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The Urban Problems

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					 Introduction to Postwar Taiwan Fiction

      Unit 12 Lost in a Big City:
Stories by Chang Ta-chun and Huang Fan

                  Lecturer:
           Richard Rong-bin Chen,
        PhD of Comparative Literature.
           Unless noted, the course materials are licensed under Creative Commons
           Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Taiwan (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)        1
 The City in Literature
 Two-way Migration




National Taiwan University Richard Rong-bin Chen

                                                   2
    Urban Literature in the 1980s
• The city in literature
• “The Taste of Apples” [蘋果的滋味]
• “Hsiao Lin in Taipei” [小林來台北]
• “The Drowning of an Old Cat” [溺死一隻老貓]
• “A Love Letter Never Sent” [一封未寄的情書]
• “My Son, Hansheng” [我兒漢生]
• Urban Literature
• “A Guided Tour of an Apartment Complex”
  [公寓導遊]
• “A History of Condo Sales” [房地產銷售史]   3
   Urban Literature
The Urban World Itself




     National Taiwan University Richard Rong-bin Chen




                                                        4
The Rise of Urban Literature
• Made possible by economic prosperity
  since the 1970s.
• Made possible by the writers’ urban life
  experience.
• Political freedom.
• City is not only a setting, but also a
  socialized and institutionalized space.
• Social problems: chaotic life, class
  oppression, urban development, social
  alienation, etc.
                                             5
   Crystal Boys [孽子] (1983)
       by Pai Hsien-yun
• ”First Asian Gay Novel.”
• Taipei represented through a dichotomous
  structure.
• The dividing line?
• West District vs. East District [Old vs.
  New; The Poor vs. The rich; The Local vs.
  The International.]
• Compare New York and Japan with Taipei.
                                          6
    Urban Literature in the 1980s
• Chang Ta-chun
• “Speaker of the Aside” [旁白者]
• “Alley 116, Liaoning Street” [遼寧街一一六巷]
• “Lucky Worries about His Country” [四喜憂國]
• Huang Fan
• “A Man of Scruples, Shu-ming Fan, the Just and
  the Fair“ [范銘樞的正直]
• “A Rainy Night” [雨夜]

                                               7
            Chang Ta-chun
• 1957: born in Taipei City.
• Education: attained both BA and MA degrees
  from Fu Jen Catholic University (Department
  and Graduate Institute of Chinese Literature).
• One of the most prolific Taiwan writers since
  the 1980s.
• Used to be an instructor of Chinese Literature
  in Fu Jen and a host of TV programs, now a
  host in a FM radio talk-show (FM 98.1).
                                              8
        Chang’s Versatility
• Science fiction [〈病變〉]
• Historical and political novel
  [“Lucky Worries about His Country”
  (〈四喜憂國〉)and《撒謊的信徒》]
• Magic Realism [“The General’s
  Monument”(〈將軍碑〉)]
• Postmodern meta-fiction [“If Lin Hsiu-
  hsiung Had(n’t)”(〈如果林秀雄〉)]
                                       9
• Post-1949 writing [“Birds of a Feather”(
  〈雞翎圖〉)]
• Youth literature [Wild Kids(《野孩子》
  )and My Kid Sister (《我妹妹》)]
• (Auto)Biographical fiction writing about
  family lives [Listening to My Father (《
  聆聽父親》)]
• Martial art novel [The Urban Legion of
  Mobsters (《城邦暴力團》)]
                                        10
 ”A Guided Tour of an Apartment
Complex” (1986) by Chang Ta-chun
•   First published in Unitas [《聯合文學》]
•   Story Structure?
•   Gathering place and episodes.
•   The ending.
•   The theme?


