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					Capita Selecta on Grammar 3
Semantics: English Lexicology



    Jati Suryanto, S.Pd., Dipl. TESOL




                                        1
Content:


1. Word Meaning
2. Sense Relations



                     2
WORD MEANING


1 . Types of Word Meaning
2 . Grammatical Meaning
3 . Lexical meaning
4 . Conceptual meaning
5 . Associative meaning


                            3
1. Types of Word Meaning

        Word Meaning


 Grammatical     Lexical
   Meaning       Meaning             Connotative meaning

                                       Stylistic meaning
        Conceptual     Associative
         Meaning        Meaning       Affective meaning

                                     Collocative meaning


                                                       4
2.     Grammatical Meaning

  Grammatical meaning refers to that part of
     meaning of the word which indicates grammatical
     concept or relationships such as the word class,
     singular and plural forms of nouns, tense meaning
     of verbs and their inflectional forms (forget,
     forgets, forgot, forgotten, forgetting).




                                                         5
3. Lexical meaning

  Lexical meaning is the meaning of an isolated
   word in a dictionary. This component of meaning
   is identical in all the forms of the word.
    E.g. ‘go, goes, went, gone, going’ possess different
     grammatical meaning. But they have the same
     lexical meaning expressing the process of
     movement.
  Lexical meaning itself has two components:
   conceptual meaning and associative meaning.



                                                            6
4. Conceptual meaning

  Conceptual meaning (also known as denotative
  meaning) is the meaning given in the dictionary
  and forms the core of word meaning. Conceptual
  meaning forms the basis for communication as
  the same word has the same conceptual meaning
  to all the speakers of the same language.
    Sun: a heavenly body which gives off light, heat,and
     energy
    Mother: a female parent




                                                            7
5. Associative meaning

  Associative meaning is the secondary meaning
   supplemented to the conceptual meaning. It
   differs from the conceptual meaning in that it is
   liable to the influence of such factors as culture,
   experience, religion, geographical region, class
   background, education,etc.
  Associative meaning comprises four types:
   connotative meaning, stylistic meaning, affective
   meaning, and collocative meaning.


                                                         8
5. Associative meaning (cont.)

 Connotative meaning
  In contrast to denotative meaning, connotative
    meaning refers to the overtones or
    associations which a word suggests or implies.
     Mother (a female parent) is often associated with
      ‘love’, ‘care’, ‘tenderness’, ‘forgiving’, etc.
     Home (a dwelling place) may suggest ‘family,
      warmth, safety, love, convenience’, etc. ‘East or
      west, home is best’.
     Statesman implies ‘loyalty, devotion to public
      welfare’; politician implies ‘deceit, power-drunk,
      bragging, villainy’.

                                                           9
5 Associative meaning (cont.)
 Connotative meaning
   For people with different cultural backgrounds, a
    word might evoke different associations.

            China                   Britain
     magpie Good luck, good will    wordiness
     owl      bad luck, malignance composure, wisdom
     red      happiness, good luck, unfavoured state
              success               ‘red-light district’
                                    ‘red flags’
                                    ‘in the red”
                                                           10
5. Associative meaning (cont.)

 Stylistic meaning
   Words may have stylistic features, which
    make them appropriate for different
    contexts.
   This stylistic difference is especially true
    of synonyms. It is observed that there
    are few words which have both the same
    conceptual meaning and stylistic
    meaning.
                                                   11
5. Associative meaning (cont.)

 Stylistic meaning
   Degrees of formality
     Formal
     Neutral/Common
     Informal/ Colloquial
   Examples
     male parent, father, daddy
     residence, home, pad
                                   12
5. Associative meaning (cont.)

 Stylistic meaning
   bodily----corporal
   brotherly---fraternal
   tooth----dental
   blood----sanguinary
   hereby, thereby, therefore, however,
   moreover, furthermore


                                           13
5. Associative meaning

 Affective meaning
   Affective meaning indicates the speaker’s
    attitude towards the person or thing in
    question.
   Words that have emotive values may fall into
    two categories:
     Appreciative or commendatory: words of positive
      overtones used to show appreciation or approval.
     Pejorative or derogatory: words of negative
      connotations imply disapproval, contempt or
      criticism.
                                                         14
5. Associative meaning (cont.)


 Affective meaning
   Appreciative
     love, cherish, prize, treasure, admire, worship,
      charm, fascinate, attract
   Pejorative
     hate, detest, loathe, abominate, vicious, good-for-
      nothing




                                                            15
5. Associative meaning (cont.)

