Introduction to Philosophy Lecture 1-b What is Philosophy? (Part 2)

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					 Introduction to Philosophy
        Lecture 1-b
What is Philosophy? (Part 2)

       By David Kelsey
                                        Arguments

•   The second major task of philosophy is making arguments.
•   A philosopher makes arguments in performing his conceptual analysis.
     –   An argument about the correct definition of KNOWLEDGE or LOVE




•   An argument: one statement is inferred from one or more other statements.
     –   Example:



           .
•   Inference: a statement that follows from one or more other statements.
     –   The inference made:
     –   ‘Infer’ can also be used as a verb:
     –   Infer the noun:
          Propositions are the meanings of sentences

•   An inference: a statement that follows from one or more other statements.

•   A statement is a proposition.

•   A proposition: the meaning of a sentence

•   Words have meanings:
     – Cat

•   Just as words have meanings, sentences have meanings.

     –   Example: The cat is on the Mat.
                                   Propositions

•   The form of a proposition:
     –   ‘it is the case that…’.



     –   Propositions are true or false.
                      Propositions & Sentences

•   A sentence does two different things: it both expresses a proposition and asserts a
    proposition.

•   The expressed proposition:
     –   The literal meaning of the words of that sentence.

     –   What is literal meaning?

     –   Example in Sarcasm
                        Expressing a proposition

•   For a sentence to express a proposition:
     –   is for that sentence to toss the proposition up in the air, so to speak.

     –   It is to put the proposition up for usage.

•   Knowing what proposition a sentence expresses is often quite easy.
     –   It is the case that…

     –   Example: I went to the store
                      The asserted Proposition

•   Making use of a proposition:
     –   Just how a sentence makes use of the proposition it expresses determines it’s actual
         or intended meaning.



•   The actual or intended meaning of a sentence: what the speaker or writer of
    the sentence means when she writes or says it.
     –   Miscommunication and the hearer’s understanding of the asserted proposition…
                        Asserting a proposition #2

•   Assertion:
     –   The actual or intended meaning of a sentence is what is asserted by the words of the sentence.


•   Declaration:
     –   For a sentence to assert a proposition is simply for the sentence to declare of the proposition that it is
         the case.


     –   Example: the cat is on the mat and the cat is orange.
                                    Sarcasm

•   Other kinds of sentences:

•   Sarcasm:
     – The messy roomate:
         • “She always takes out the trash”.

         • This sentence expresses:

         • But the sentence asserts:
                            The laws of logic

•   The laws of logic: are rules for making a correct inference P given a certain set
    of propositions Q1-n.
     –   Socrates example



•   Arguments: when one proposition is inferred from one or more other
    propositions
     –   Other definitions of an Argument
                                   Arguments

•   Argument: a position supported by reasons for its truth.

     –   To take a position:
           • taking a side or stand on an issue.




     –   An issue: what is raised when one considers whether or not a proposition is true.

           • There are always 2 sides to an issue
                                         Issues

•   Issues:
     –   we might go as far as to say that an issue just is a question.

     –   Intelligent life:



     –   Safety belt law:



     –   Mac vs. Pc:
                       Arguments & Positions

•   Arguments & Positions: so when we take a position on an issue and support it
    with reasons we have given an argument.

     –   Intelligent life:



     –   Safety Belt law:



     –   Mac vs. Pc:
                           Conclusions &
                             Premises

•   Arguments:
    – The conclusion of an argument:

    – The premises of an argument:

    – Examples:
        • Socrates again

        • Raining and Pouring
                  What an argument isn’t

•   What an argument isn’t: Let us be a bit clearer about what an
    argument is by stating what it isn’t.

     – Not a Fight:

     – Not Persuasion:
        • Advertisement example:
                            Persuasion

• Persuasion vs. Argument:
   – An argument offers support for some claim, its conclusion.

   – Persuasion needn’t offer any support for a point.
      • Not Logic: It merely attempts to get you to believe a point.
           – This attempt needn’t be one through logic though.

       • Persuasion through rhetoric:

       • Rhetoric: is “a broad category of linguistic techniques people use when
         their primary objective is to influence beliefs and attitudes and
         behavior”
                               Arguments vs.
                               Explanations
•   Arguments vs. Explanations:

     –   Explanation of X: If one gives an explanation about some thing X, one gives some
         details about X with the hope of coming to better understand X.



           • Example: fixing a flat tire
                   Recognizing Arguments

•   Conclusion Indicators: find the conclusion of an argument by looking
    for conclusion indicators.

     – Examples of Conclusion Indicators: therefore, hence, and others




•   Premise Indicators: find the premises of an argument by looking for
    premise indicators

     – Examples of Premise Indicators: because, since, and others.
                    An introduction to
                 formalizing an argument
•   Challenging an argument:
    – In challenging an argument you must first formalize it.


•   Formalizing an argument:
    – Is the reconstruction of that argument in its most simplified form.

         • Read the passage


         • Write down the argument’s propositions
                          Explicit Premises

•   Explicit premises:
     – asserted by the words of the text.



•   Simplifying the premises:
                               Implicit Premises

•   Implicit or unstated premises:
     –   Not made explicit by the text so must be inferred from the words of the text
     –   Are entailed by the words of the text.
           • PQ


     – Bloodhound example:
        • Moore’s dog is a bloodhound, so it has a keen sense of smell
        • What is the implicit premise?

				
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