                                     11
     Spatially Connected, but
      Socially Disconnected
• All the residents in the complex were
  unknowingly closely related to each other.
• This story is both a micro and macro-
  perspective of the society. Through this story,
  we can understand how urban novels and
  stories are written on the basis of the structure
  of a city.
• Also, the many jobs of the residents make this
  building an epitome of the society.
                                                  12
The Fortune Building [富禮大廈]



     富禮大廈                          The Fortune Building




     National Taiwan University Richard Rong-bin Chen
                                                          13
                                                   14
National Taiwan University Richard Rong-bin Chen
         The Characters
• Kuan Yiu-kai (關祐開): the custodian.
• 12A Fan Yang-fan (范揚帆) and Lin
  Nan-shih (林南施): the architect.
• 9A Ke Kai-ti (柯凱帝)and Tao Ta-wei
  (陶大偉): the TV producer and TV
  program host.
• 7A Wei Tan-cheng (魏丹誠) and Mrs.
  Wei and kids
                                       15
• 6A James Jennings and his girlfriend,
  Susan: lawyer.
• 12B Mrs. Chi (齊老太太)
• 8B Yi Wan-chun (易婉君): a part-time
  nightclub hostess
• 4B Liang Lung-jun (梁隆潤): a retired
  general.
• 10C Chang Teh-chung (張德充): an
  assistant manager of an insurance
  company.
                                          16
• 9C Liu Chih-jen (劉志仁): a tea merchant.
• 7C Huang Hsiao-ling (黃曉玲) & Chu Kuo-
  tung(朱國棟)
• 3C Lai Ching-tsai (賴進財) and his wife: a
  lottery winner.
• 12D Kuan ti-fan (管滌凡): a painter.
• 11D Lin Ping-hung (林秉宏) and Mrs. Lin:
  a manager of a trading company.
• 5D Wu Pao-ming and his kids
                                       17
       The Implication of the
       Name of the Building.
• “Fully,” or “Foolish”?
• Fu Li Mansion, or Fortune Building?
• In the beginning of the short story, we are told
  that the architect Fan Yang-fan [范揚帆] was
  not satisfied with the English translation
  because there is not any corresponding word
  in English which can express the Chinese
  phrase “Fu Li,” or “wealth and civility.”
                                                 18
      Wealthy, but Not Civilized
• For example, the custodian, a retired lieutenant
  colonel of high school, used to pee in the
  elevator after drinking.(3) Every time he was
  cleaning the elevator mat, he always thought
  about the single lady Yi Wan-chun [易婉君] 8B
  because she had nice breasts and well-padded
                Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
  bottom (4).   Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
                Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

• Yi Wan-chun was also a woman with secret: she
  moonlighted three nights a week in Sister King’s
  place, which might be some kind of high-class
  brothel or nightclub (11).                 Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
                                             Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,                        19
                                             Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
• Lin Ping-hung [林秉宏], a trading company
  manager and an insomniac, though hard-
  working and educated, cheated regularly on
  his wife (6). Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
                Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
                Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

• Neither was Chang Teh-chung [張德充],
  the resident of 10C and an assistant
  manager of an insurance company, a
  descent person, because he had been having
  private deals with the auto repair shops in
  order to jack up prices (15).
                                Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
                                Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
                                Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
                                                                                              20
             Social Alienation
• Lin Nan-shih, the architect’s wife, thought that
  the building was “an instrument of alienation”
  [疏離的象徵] (2).        Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
                      Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
                      Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N

    Her impression on the building might express
  the major idea that Chang Ta-chun wanted to
  convey through this story. The residents there
  were not civilized; what is worse, we can see
  among them many cases of the alienation of a
  highly prosperous modern society.
                                                                                    21
• Those Who Cheat
• Manager Lin cheated on his wife, and
  General Liang would have done that
  with his folkdance partner, a middle-
  aged widow, hadn’t he had his prostate
  operation already (7).
                   Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
                   Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
                   Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N




                                                                                 22
• Those Who Don’t Get Married
• Huang Hsiao-ling [黃曉玲] and Chu kuo-tung [
  朱國棟], the couple in 7C, were not having a
  stable relationship because, judging from Chu’s
  concept of marriage, Huang thought Chu would
  not marry her (12). After they fell out, Chu
  would go to a dance hall in order to have a
  good time with other women.
                             Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).

