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幻灯片 1 - 培养民族人才,促进西部开发

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幻灯片 1 - 培养民族人才,促进西部开发 Powered By Docstoc
					Unit 2


Values
   Introduction
   Text
   Comprehension
   Language Focus & Structure
   Comprehension Exercises
Value

    In your opinion, what is value?


value ----A principle, standard, or quality considered
worthwhile or desirable
Some quotations on values
   One should eat to live, not live to eat.
                                                   ----Benjamin Franklin
   The value of life lies not in the length of days but in the use you
    make of them; he has lived for a long time who has little lived.
                                 ----Michel de Montaigne (1533–1592),
                                                French essayist. Essays.
   That man is the richest whose pleasures are the cheapest.
                                               --Henry David Thoreau
   If money is your hope for independence you will never have it.
    The only real security that a man will have in this world is a
    reserve of knowledge, experience, and ability.
                                                           --Henry Ford
   To travel hopefully is a better thing than to arrive, and the true
    success is to labor.
                                              --Robert Louis Stevenson
    Cultural Notes
   Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.
   Wal-Mart’s operations include Wal-Mart discount stores,
    Wal-Mart Supercenters, Bud’s Discount City stores, and
    Sam’s Club warehouse stores. In 1945 Wal-Mart’s
    founder, Sam Walton, became manager of a Ben
    Franklin variety store franchise in Newport, Arkansas.
    Sam Walton’s guiding philosophy for his stores from the
    beginning was to offer consumers a wide selection of
    goods at a discounted price. The company saved money
    by keeping advertising costs low and located stores in
    small towns where residents had few options for retail
    shopping.
Quotation from Sam Walton

   There is only one boss: the customer.
    And he can fire everybody in the
    company, from the chairman on down,
    simply by spending his money
    somewhere else.
                           Sam Walton (1918 - 1992)
                               U.S. retail executive.
     Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Ltd.
   manufacturer of luxury automobiles based in
    Crewe, England. The world’s premier maker of
    luxury cars for much of the 20th century.
   In 1906 Charles Stewart Rolls, the owner of a
    London car dealership, and Frederick Henry
    Royce, an engineer who had built his own two-
    cylinder car, formed a partnership in Manchester
    to produce state-of-the-art automobiles.
Pre-reading Tasks

   What happened to Abraham Lincoln
    one day?
   How is the story related to the theme
    of the unit—value?
THE RICHEST MAN IN AMERICA,
        DOWN HOME



                       Art Harris
aboard
ad.,prep. on or into (a ship, train,
  aircraft, bus, etc.) 在(船、车、飞机等)
  上
 come aboard (fig) become a new
  member of an organization 入伙,加盟
   e.g. New employees who came
  aboard in the last six weeks have not
  been tested.
blend

v. mix together thoroughly(将…)混合
 blend in mix harmoniously 融洽,十分
  协调
   e.g. As a newlly-appointed manager,
  he was not sure whether he could blend
  in.
by/from all accounts

   according to what everyone says 人人都
    说
     e.g. The Chinese football team will
    play the Koreans tonight. It should be a
    match worth watching, by all accounts.
carry on
   behave in a wild or improper way;
    conduct;continue 举止随便;进行;继
    续做
     e.g. There's nothing unusual about
    them. They carry on just like everybody
    else.
celebrity


   n. famous person 名人
     e.g. celebrities of stage and screen 演
    艺界名人
cheerful


   a. (of a person) happy in a lively way;
    (of sth.) making one feel happy 愉快的;
    令人愉快的
     e.g. They are both very cheerful in
    spite of their colds.
corporate

   a. 公司的
     e.g. Corporate executives usually
    have high salaries.
democrat

   n. 民主党人;民主主义者
     e.g. This is the time for democrats
    and not dictators(独裁者).
deserve
   vt. be worthy of 应受,值得
     e.g. I am only partly responsible for
    the success of this book. My
    collaborator(合作者)deserves more
    credit.
discount
   n. amount of money, which may be
    taken off the full price 折扣
     e.g. Traditional retailers who've
    opened cyberstores (网上商店)may
    offer special discounts to online
    shoppers.
executive
   n., a. 经营管理方面的(人员);行政方
    面的(人员)
     e.g. She's an executive in a computer
    company.
flashy
   a. attracting attention by being too
    smart and decorated 浮华的, 华而不实
    的
     e.g. a flashy sports car
folk

