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					Classification


    Chapter 18
   Classification – the grouping of objects or
    information based on similarities
   Taxonomy – the branch of biology that
    groups and names organisms based on
    studies of their different characteristics
   Aristotle, a Greek philosopher, developed the
    first accepted system
   Carlous Linnaeus made improvements on
    Aristotle’s system
       Based on physical and structural similarities of
        organisms
   Binomial nomenclature – a two-word naming
    system
       Bi – two
       nomial – number
       nomenclature – name
   The first word indicates the genus
    (uppercased)
   The second word indicates the species
    (lowercased)
   When typed, the two names are italicized
       Example – Canis familiaris (dog)
   When handwritten, the two names are
    underlined
       Example – Gorilla gorilla (Western gorilla)
Scientific and Common Names

   Latin is the language of scientific names
   Advantages of using Latin
       Not a national language
       The language does not change
       Scientific names are unique
Scientific and Common Names

   Common names are used as nicknames
   An organism may have a different common
    name in different countries
       Scientific name – Passer domesticus
       Common names
           U.S. and England – house sparrow
           Holland –huismus
Taxonomic Rankings

   Taxon – a taxonomic      Mnemonic device
    group
       Domain                   Did
       Kingdom                  King
       Phylum                   Phillip
       Class                    Come
       Order                    Over
       Family                   For
       Genus                    Great
       Species                  Spaghetti
Taxonomic Rankings

   Domain – the most
    inclusive taxon
   Species – the least
    inclusive taxon
Taxonomic Rankings
                               Classification
           Brown       House                      Killer
                                      Dog                       Wolf
              Bear       Cat                          Whale
 Domain    Eukarya     Eukarya        Eukarya     Eukarya       Eukarya

 Kingdom   Animalia    Animalia       Animalia    Animalia      Animalia

 Phylum    Chordata    Chordata       Chordata    Chordata      Chordata

 Class     Mammalia    Mammalia       Mammalia    Mammalia      Mammalia

 Order     Carnivora   Carnivora      Carnivora   Cetacea       Carnivora

 Family    Ursidae     Felidae        Canidae     Delphinidae   Canidae
 Genus     Ursus       Felis          Canis       Orcinus       Canis
           Ursus                      Canis        Orcinus      Canis
 Species               Felis catus
              arctos                    familiaris    orca        lupus
Dichotomous Key

   Dichotomous key – a series of questions
    answered by “yes” or “no”, and each question
    is a choice between two characteristics
   A tool used in plant or animal identification
Dichotomous Key
1.   a. Coin is silver in color     …………………………              go to step 2
     b. Coin is not silver in color …………………………              go to step 4
2.   a. Coin has ridges around the edge ……………………            go to step 3
     b. Coin doesn’t have ridges around edge………………          Nickel
3.   a. Coin has a picture of George Washington………….        Quarter
     b. Coin doesn’t have a picture of G. Washington ……..   Dime
4.   a. Coin has a man with a beard on it…………………..          Penny
     b. Coin doesn’t have a man with a beard on it…………      Dollar
Candy Dichotomous Key

1.    a. packaged                               go to step 2
      b. un-packaged                            go to step 3
2.    a. boxed                                  ?
      b. wrapper                                go to step 4
3.    a. soft                                   ?
      b. hard                                   go to step 5
4.    a. plastic wrapper                        go to step 10
      b. wax paper wrapper                      go to step 6
5.    a. round shaped                           go to step 7
      b. not round shaped                       ?
6.    a. on a stick                             ?
      b. not on a stick                         ?
7.    a. sphere-shaped                          go to step 8
      b. oval-shaped                            go to step 9
8.    a. multi-colored                          ?
      b. pale yellow colored                    ?
9.    a. circular shaped (should be marked with an “s”)               ?
      b. A little less circular shaped (should be marked with an “m”) ?
10.   a. red-colored candy                      ?
      b. yellow-colored candy                   ?
Candy Dichotomous Key

1.    a. packaged                               go to step 2
      b. un-packaged                            go to step 3
2.    a. boxed                                  Sugar Babies
      b. wrapper                                go to step 4
3.    a. soft                                   Gummy Bears
      b. hard                                   go to step 5
4.    a. plastic wrapper                        go to step 10
      b. wax paper wrapper                      go to step 6
5.    a. round shaped                           go to step 7
      b. not round shaped                       Mike and Ikes
6.    a. on a stick                             Dum Dum Lollipops
      b. not on a stick                         Tootsie Rolls
7.    a. sphere-shaped                          go to step 8
      b. oval-shaped                            go to step 9
8.    a. multi-colored                          Gobstoppers
      b. pale yellow colored                    Unpackaged Lemon Heads
9.    a. circular shaped (should be marked with an “s”)               Skittles
      b. A little less circular shaped (should be marked with an “m”) M&M’s
10.   a. red-colored candy                      Atomic Fireball
      b. yellow-colored candy                   Packaged Lemon Heads
Cladogram

   A branching treelike diagram used to
    illustrate evolutionary relationships among
    organisms
Cladogram




 Common
 ancestor
Domains

   Three domain levels
       Eukarya
       Archaea
       Bacteria
   Linnaeus established two kingdoms: Animalia
    and Plantae
   Since then, it has expanded from two to five
       Monera – Prokaryotes (cells without nuclei)
       Protista – Eukaryotes (cells with nuclei)
       Fungi
       Plantae
       Animalia
   Today, there are six kingdoms (Monera is
    divided into two kingdoms)
       Eubacteria
       Archaebacteria
       Protista
       Fungi
       Plantae
       Animalia
Kingdoms

   Six kingdoms
       Eubacteria - Bacteria
       Archaebacteria – “Old” bacteria
       Protista – The “leftover” kingdom
       Fungi – Mushrooms and molds
       Plantae - Plants
       Animalia - Animals
   Terms to know:
       Prokaryote – a cell without a nucleus; a simple
        cell that is small
       Eukaryote – a cell with a nucleus; more complex
        cell that is larger than a prokaryotic cell
   Terms to know:
       Cell wall – used for protection
   Terms to know:
       Unicellular – an one celled organism
       Multicellular – an organism with more than one
        cell
   Terms to know:
       Autotroph – organism that can make its own
        nutrients
       Heterotroph – an organism that obtains its
        nutrients from other organisms (can’t make its
        own food)
Domain Bacteria

   This domain is the same as Kingdom
    Eubacteria
   Bacteria is the most abundant organisms on
    Earth
   Prokaryotes




                                     Salmonella
Domain Archaea

   This domain is the same as Kingdom
    Archaebacteria
   Prokaryotes
   Can be found in extreme environments
       Extremophiles - Salt lakes, hot springs, and ocean
        floors
       Methanogens – Live in oxygen-free environments
   Domain Eukarya
Kingdom    Cell Wall   Unicellular or   Prokaryotes or    Nutrients
                       Multicellular     Eukaryotes

Protista    Some       Can be uni- or    Eukaryotes        Can be
           species        multi-                         autotroph or
            have                                         heterotroph
            them
Fungi        Yes           Multi-            Eu-           Hetero-


Plantae      Yes           Multi-            Eu-            Auto-


Animalia      No           Multi-            Eu-           Hetero-

				
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posted:9/22/2012
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