• Those Who Suspect          Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
                             Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N


• Also, we see Wei Tan-cheng [魏丹誠], a man
  thought his wife had been cheated on him,
  living in 7A (13-14). Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
                        Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,                             23
                        Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
• Those Who Die
• Mrs. Chi, who died from a heart attack
  because her son and daughter-in-law both
  lived abroad (12).  Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
                      Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
                      Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
• Toward the end of the story, we are about to
  witness a “double tragedy”: after Lin Nan-shih
  jumped down from the top of the building, she
  was about to crash on Lai Ching-tsai [賴進財],
  ironically a recent lottery winner of three
  million NT dollars (23).            Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
                                      Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
                                      Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N




                                                                                           24
    Chang’s Perspective on
     Marriage in the City
• Why did the architect’s wife commit
  suicide?
• The couples
• Fan Yang-fan and Lin Nan-shih
• Wei Tan-cheng and Mrs. Wei
• Huang Hsiao-ling and Chu Kuo-tung

                                        25
• Chu Kuo-tung’s Perspective on
  Marriage
• “That’s the way it goes after marriage,
  a skirmish every couple of days, a
  battle every 5 of 6 days.”(p.14)
                       Source: Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
                       Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
                       Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N




                                                                             26
                 Huang Fan
• 1950: born in Taipei. He is a graduate of Chung
  Yuan College of Science and Engineering
  [中原理工學院].
• In 1979, with “Lai Suo” [賴索] , his first piece
  of fiction, he won the United Daily News fiction
  competition. “Lai Suo” is a short story with the
  theme of politics set in the 1970s, a period which
  was both confusing and exciting for many
  Taiwanese. (Lai Suo is a marginal and naïve
  figure in Taiwan’s “Independence Movement.”)
                                                 27
• Though among Huang’s first pieces of
  fiction, “Everybody Needs Ch’in Te-fu”
  [人人需要秦德夫] had been rejected for
  about two years before it was finally
  published in Hsientai wenhsueh [《現代文
  學》], the journal founded by Pai Hsien-
  yung, in 1980, a year later than “Lai Suo.”
• “Everybody Needs Ch’in Te-fu”:
  Huang’s version of The Great Gatsby.


                                                28
“Urban Fiction” and “Postmodern Fiction”
• In the 1980s, Huang Fan developed himself into a
  pioneer in both the spheres of “Urban Fiction”
  and “Postmodern Fiction.”
• In the former category, his representative works
  are City Life (《都市生活》, published in 1987)
  and Tycoon (《財閥》, published in 1988).
• In 1985, he published “How to Measure the Width
  of a Ditch” (〈如何測量水溝的寬度〉), arguably
  the first postmodern work of fiction in Taiwan.
  (For this piece, check Huang’s newly published
  Zero and Other Fictions.)
                                                 29
   Huang’s Literary Obsession
     with the Urban World
• After Taiwan’s defeat in the sphere of
  international politics and the political
  tumults in the 1970s, an economic boom
  greater than ever rose to stimulate its
  urban development.


                                         30
• A native of the area around Longshan
  Temple, Huang Fan used to say, the urban
  world in Taiwan was a mixture of New York,
  Tokyo, and Calcutta where new communities
  sprang up “like forests present a frightening
  sameness,” no one was “obliged to be good-
  tempered,” English could be learned in seven
  days, and anyone could intimidate the taxman
  and be a success before forty. What is most
  ironic for Huang Fan is that even the monk in
  charge of Longshan Temple’s hospitality can
  speak fluent English!
                                              31
”A History of Condo Sales” (1987)
• First published in the supplement to
  United Daily News [《聯合報》副刊]) in
  May, 1987
• Like Huang’s “How to Measure the Width
  of a Ditch” [〈如何測量水溝的寬度〉]
  (1985), this story has always been
  described as both his and Taiwan’s first
  Postmodern short stories.
                                         32
• Postmodern stories or novels do not try
  to tell story or to make sense because
  they are mainly about exploring the
  possibilities of storytelling: that is, how
  stories can be told and how a plot can be
  manipulated in order to make readers
  reflect upon the nature of fiction as a
  genre.

                                                33
   The Story Structure
• I – The name of the construction company
• II – Juo and his complaints about the
  architecture industry
• III – Juo’s monumental project
• IV – His project under way
• V – Juo’s boss wanted to join the project
• VI – Project completed with an
  unexpected ending
                                          34
        The Opening Section
• The story’s opening section is mainly about
  the relationship between the names of the
  company and the owner, and the many
  analogies brought out by the narrator-
  protagonist, Juo Yao-tsong. Toward the end of
  the first section, Juo proposed a question: do
  all those discussions about names and
  analogies make sense? Actually, they make
  no sense at all from the perspective of story,
  but do make sense from that of storytelling.
                                                   35
            The Ending

• “Everything about it is tiny. Tiny living
  room. Tiny bedrooms. Tiny chairs and
  tables. In fact, it’s made in the perfect
  scale of a kindergartener.”
• The Complex of Inferiority?