   n. (usu. pl) people in general 人们;人民
      e.g. They got married and had kids and
    lived like other folks.
   folksy
   a. simple and friendly 友好的,坦率的
      e.g. Steven comes from a folksy town in
    South California.
generosity

   n. the quality of being willing to give
    money, help, etc. 慷慨,大方
     e.g. There are stories about his
    generosity, the massive amounts of
    money he gave to charities.
get away with

   do (sth.) without being caught or
    punished 做(某事)而未被发觉或未受惩
    罚
     e.g. They claimed that they knew
    how to play the system and get away
    with it.
hold to

   keep to 遵守, 不改变
     e.g. John holds to his belief that you
    can be successful as long as you work
    hard.
lay down

   establish 制定;设立
      e.g. Conditions for membership are
    laid down in the soccer club rules.
liable

   a. likely (to do sth.) 有可能做…的
     e.g. The sports meeting is liable to be
    postponed until next week because of
    the bad weather.
loyalty

   n. being true and faithful (to) 忠诚
      e.g. My father is a soccer fan. His
    loyalty to the local team has taken him
    all over the country to see them play.
make up

   form; constitute 构成,组成
     e.g. Women make up nearly 50% of
    university entrants.
   mansion
   n. a large house, usu. belonging to a rich
    person (豪华的)宅邸,大厦
     e.g. His mansion is located up a small hill.

   memo
   n. a note of sth. to be remembered 备忘录
     e.g. an inter-office memo 内部备忘录
on the run

   in flight; continuously active 奔逃,逃避;
    忙个不停
     e.g. I have been on the run all day
    and I am exhausted.
   open up
   (infml) 开门;打开
      e.g. Open up, or I break in.

   opening
   n. the act of becoming or making open, esp.
    officially (正式的)开张,开幕
     e.g. The minister made a speech at the
    opening of the bridge.
pep

   n. (infml) keen activity and energy 劲头,活
    力
     e.g. The young man is full of pep.

   rally
   n., v. 集会
      e.g. They held an antiwar rally.
   pep rally
   a gathering intended to encourage the
    listeners 鼓舞士气的会议
rank

   v. (将…)列为(某等级)
   ranking n. 地位; 等级
     e.g. He is currently ranked second in
    the world as a tennis player.
remote


   a. far away in space or time 遥远的
     e.g. The supply of electricity to
    remote mountainous villages is one of
    the local development projects in
    Yunnan province.
reserve

   vt. keep for a special use; book (a seat,
    room, table, etc.) 将…留作专用;预定
     e.g. Some seats on the buses are
    reserved for the old.
scheme

   n. 阴谋;计划
   schemer n. 阴谋家
     e.g. All the schemes and intrigues
    (阴谋诡计)are doomed to failure.
steer

   v. 驾驶
   steer clear of keep away from 避开,避
    免
     e.g. Children are told to steer clear of
    troublemakers.
stun


   vt. make (sb.) very surprised 使惊吓
     e.g. We were completely stunned by
    her hostile reaction.
treatment