 Affective meaning
   This affective difference is especially true of
    synonyms.

        Appreciative      Neutral        Pejorative
      gathering        crowd          mob
      senior citizen   old person     fossil
      slender,slim     thin           skinny
      unique           unusual        bizarre



                                                      16
5. Associative meaning (cont.)


 Collocative meaning
  Collocative meaning consists of the
   associations a word acquires in its
   collocation. In other words, it is that part
   of the word meaning suggested by the
   words before or after the word in
   discussion.


                                                  17
5. Associative meaning (cont.)


 Collocative meaning
  ‘A bit or a little’ collocates with words of
   negative connotations: drunk, jealous,
   gloomy, tired, worried…
  ‘Highly’ collocates with words of positive
   connotations: important, significant,
   intelligent, sensitive…


                                                  18
5 Associative meaning (cont.)


 Collocative meaning
  wide awake, fully awake, sound asleep,
   far apart (‘Very’ is inappropriate here)
  tremble with fear, quiver with excitement




                                               19
SENSE RELATIONS


1.   Sense Relations
2.   Hyponymy
3.   Synonymy
4.   Antonymy
5.   Homonymy


                       20
1.     Sense Relations


 What are sense relations
   Words are arbitrary symbols and are
     independent identities so far as heir
     outer facet---spelling and pronunciation,
     is concerned. But semantically, all words
     are related in one way or another, hence
     sense relations. In light of sense relations,
     words can be classified semantically.

                                                     21
1. Sense Relations (cont.)


 Types of sense relations
   Hyponymy---semantic inclusion
   Synonymy---semantic similarity
   Antonymy---semantic opposition
   Homonymy




                                     22
2. Hyponymy

 The definition of hyponymy
   Hyponymy deals with the relationship of semantic
    inclusion. It refers to the relationship which
    obtains between the genus (general lexical
    item)and the species(specific lexical items).
     The general lexical item is called the superordinate.
     The specific words are known as hyponyms.




                                                              23
2. Hyponymy (cont.)

                literature


   prose     fiction         drama         poetry


     novel    novelette      short story




                                                    24
2. Hyponymy (cont.)
                          sports

 swimming        ball games          athletics          gymnastics

weight-lifting     wrestling         running race           boxing


                           running               hurdle race

    long-distance race     sprinting                relay




                                                                     25
2. Hyponymy (cont.)

 The semantic field theory
   The vocabulary of a language is not simply a listing of
    independent items, but is organized into areas or
    fields, the members of which are joined together by
    some common semantic component. The whole
    vocabulary can be divided up into fields. Words in each
    field are semantically related and define one another.
    Vocabulary is seen as ‘ an integrated system of
    lexemes interrelated in sense’.
                   ------Jost Trier (a German linguist)


                                                              26
2 Hyponymy (cont.)

 The semantic field theory
   Most languages share same semantic fields.
     Time
     Space
     Age
     Kinship
     Food
     Color
     Emotion
     ………

                                                 27
2 Hyponymy (cont.)


 The semantic field theory
   The semantic field of the same concept
   may not have the same members in
   different languages, thus lexical gaps
   occur.




                                             28
2. Hyponymy (cont.)

 The semantic field theory
   The semantic field of kinship
     Members in English: 13----father, mother, son,
      daughter, brother, sister, uncle, aunt, nephew, niece,
      cousin, husband, wife.
     Members in Chinese: ……….
   The semantic field of food
     hot dog, sandwich, hamburger



                                                               29
2. Hyponymy (cont.)
 The semantic field theory

                     emotion

     joy      hate      fear   grief   love




                                              30
2. Hyponymy (cont.)

 Implications of semantic field for vocabulary
  learning
                   character/ virtue

     easy-going, aggressive, arrogant, self-conceited,
     modest,considerate, sympathetic, extrovert, introvert,
     amicable, Ambitious, honest, loyal, obedient,
     strong-willed, Iron-willed, trustworthy, obstinate,
     stubborn, unyielding, confident


                                                              31
3. Synonymy

 Types of synonyms
   Absolute or perfect synonyms: words which
   are identical in meaning in all its aspects, I.e.
   both in grammatical and lexical meaning,
   including conceptual and associative meaning.
   Such synonyms are rare in natural languages.
    compounding and composition;
    word building and word-formation;
    malnutrition and undernourishment

                                                       32
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Types of synonyms
   Relative or partial synonyms: words which are
    similar or nearly the same in denotation, but
    embrace different shades of meaning or different
    degree of a given quality. It is this type of
    synonyms we shall deal with here.