                                              36
   The Characters

• The boss
• The wife
• the participants



                     37
The Participants of the Project
•   Chang Hong-zhong / Male / Age: 34
•   A Single
•   Lee Ching-li / Female / Age: 28
•   A housewife
•   Tsai Tien-lin / Male / Age: 53
•   A Feng-shui practitioner
•   Ke Yu-mei / Female / Age: 32
•   A fashion designer
                                        38
•   Zhen shiang-yen / Male / Age: 45
•   A man with two wives
•   Zao Nien / Male / Age: 46
•   A private detective
•   Chien De-jing / Male / Age: 39
•   A lottery winner


                                       39
The Theme and Social Background
• After the long diversion [離題], Juo
  went back to the main stuff of this story,
  the essence of architecture and how it
  should be done in order to fit human
  nature and the needs of people. The
  name coined by Juo’s journalist friend is
  most suitable for this theme: “the
  buffet-style building.”
                                               40
• The story is written in the first heyday
  of Taiwan’s “condo sales.” Condo
  prices started to rise higher than
  ever, and many businessmen and
  land owners also became wealthier
  than ever for selling buildings or
  lands.


                                             41
• In 1989, two years after the story had
  been published, a social movement
  named “the Movement of the Shell-
  less Snails” [無殼蝸牛運動] was
  initiated to draw nationwide attention.
  People who could not afford to buy
  their own houses or departments stood
  up to protest against the rising real
  estate prices, but the effect was limited.

                                               42
• The Urban Problems
• Many of the urban problems in those
  days can be found in the fourth
  section, the episode of the “team-
  building trip” around the island for all
  the buffet-style building participants



                                             43
The Urban Problems: Freeways

“ Freeways are absolutely the murderers
  of traditional communities. The towns
  that freeways cut through have been
  completely bled of their unique
  cultures.”
   Source: This article of “A History of Condo Sales” is from the website of “WORDS without
   BORDERS” http://wordswithoutborders.org/article/a-history-of-condo-sales. The original source is
   from Huang Fan (2005). 房地產銷售史 (Kevin Tang Trans.) 黃凡後現代小說選. Taipei: Unitas Press.
   It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
   •Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.