   n. 对待;待遇
     e.g. Like everyone else, I resent his
    cruel treatment of his old father.
   1    He put on a dinner jacket to serve
    as a waiter at the birthday party of The
    Richest Man in America. He imagined
    what surely awaited: a mansion, a
    "Rolls-Royce for every day of the
    week," dogs with diamond collars,
    servants everywhere.
   2 Then he was off to the house,
    wheeling past the sleepy town square in
    Bentonville, a remote Arkansas town of
    9,920, where Sam Walton started with
    a little dime store that grew into a $6
    billion discount chain called Wal-Mart.
    He drove down a country road, turned
    at a mailbox marked "Sam and Helen
    Walton," and jumped out at a house in
    the woods.
   3 It was nice, but no palace. The
    furniture appeared a little worn. An old
    pickup truck sat in the garage and a
    muddy bird dog ran about the yard. He
    never spotted any servants.
   4 "It was a real disappointment,"
    sighs waiter Jamie Beaulieu.
   5      Only in America can a billionaire
    carry on like plain folks and get away
    with it. And the 67-year-old discount
    king Sam Moore Walton still travels
    these windy back roads in his 1979 Ford
    pickup, red and white, bird dogs by his
    side, and, come shooting season, waits
    in line like everyone else to buy shells
    at the local Wal-Mart.
   6 "He doesn't want any special treatment,"
    says night manager Johnny Baker, who
    struggles to call the boss by his first name as
    a recent corporate memo commands. Few
    here think of his billions; they call him "Mr.
    Sam" and accept his folksy ways. "He's the
    same man who opened his dime store on the
    square and worked 18 hours a day for his
    dream," says Mayor Richard Hoback.
   7 By all accounts, he's friendly, cheerful, a fine
    neighbor who does his best to blend in, never flashy,
    never throwing his weight around.
   8 No matter how big a time he had on Saturday night,
    you can find him in church on Sunday. Surely in a
    reserved seat, right? "We don't have reserved seats,"
    says Gordon Garlington III, pastor of the local church.
   9 So where does The Richest Man in America sit?
    Wherever he finds a seat. "Look, he's just not that way.
    He doesn't have a set place. At a church supper the
    other night, he and his wife were in back washing
    dishes."
   10 For 19 years, he's used the same
    barber. John Mayhall finds him waiting
    when he opens up at 7 a.m. He chats
    about the national news, or reads in his
    chair, perhaps the Benton County Daily
    Democrat, another Walton property that
    keeps him off the front page. It buried
    the Forbes list at the bottom of page 2.
   11 "He's just not a front-page person," a
    newspaper employee explains.
   12 But one recent morning, The Richest
    Man in America did something that would
    have made headlines anywhere in the world:
    He forgot his money. "I said, 'Forget it, take
    care of it next time, '" says barber Mayhall.
    "But he said. 'No, I'll get it,' and he went
    home for his wallet."
   13 Wasn't that, well, a little strange? "No
    sir," says Mayhall, "the only thing strange
    about Sam Walton is that he isn't strange."
   14 But just how long Walton can hold firm
    to his folksy habits with celebrity hunters
    keeping following him wherever he goes is
    anyone's guess. Ever since Forbes magazine
    pronounced him America's richest man, with
    $2.8 billion in Wal-Mart stock, he's been a
    rich man on the run, steering clear of
    reporters, dreamers, and schemers.
   15 "He may be the richest by Forbes
    rankings," says corporate affairs
    director Jim Von Gremp, "but he doesn't
    know whether he is or not -- and he
    doesn't care. He doesn't spend much.
    He owns stock, but he's always left it in
    the company so it could grow. But the
    real story in his mind is the success
    achieved by the 100,000 people who
    make up the Wal-Mart team."
   16 He's usually back home for Friday
    sales meetings, or the executive pep
    rally Saturday morning at 7 a.m., when
    Walton, as he does at new store
    openings, is liable to jump up on a chair
    and lead everyone in the Wal-Mart
    cheer: "Give me a W! Give me an A!
    Give me an L! Louder!"
   17 And louder they yell. No one admits to
    feeling the least bit silly. It's all part of the
    Wal-Mart way of life as laid down by Sam:
    loyalty, hard work, long hours; get ideas into
    the system from the bottom up, Japanese-
    style; treat your people right; cut prices and
    margins to the bone and sleep well at night.
    Employees with one year on board qualify for
    stock options, and are urged to buy all they
    can.
   18 After the pep rally, there's bird
    hunting, or tennis on his backyard court.
    But his stores are always on his mind.
    One tennis guest managed to put him
    off his game by asking why a can of
    balls cost more in one Wal-Mart than
    another. It turned out to be untrue, but
    the move worked. Walton lost four
    straight games.
   19 Walton set up a college scholarship fund
    for employees' children, a disaster relief fund
    to rebuild employee homes damaged by fires,
    floods, tornadoes, and the like. He believed in
    cultivating ideas and rewarding success.

