Introduction to Psychology by IB4Qiw0

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									Stress and Health
What Is Stress?

Stimulus or Response? Or interaction?
  Stressor — events, pressures, or
   situations that place demands & trigger
   coping adjustments
  Stress reaction – How one responds to
   stress
  Stress as process – interaction between
   event, perception, and reaction
   Stressors and reactions

     Four groups discussion
A. Discuss your stressors
B. How do you know when you are
 stressed? What are your
 “symptoms?”
Sources of Stress

 Types of Stressors
   1. Common hassles
      School demands
      Noise – residents near airports have higher BP
                  & stress
     Relationship issues
      Sleep deprivation
      Job stress
      Etc…
Sources of Stress
Stressors (continued)
   2. Major life events (e.g., ending a
   relationship, moves, serious illness)
   3. Catastrophes (9/11, Katrina, etc.)
      • Increased incidence of stress-related
        ailments
      • Rates of depression, anxiety, and other
        psychological disorders increase
How does a potential stressor
      lead to stress?
       Perceiving Stress

Many situations are not inherently stressful…
 depends on interpretation:
     • Primary appraisal — Is this stressful?
     • Secondary appraisal — Can I handle it?
       (e.g., can I control it or cope with it?)


Cognitive appraisals are extremely susceptible
 to one’s current state of mood, health,
 motivation
Perception and stress

 “I have had a great many
 troubles in my life…
 And most never happened…”
        Mark Twain


     We’ll come back to this in
           discussion of coping
Reactions to Stress


    Emotional
    Behavioral
    Cognitive
   Physiological
      Pulse Demo


15 Seconds


What happened?
    Physiologically
    Psychologically
The Physiology of Stress

Walter Cannon   (1929)

   Fight-or-flight reaction
   Outpouring of substances that prepare an
   organism to defend against a threat
   Adaptive for our ancestors (but contributes to
   stress-related illnesses in modern times)
Stress Pathways


           HPA Axis




          epinephrine (adrenalin) and
          norepinephrine –
          which increase HR, BP, & RR
        Measuring stress:
  “Overload in Working Mothers”

BCBS workers
Measures:
  Urine samples (to look for metabolites of
   stress hormones)
  Daily mood scale
Results: feel stressed (esp w/ children at home)
   High stress (low perceived control + high demand)
   increased urinary neurohormones
Stress and impact on health

•Impact on psychological and physical health
  •PTSD and other mental health effects
  •Increases risk for physical illness
     •How?
 Stress and Illness


                                                      Heart
                                                     disease



 Persistent stressors
                            Release of stress        Immune
    and negative
                               hormones            suppression
      emotions


Unhealthy behaviors                             Autonomic nervous
                                                  system effects
  (smoking, drinking,                               (headaches,
poor nutrition and sleep)                          hypertension)

								
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