                                                                                                      44
           The Urban Problems:
           Sameness in the City
• “Isn’t that right? Just to accommodate
  those freeways, everyone’s been
  building the same cookie-cutter houses,
  building higher fences. Grayness
  envelopes everything. Darkness is
  everywhere.”
     Source: This article of “A History of Condo Sales” is from the website of “WORDS without
     BORDERS” http://wordswithoutborders.org/article/a-history-of-condo-sales. The original source is
     from Huang Fan (2005). 房地產銷售史 (Kevin Tang Trans.) 黃凡後現代小說選. Taipei: Unitas Press.
     It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
     •Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                                                                                        45
     The Urban Problems:
      No Urban Planning
“The way Taiwanese people trample
 their own living environment is
 simply astonishing. Roads need
 repair all the time, bridges built
 with no foresight, tunnels dug
 everywhere. No street is spared.”
 Source: This article of “A History of Condo Sales” is from the website of “WORDS without
 BORDERS” http://wordswithoutborders.org/article/a-history-of-condo-sales. The original source is
 from Huang Fan (2005). 房地產銷售史 (Kevin Tang Trans.) 黃凡後現代小說選. Taipei: Unitas Press.
 It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
 •Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                                                                                    46
   The Urban Problems:
World Architecture Chop Suey
“It’s worse in the big cities. Buildings
 sprout like weed. We might as well
 call it a ‘world architecture chop
 suey’—zero color coordination, no
 fire escapes, no leisure spaces, all
 concrete jungle.”
    Source: This article of “A History of Condo Sales” is from the website of “WORDS without
    BORDERS” http://wordswithoutborders.org/article/a-history-of-condo-sales. The original source is
    from Huang Fan (2005). 房地產銷售史 (Kevin Tang Trans.) 黃凡後現代小說選. Taipei: Unitas Press.
    It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
    •Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.                                                          47
Copyright Declaration
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                                         Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       For example, the
                                         Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
       custodian, …used to
 19                                      (p.3) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
       pee in the elevator
                                         It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
       after drinking.
                                         •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                                                                                     48
Copyright Declaration
Page          Work                Licensing                              Author/Source
                                              Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       Every time he was
                                              Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
       cleaning …had nice
 19    breasts and well-padded
                                              (p.4) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
                                              It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
       bottom .
                                              •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                              Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       Yi Wan-chun was also a
                                              Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
       woman …kind of high-
 19    class brothel or
                                              (p.11) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
                                              It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
       nightclub .
                                              •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                              Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       Lin Ping-hung [林秉宏],
                                              Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
       a trading …educated,
 20    cheated regularly on his
                                              (p.6) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
                                              It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
       wife.
                                              •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                              Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       Neither was Chang Teh-                 Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
 20    chung …shops in order                  (p.15) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
       to jack up prices.                     It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
                                              •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                              Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       Lin Nan-shih, the …was
                                              Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
       “an instrument of
 21    alienation” [疏離的象
                                              (p.2) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
                                              It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
       徵]
                                              •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.                           49
Copyright Declaration
Page          Work              Licensing                           Author/Source
                                            Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       Manager Lin cheated
                                            Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
       on his wife, …he had
 22    his prostate operation
                                            (p.7) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
                                            It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
       already .
                                            •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                            Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       Huang Hsiao-ling [黃
                                            Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
       曉玲] and Chu kuo-
 23    tung …thought Chu
                                            (p.12) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
                                            It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
       would not marry her .
                                            •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                            Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       Also, we see Wei Tan-
                                            Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
       cheng [魏丹誠], a man
 23    thought…him, living in
                                            (p.13-14) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
                                            It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
       7A .
                                            •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
       Mrs. Chi, who died                   Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       from a heart attack                  Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
 24    because her son and                  (p.12) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
       daughter-in-law both                 It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
       lived abroad .                       •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                            Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989).
       Toward the end of the                Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen,
 24    story, we …of three                  (p.23) Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N
       million NT dollars.                  It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
                                            •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.                              50
Copyright Declaration
Page           Work                 Licensing                             Author/Source
       That’s the way it goes                   Chang Ta-chun. (Winter, 1989). Chen I-djen (Trans.), Chinese pen, (p.14)
       after …every couple of                   Taipei, Taiwan : Taipei Chinese Center, International P.E.N.
 26    days, a battle every 5 of                It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
       6 days.                                  •Articles 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                                This article of “A History of Condo Sales” is from the website of “WORDS
                                                without BORDERS” http://wordswithoutborders.org/article/a-history-of-
       Freeways are
                                                condo-sales. The original source is from Huang Fan (2005). 房地產銷售
 44    absolutely … bled of
                                                史 (Kevin Tang Trans.) 黃凡後現代小說選. Taipei: Unitas Press.
       their unique cultures.
                                                It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
                                                •Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                                This article of “A History of Condo Sales” is from the website of “WORDS
       “Isn’t that right? Just to               without BORDERS” http://wordswithoutborders.org/article/a-history-of-
       accommodate                              condo-sales. The original source is from Huang Fan (2005). 房地產銷售
 45    those …everything.                       史 (Kevin Tang Trans.) 黃凡後現代小說選. Taipei: Unitas Press.
       Darkness is everywhere.                  It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
                                                •Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                                This article of “A History of Condo Sales” is from the website of “WORDS
       The way Taiwanese                        without BORDERS” http://wordswithoutborders.org/article/a-history-of-
       people …dug                              condo-sales. The original source is from Huang Fan (2005). 房地產銷售
 46    everywhere. No street is                 史 (Kevin Tang Trans.) 黃凡後現代小說選. Taipei: Unitas Press.
       spared.                                  It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:
                                                •Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.
                                                This article of “A History of Condo Sales” is from the website of “WORDS
       It’s worse in the big                    without BORDERS” http://wordswithoutborders.org/article/a-history-of-
       cities. …no leisure                      condo-sales. The original source is from Huang Fan (2005). 房地產銷售
 47    spaces, all concrete                     史 (Kevin Tang Trans.) 黃凡後現代小說選. Taipei: Unitas Press.
       jungle.                                  It is used subject to the fair use doctrine of:                      51
                                                •Article 52 & 65 of Taiwan Copyright Act.

				
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posted:9/23/2012
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