   20 "He'd say, 'That fellow worked hard,
    let's give him a little extra,'" recalls retired
    president Ferold F. Arend, who was stunned
    at such generosity after the stingy employer
    he left to join Wal-Mart. "I had to change my
    way of thinking when I came aboard."
   21 "The reason for our success," says Walton, in a
    company handout, "is our people and the way they're
    treated and the way they feel about their company.
    They believe things are different here, but they
    deserve the credit."
   22 Adds company lawyer Jim Hendren: "I've never
    seen anyone yet who worked for him or was around
    him for any length of time who wasn't better off. And
    I don't mean just financially, although a lot of people
    are. It's just something about him -- coming into
    contact with Sam Walton just makes you a better
    person."
Comprehension
Do the exercises and then compare your
 answers with a partner.

The text can be divided into three parts. The first part
 serves as an introduction, the second part gives a
 detailed account of the richest American's folksy
 ways, and the third describes his devotion to the
 Wal-Mart team. Now put down the paragraph
 numbers of each of the three parts and then give its
 main
           Paragraph
  Parts                            Main Ideas
           s
                       The waiter was disappointed to
Part One Paras 1-4     find that the Richest Man in
                       America led so simple a life.
                     Being friendly, easy-going and
                     never flashy, Walton carries on like
Part Two Paras 5-13
                     plain folks and never wants any
                     special treatment.
                     With the Wal-Mart team in mind,
 Part                Walton devotes himself heart and
         Paras 14-22
 Three               soul to making the business a
                     great success.
     In part II and part III, we can see a character sketch of the
     richest man in America. List some of his character traits and
     the details that reveal those traits.

    Character Traits                            Details
                               waits in line like everyone else to buy shells
1    free of self-importance   at the local Wal-Mart; has no reserved seat
                               in church
                                asks his employees to call him by his first
2                               name
     friendly and easy-going

3                              steers clear of reporters, dreamers, and
     never flashy              schemers; manages to keep himself off
                               the front page

4    hard working
                               attends sales meetings, the executive pep
                               rally

5    generous                  set up a college scholarship fund and a
                               disaster relief fund
Language Focus & Structure
Language Focus
 I. Vocabulary

 II. Collocation

 III. Usage



Structure
 1.

 2.
   1) Although we may not always notice the effects of
    industrial pollution at a _______ level, globally it has
    without doubt caused climatic (气候的) warming.


   2) The only two _______ that most business people
    would be pleased to see in the newspapers are "Interest
    Rates Down" and "VAT (Value Added Tax 增值税) To Be
    Reduced".

   3) I'm glad Ruth got the first prize in the speech contest --
    she richly _______ it.
   4) Whenever we arrived at a new place, the guide
    would repeat the words: "I'm sure all you _______
    will like to visit this amazing place. "

   5) Sophia doesn't seem to use any sort of logical
    _______ for keeping her accounts.

   6) It was reported that in negotiation (协商) with the
    representatives of the company the local government
    was trying to __________ the vital issues.
   7) The geological prospecting (地质勘探的) team went
    to _______ regions of the country in search of mineral
    resources.
   8) If you try to cheat in the exam, you will never it.

   9) Three armed men were waiting when the
    postmaster (邮政局长) and his wife arrived to
    __________ the post office at 9 a.m.

   10) I still _______ the belief that parents should allow
    their children to fully develop their talents by
    themselves.
   11) At the age when most people _______, he is ready to start
    a new career.

   12) About three thousand faculty members and students held a
    _______ to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the founding of
    the college.

   13) Tony was informed that a double room with a balcony (阳台)
    overlooking (俯瞰) the sea had been _______ for him.

   14) If the French team wins, it will _______ for a place in the
    finals.

   15) The teachers of the College English Center are making great
    efforts to _______ in their students the habit of speaking
    English.
   1)    local      2) headlines      3) deserved
   4)    folks      5) system         6) steer clear
    of
   7)    remote     8) get away with 9) open up
   10)   hold to    11) retire       12) rally
   13)   reserved   14) qualify      15) cultivate
      2. Rewrite each sentence with the word or phrase in brackets,
      keeping the same meaning. The first part has been written
      for you.

