothes
Rewrite the following sentences after the model:
1) You can not bring out the best in your employees except
by rewarding success.
2) Mary was unable to complete the report by the deadline
except by working at evenings and weekends.
3) I didn't realize the value of my parents' advice until I
myself became a mother.
4) They didn't begin to prepare for the math examination
until they had finished watching the football game.
1) Only by rewarding success can you bring out the best
in your employees.
2) Only by working at evenings and weekends was Mary
able to complete the report by the deadline.
3) Only when I myself became a mother did I realize the
value of my parents' advice.
4) Only after they had finished watching the football game
did they begin to prepare for the math examination.
Study the model and complete the following sentences by
translating the Chinese into English using "the way":
1) The young woman described to the policemen
2) All the people working for Sam Walton admire
3) The neighbors were disgusted at
4) It's amazing _______________________ （八岁男孩能那
样保持冷静）when he faced the emergency.
1) The young woman described to the policemen the
way the man ran up to her and grabbed the bag
from her hand.
2) All the people working for Sam Walton admire the
way he manages Wal-Mart and the way he treats his
3) The neighbors were disgusted at the way he
talked to his old father.
4) It's amazing the way the eight-year-old boy
managed to stay so calm when he faced the
Complete the following passage with words chosen from
the Words and Phrases to Drill box. Change the form
Sam Walton must have been one of the best employers
I ever worked for. He was a ______(1) man who never
______ (2). Everyone from top ______ (3) down to
the ordinary worker could expect fair ______ (4) at his
hands. He was quick to recognize and ______ (5) hard
work and to ______ (6) new ideas. Those who showed
______ (7) to the company were given the chance to
buy ______ (8). I did myself. And my children ______
(9) for the ______ (10) he made available. Outside
work he carried on much like ordinary ______ (11) and
if you didn't know him you wouldn't be able to tell him
apart from the other ______ (12) people in the small
town where we lived.
1) cheerful 2) threw his weight
around 3) executive 4) treatment 5)
6) cultivate 7) loyalty 8) stock 9)
qualified 10) scholarships
11) folks 12) local
Fill in the gaps with any words you think fit:
The American millionaire is the personification（象征）
of the American Dream. In the "Land of the Free", they
worked their way up to the top ______ (1) the factory
floor. Many, having devoted ______ (2) youth to
making and saving money, ______(3) their later years
giving money ______ (4). For example, the Rockefeller
family who made their money ______ (5) banking and
oil, donated (捐赠) $530 million ______ (6) medical
research and education. They founded two national
parks and ______ (7) the vast Rockefeller Center in
the middle of Manhattan. The first Rockefeller,
______(8) started life as a clerk, ______(9) a life of
Many find ______ (10) hard to understand
why these American ______ (11) labored so
hard to acquire wealth, ______(12) gave so
much of it away. The ______ (13) may be guilt
or even pride. Perhaps it is only that materialism
（物质享乐主义） and generosity（慷慨）, the
urge to acquire ______ (14) and the urge to
share it, exist side ______ (15) side in the
______ (16) of many Americans.
1. from 2. their 3. spent 4. away 5.
6. to 7. built 8. who 9. led/lived 10. it
11. millionaires 12. then 13. answer 14.
wealth 15. by
Translate the following passage into English, using the
words and phrases given below:
行总裁 (CEO = chief executive officer)。从那以后，他尽力
Loyalty, executive, on the run, cheerful, blend in,
throw one's weight around, lay down, reward, by
all accounts, come aboard, system
George was on the run since the moment he
came aboard. He was always cheerful and
devoted himself heart and soul to his work.
Because of his excellent performance he was
promoted to CEO. From then on he tried
hard to blend in with the workers and never
threw his weight around. He also laid down/
introduced a reward system to encourage the
workers to work hard. He believed that
loyalty and hard work would greatly
contribute to the success of the company. By
all accounts he was an outstanding chief