                                                       33
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Sources of synonyms
   Borrowing

   Native               Borrowed
   room                 chamber
   foe                  enemy
   help                 aid
   leave                depart
   bodily               corporal
                                   34
3 Synonymy (cont.)

 Sources of synonyms
   Borrowing



   Native       French     Latin
   time         age        epoch
   belly        stomach    abdomen
   fire         flame      conflagration
   ask          question   interrogate

                                           35
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Sources of synonyms
   Dialects and regional English


   lift                    elevator
   tube                    subway
   petrol                  gasoline
   call box                telephone booth
   charm                   glamour (ScotE)


                                             36
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Sources of synonyms
   Figurative and euphemistic of words


    occupation            walk of life

    dreamer               star-gazer

    drunk                 elevated

    lie                   distort the fact

                                             37
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Sources of synonyms
   Coincidence with idiomatic expressions


    pick up               choose
    give up               abandon
    go on with            continue
    put off               postpone
    win                   gain the upper hand
    hesitate              be in two minds
                                                38
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Semantically synonymous field
   Base on semantic similarity, synonyms are
   usually arranged into synonymic groups or sets.
   Within this groups there is the most general
   term known as “synonymic dominant”. The
   synonymic dominant is the common
   denotation component that brings two or more
   words together into a synonymic group, which
   can be called a semantically synonymous field.



                                                     39
3 Synonymy (cont.)


 Semantically synonymous field

   synonymic synonymic group
   dominant
   Leave      depart, quit, retire, withdraw,
              exit…
   Look           stare, gaze, eye, peep,
                  glance…

   Picture    painting, photo, drawing…
                                                40
 3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Implications of Semantically synonymous field
   General------specific
     Say/speak: murmur, scream, retort, argue, protest, claim, state,
      declare
   Monotony----vividness
     We have but one aim and one single, irrevocable purpose. We
      are resolved to destroy Hitler and every vestige of the Nazi
      regime. From this nothing will turn us, nothing. We will never
      parley, we will never negotiate with Hitler or any of his gangs.
                        -------Winston Churchill
     Barbie doll’s fashion: fashions, costumes, outfits, apparel,
      dress…..



                                                                         41
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
   Difference in denotation
   ------look: stare, gaze, eye, peep, glance
   ------laugh: chortle, chuckle, giggle, guffaw,
   snicker/snigger, titter
   ------extend, increase, expand
   -------make one’s way: thread one’s way, dig
   one’s way, break one’s way, push one’s way,
   shoulder one’s way, elbow one’s way, worm
   one’s way
                                                    42
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
   Difference in denotation
   -----let, allow, permit
   -----want, wish, desire
   -----rich, wealthy
   -----big, large, huge




                               43
3. Synonymy (cont.)


 Discrimination of synonyms
  Difference in denotation
  ------chilly, frigid, icy, cold, frosty, cool



   Cool-----chilly-----cold-----frosty-----frigid-----icy



                                                            44
3. Synonymy (cont.)


 Discrimination of synonyms
  Difference in connotation
    Differ in emotional coloring
    Differ in stylistic coloring




                                    45
  3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
   Difference in collocation
    -----empty (box, street, room), vacant (seat, chair,
      apartment), blank (check, a blank sheet of paper)
    ------a large (not big) amount/number/quantity of…
    ------great courage/confidence/wisdom
    ------make efforts, take measures



                                                      46
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
   Difference in collocation
    -----accuse….of, charge…with, rebuke…for,
      reproach…with/for
    -----a lump of sugar, a sheet of paper, a slice of
      meat/bread, a cake of soap, a chunk of wood
    -----a flock of sheep/goats/birds, a herb of
      cows/elephants/zebras/antelopes, a school of
      fish/whales/dolphins, a swarm of
      ants/bees/wasps/locusts, a stable of horses, a pride
      of lions
                                                             47
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
   Difference in distribution
    Pre-modifier VS post-modifier
  ---He is the greatest living novelist in England.
  ---He is the greatest novelist alive in England.
  ---Don’t disturb the sleeping old man.
  ---Don’t disturb the old man asleep.



                                                      48
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
         abolish, cancel, extinguish, eliminate
   The losing team was eliminated from further
    competition.
   Firefighters extinguished a big fire.
   The meeting has been cancelled because of the
    flu.
   The government abolished the tax on alcohol.