   1) It is worthwhile to give careful consideration to
    these serious problems in restructuring our
    educational system.
   These serious problems
    ________________________________. (deserve)

   2) It is likely that the college will stop her
    scholarship because of her failure in the final
    examination.
   The college
    ___________________________________. (liable)
   3) People say that San Francisco is a city easy to fall in
    love with.
   San Francisco is, ______________________________.
    (by all accounts)

   4) Snow White's step-mother treated her so badly that
    she had to flee from her home.
   Snow White received ___________________________.
    (treatment)

   5) North America comprises the United States, Canada,
    and Mexico.
   The United States ______________________. (make
    up)
Key
   1) These serious problems deserve careful
    consideration in restructuring our educational
    systems.
   2) The college is liable to stop her scholarship
    because of her failure in the final examination.
   3) San Francisco is, by all accounts, a city easy to fall
    in love with.
   4) Snow White received such bad treatment from her
    step-mother that she had to flee from her home.
   5) The United States, Canada, and Mexico make up
    North America.
Complete the following, using the words or phrases in
brackets. Make additions or changes where necessary.


   1) The principal's daughter didn't
    receive special ________ her teachers.
    She was ______ her excellent
    performance. When she graduated from
    high school in 1998, she had straight
    A's and ______ offers from some of the
    most famous universities in the country.
    (treatment, reward, scholarship)
   2) Our boss is fully aware that his employees feel a
    lot of _______ the company because they are
    treated right. Besides a handsome paycheck and a
    stock option, he _________ a system under which
    employees are granted _______ for their retirement.
    (stock option, loyalty, lay down)

   3) You are _______ be offered a ______ or a
    reduction on things you buy at the _______
    supermarket on weekends. (liable, discount, local)
   1) treatment from rewarded for
    scholarship
   2) loyalty to has laid down stock
   3) liable to discount local
Intransitive Verb + Preposition
   1) As I sat waiting outside the office, the more I thought ____ the
    coming interview, the more nervous I got.

   2) People on low incomes may qualify ____ a mortgage at low
    rates.

   3) You will have to work ____ the weak points in your English if
    you want to pass the examination.

   4) The minute Mr. Samaranch announced that the host city for the
    2008 Olympic Games was Beijing, all of us burst ____ tears.
    5) We have to compete ____ many other companies
    for the contract for the construction of the bridge.

   6) Adam finally had to admit ____ the theft of the
    notebook computer (笔记本式电脑).

   7) Many unfortunate misunderstandings have
    proceeded ____ this small error.

   8) If ever there was any sort of argument, she'd always
    side ____ my father.
   1. about 2. for 3. at/on 4.into
   5. with 6. to 7. from 8. with
Plural form of nouns as attributes
   1) A bank account that pays interest on the money you
    have in it is ____________.

   2) A race among nations in which each tries to become
    militarily stronger than the others is ____________.

   3) A train that transports goods and not people is
    ____________.

   4) Equipment which is used to communicate or
    broadcast information is ____________.
   5) A tax on sales is called ____________.

   6) An officer who works in the government
    department that collects import duties is
    ____________.

   7) A program on current affairs of public interest is
    ____________.

   8) A shop where you can buy clothes is
    ____________.
   1. a savings account 2. arms race 3. a
    goods train 4. communications
    equipment
   5. a sales tax 6. a customs officer 7. a
    current affairs program 8. a clothes
    shop
     Rewrite the following sentences after the model:
   1) You can not bring out the best in your employees except
    by rewarding success.
   ____________________________________________.

   2) Mary was unable to complete the report by the deadline
    except by working at evenings and weekends.
   ____________________________________________.

   3) I didn't realize the value of my parents' advice until I
    myself became a mother.
   ____________________________________________.

 4) They didn't begin to prepare for the math examination
  until they had finished watching the football game.
____________________________________________.
   1) Only by rewarding success can you bring out the best
    in your employees.
   2) Only by working at evenings and weekends was Mary
    able to complete the report by the deadline.
   3) Only when I myself became a mother did I realize the
    value of my parents' advice.
   4) Only after they had finished watching the football game
    did they begin to prepare for the math examination.
    Study the model and complete the following sentences by
    translating the Chinese into English using "the way":


   1) The young woman described to the policemen
    _______________________(那个男子是如何跑到她跟前抢
    走她手中提包的).

