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					   Crime at Sea and Human
Insecurity in Southeast Asia (2)
    Toward a New Paradigm of
   Maritime Security Cooperation


                  Jun Honna
            JICA Research Institute
            Backgrounds
• Cross-Border Threats, Regional
  Cooperation, and the Building of ‘Common
  Goods’ for ASEAN’s Political-Security
  Community
• Japan as a Stakeholder
• Enduring Human Insecurity in Southeast
  Asian Waters
Crime at Sea: Illegal, Unreported
 and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing

               ・ UII fishing in the Asia-Pacific
               Region costs around US$5.8b
               annually.
               ・ Scientists estimate that 56
               percent of the coral reefs in
               Southeast Asia are at risk from
               destructive fishing (Reefs at
               Risk, 2002)
Crime at Sea: Human
     Trafficking
            ・ It is conservatively estimated
            that at least 200-225,000 women
            and children from Southeast Asia
            are trafficked annually, a figure
            representing nearly one-third of
            the global trafficking trade.
            (IOM, Combating Trafficking in
            Southeast Asia)
Crime at Sea: Illegal Logging

           ・ Stolen timber worth almost two and a half
           billion dollars is traded between the
           countries of East and Southeast Asia each
           year. (EIA/Telapak)
  Crime at Sea: Drug Trafficking
Clandestine Laboratories Seized in SEA
                                         ・ UNODC estimates that about half
                                         of global production of amphetamines
                                         takes place in East and Southeast
                                         Asia, a third in North America and
                                         about 15% in Europe.
      Crime at Sea: Armed Robbery
              against Ships
Locations of Actual and Attempted Attacks
      Locations          2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008
Indonesia                 121     94     79     50     43     28
Malacca Straits            28     38     12     11      7      2
Malaysia                    5      9      3     10      9     10
Philippines                12      4             6      6      7
Singapore Straits           2      8      7      5      3      6
Thailand/Gulf of Thai.      2      4      1      1      2
South China Sea             2      8      6      1      3
Vietnam                    15      4     10      3      5     11
Total at Year End         445    329    276    239    263    293


ICC-IMB Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships Report – Annual
Report 2008
    Questioning Regional
 Responses to Maritime Crime
• Gap between High-level Political
  Commitment (ASEAN Plan of Action to
  Combat Transnational Crime) and Policy-
  level Cooperation
• Piracy-Oriented International Concerns
• Navy-Oriented Views of Maritime Security
    Toward a New Paradigm
• From Naval Balance of Power to Regional
  Cooperation among Law Enforcement
  Agencies at Sea
• Capacity Building of Civilian Law
  Enforcers (Coast Guards, Water Polices)
• Joint Programs—Training, Educations
• Bringing ‘Human’ Back in—Problems on
  Land

				
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