                                                    49
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
             abstract, outline, summary
   She made an   outline of ideas she wanted to
    present in her talk.
   I have read the abstract of his book.
   The chemistry book had a summary at the end of
    each chapter.




                                                     50
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
                absurd, ridiculous, silly

   It is ridiculous to judge a foreign culture only by
    its food.
   There was an absurd        idea that the earth was
    flat and motionless.
   You were very     silly    to trust him.


                                                          51
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
               accommodate, afford, furnish

   Reading furnishes the mind only with materials of
      knowledge, it is thinking that makes what we read
      ours.
     This hotel can accommodate up to 500 guests.
     We can't afford that expensive sports car.
     The company accommodated the customer's wish and
      sent the delivery overnight.
     The tall building    affords  a beautiful view of the
      ocean.

                                                              52
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
               accuse, charge, rebuke
   The boss rebuked him strongly for his negligence


   The police accused him of theft.


   The police charged    him with murder.



                                                       53
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
            acute, critical, crucial, urgent

   An      acute lack of food brought hunger to the Iraqi
    people.
   It is critical that you study hard for the exam or you
    will fail it.
   Improved consumer confidence is         crucial  to an
    economic recovery.
   We have an      urgent need for help; we are running
    out of water.

                                                             54
3. Synonymy (cont.)

 Discrimination of synonyms
      ambiguous, obscure, vague, unclear, dim

   It is unclear whether the economy will get better.
   His changes of recovery from illness are   dim    .
   He has some      vague    ideas about what to do, but
    nothing specific.
   His ambiguous _ directions confused us; we did not
    know which of the two roads to take.
   The poetry of Ezra Pound is sometimes difficult to
    understand because it contains so many
    ------------ - ------ references.
       obscure
                                                            55
4. Antonymy


 The definition of antonymy
  Antonymy is concerned with semantic
   opposition. Antonyms can be defined as
   words which are opposite in meaning.
   They are a variety of “oppositeness”.
   They can be classified into three major
   groups.


                                             56
4. Antonymy (cont.)


 Types of antonyms
  Contraries
  Complementaries
  Conversives
  Semantic incompatibles




                            57
4. Antonymy (cont.)

 Contraries
   Antonyms of this type are best viewed in
   terms of a scale running between two poles or
   extremes. The two opposites are gradable.
    hot, warm, cool, cold
    beautiful, pretty, good-looking, plain, ugly
    old-young, open-close, big-small, poor-rich



                                                    58
4. Antonymy

 Complementaries
  These antonyms truly represent oppositeness.
   They are so opposed to each other that they
   are mutually exclusive and admit no possibility
   between them (non-gradable).
    dead-alive, present-absent, male-female,
     true-false, approval-disapproval, capable-
     incapable
    Prefixes: dis-, in-, il-, ir-, im-, un-……

                                                     59
4. Antonymy

 Conversives
   This third type consists of relational opposites.
     Husband-wife, fiancé-fiancée, employer-
      employee, debtor-creditor
     Above-below, in front of-behind, up-down
     Buy-sell, give-receive, go-come, gain-lose




                                                        60
4. Antonymy (cont.)

 Semantic incompatibles
   North, south, east, west
   Spring, summer, autumn, winter
   January, February, March,……December
   Sunday, Monday, ….Saturday




                                          61
4. Antonymy (cont.)


 A word can have more than one
 antonyms
  Fresh bread------stale bread
  Fresh air-----stuffy air
  Fresh flowers-----faded flowers
  Fresh look----tired look



                                     62
4. Antonymy (cont.)


 Stylistic purpose of the use of
 antonyms
   To achieve emphasis by putting
   contrasting ideas together, to express
   economically the opposite of a particular
   thought.



                                               63
4. Antonymy (cont.)


 Stylistic purpose of the use of
 antonyms
   United we stand, divided we fall.
   Hope for the best and prepare for the
    worst.
   Visible darkness, a victorious defeat, a
    clever fool, an open secret, painful
    pleasure, cruel kindness.
                                               64
4. Antonymy (cont.)

 Stylistic purpose of the use of antonyms
 It was the best of times, it was the worst of times; it was
  the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness; it was
  the epoch of belief, it was the era of incredulity; it was
  the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness; it
  was the Spring of Hope, it was the Winter of Despair;
  we had everything before us, we had nothing before us;
  we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going
  direct the other way.
                    (Charles Dickens, A Tale of Two Cities)

                                                                65

				
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