   2) All the people working for Sam Walton admire
    _______________________ (他管理沃尔玛公司的方法和
    他对待员工的方式).

   3) The neighbors were disgusted at
    _______________________ (他那样对年迈的父亲说话).

   4) It's amazing _______________________ (八岁男孩能那
    样保持冷静)when he faced the emergency.
   1) The young woman described to the policemen the
    way the man ran up to her and grabbed the bag
    from her hand.
   2) All the people working for Sam Walton admire the
    way he manages Wal-Mart and the way he treats his
    employees.
   3) The neighbors were disgusted at the way he
    talked to his old father.
   4) It's amazing the way the eight-year-old boy
    managed to stay so calm when he faced the
    emergency.
Complete the following passage with words chosen from
the Words and Phrases to Drill box. Change the form
where necessary.

   Sam Walton must have been one of the best employers
    I ever worked for. He was a ______(1) man who never
    ______ (2). Everyone from top ______ (3) down to
    the ordinary worker could expect fair ______ (4) at his
    hands. He was quick to recognize and ______ (5) hard
    work and to ______ (6) new ideas. Those who showed
    ______ (7) to the company were given the chance to
    buy ______ (8). I did myself. And my children ______
    (9) for the ______ (10) he made available. Outside
    work he carried on much like ordinary ______ (11) and
    if you didn't know him you wouldn't be able to tell him
    apart from the other ______ (12) people in the small
    town where we lived.
   1) cheerful 2) threw his weight
    around 3) executive 4) treatment 5)
    reward
   6) cultivate 7) loyalty 8) stock 9)
    qualified 10) scholarships
   11) folks 12) local
Fill in the gaps with any words you think fit:

       The American millionaire is the personification(象征)
    of the American Dream. In the "Land of the Free", they
    worked their way up to the top ______ (1) the factory
    floor. Many, having devoted ______ (2) youth to
    making and saving money, ______(3) their later years
    giving money ______ (4). For example, the Rockefeller
    family who made their money ______ (5) banking and
    oil, donated (捐赠) $530 million ______ (6) medical
    research and education. They founded two national
    parks and ______ (7) the vast Rockefeller Center in
    the middle of Manhattan. The first Rockefeller,
    ______(8) started life as a clerk, ______(9) a life of
    complete simplicity.
      Many find ______ (10) hard to understand
    why these American ______ (11) labored so
    hard to acquire wealth, ______(12) gave so
    much of it away. The ______ (13) may be guilt
    or even pride. Perhaps it is only that materialism
    (物质享乐主义) and generosity(慷慨), the
    urge to acquire ______ (14) and the urge to
    share it, exist side ______ (15) side in the
    ______ (16) of many Americans.
   1. from 2. their 3. spent 4. away 5.
    through
   6. to 7. built 8. who 9. led/lived 10. it
   11. millionaires 12. then 13. answer 14.
    wealth 15. by
   16. character
Translate the following passage into English, using the
words and phrases given below:

     自从他加盟以来,乔治从早忙到晚。 他总是乐呵呵的,
    一直全身心地扑在工作上。由于表现出色,他被提升为执
    行总裁 (CEO = chief executive officer)。从那以后,他尽力
    和工人打成一片,从不盛气凌人。另外,他制定了一些奖
    励制度,鼓励工人们努力工作。他相信忠诚和勤劳会大大
    促使公司获得成功。人们都说他是位出色的执行总裁。

   Loyalty, executive, on the run, cheerful, blend in,
    throw one's weight around, lay down, reward, by
    all accounts, come aboard, system
   George was on the run since the moment he
    came aboard. He was always cheerful and
    devoted himself heart and soul to his work.
    Because of his excellent performance he was
    promoted to CEO. From then on he tried
    hard to blend in with the workers and never
    threw his weight around. He also laid down/
    introduced a reward system to encourage the
    workers to work hard. He believed that
    loyalty and hard work would greatly
    contribute to the success of the company. By
    all accounts he was an outstanding chief
    executive officer.
Thank You!

				
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