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									Intellectual Styles by Johan Galtung
                 Seminar:
 Innovation, Change and Decision-Making in
         international Organisations


        Katja Schülke, Björn Bauer




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Overview:
1. Biography of Johan Galtung
2. Definition of Intellectual Style
3. Dimensions of Intellectual Styles
   3.1 Paradigm Analysis
   3.2 Description of reality and Theory Formation
   3.3 Commentary on others
4. Summary of the four Intellectual Styles
5. Conditions and Consequences
6. World Intellectual Style
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1. Biography of Johan Galtung



     • One of the great figures in
      Peace Studies
     • Born 1930 in Norway
     • Degrees in Mathematics and
      Sociology
     • Established the first peace research institute in 1959
     • Professor of Conflict and Peace Research
     • 1987 Alternative Nobel Peace Prize
     • Director of Transcend
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2. Definition of Intellectual Style



       „[…] basic culture-bound models of thought and
       behavior shown principally by intellectuals.“


          Style       Center            Periphery
         saxonic    USA, GB           Canada, Australia

         nipponic    Japan                  ---

         tectonic    Germany           Eastern Europe

         gallic       France            Latin countries

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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style




                • Paradigm Analysis
                • Description of reality
                • Theory Formation
                • Commentary on others




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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.1 Paradigm Analysis



          • Paradigm Analysis means to recognize
            and to analyse the paradigm you use


          • Try to discover the limitations of your own
            intellect




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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.1 Paradigm Analysis



          • Tectonic and Gallic:
           Strong in Paradigm Analysis


          • Saxonic and Nipponic:
            Weak in Paradigm Analysis




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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.2 Description of reality and Theory Formation



     • Description of reality:
       Deals with the importance and degree of data
       collection and documentation

     • Theory Formation:
       Refers to the process how theories are set up and
       if they are based on data

      „[…] theory formation is the stringing together of
      words, with occasional anchoring in a data base.“
      (Galtung, )

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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.2 Description of reality and Theory Formation

               Both dimensions act as counterparts


              Saxonic      Teutonic     Gallic       Nipponic
Description
of reality    strong       weak         weak         strong


Theory
Formation     weak         strong       strong       weak

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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.2 Description of reality and Theory Formation

           Saxonic:
           • Penchant for documentation
           • Analyse all sources concealing nothing
           • Goal is to find all relevant information
           • Faith and beliefs enter to a small degree
           • Tolerant and democratic, less elitist
           • Underlying figure of theory formation are
            a couple of small pyramids


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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.2 Description of reality and Theory Formation
           Gallic:
           • Intellectual activity has at its very center
            theory formation
           • Function of data would be to illustrate rather
             than to demonstrate
           • Persuasion is carried by elegance
           • Words in theories connote something and
            carry conviction


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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.2 Description of reality and Theory Formation



         • There is a totality to things, a balance rather
           than a center (hammock)
         • Gallics goal is elegance (if necessary at the
          expense of rigor)
         • Elitist (only the strongest survive
                   Darwinian struggle)



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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.2 Description of reality and Theory Formation

       Teutonic:
       • Intellectual activity has at its very center
         theory formation
       • Function of data would be to illustrate rather
         than to demonstrate
       • Purely deductive
       • Goal to arrive from a small number of premises at
         a high number of conclusions

                                                             13
3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.2 Description of reality and Theory Formation


         • One big pyramid is the forming exercise
         • The teutonic aim for rigor (if necessary at the
           expense of elegance)
         • Elitist (only the strongest survive
                   Darwinian struggle)




                                                             14
3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.2 Description of reality and Theory Formation

      Nipponic:
      • Very different visions of how real reality is constituted
      • Dialectic way of thinking
      • Little or no theory at all being developed
      • Japanese almost never pronounce absolute statements
      • Underlying figure of theory formation is a circle
        no beginning and no end
      • tolerant and democratic, less elitist
        (opposed to gallic and teutonic)
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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.3 Commentary on other intellectuals


              Saxonic:
              • Pluralism is an important value
              • Togetherness / Team Work
              • Debate is seen as a source of delight
              • Changing opinion in the course of a
                debate is appreciated




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3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.3 Commentary on other intellectuals

           Gallic and Tectonic:
           • Presentator has the role of a defendant
           • No complimentary introduction
           • Discussants go straight for the weakest points
           • Nobody changes opinion
           • Change opinion in the course of the
             debate is not honorable
           • Engage in a debate with a strict
             antagonist would be considered hopeless
                                                              17
3. Dimensions of Intellectual Style
   3.3 Commentary on other intellectuals


          Nipponic:
          • Not very skillful at debating
          • Established social relations can not be harmed
          • Collectivistic solidarity no victimisation
          • Classification into schools preempts a debate
          • No direct focus on weak argumentations




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4. Summary of the four Intellectual Styles



  Typical question when somebody is faced with a proposition:


  • Saxonic: How do you operationalize it?
  • Teutonic: How can you trace this back from basic principles?
  • Gallic: Is it possible to say this in French?
  • Nipponic: Who is your master?




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5. Conditions and Consequences



           Relationship between language and
           Intellectual Style


           • A language has to fit the intellectual style of
            the concerned culture
           • Class differences in languages are related
            to differences in Intellectual Style
             Intellectual Style has a class character


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5. Conditions and Consequences


        Intellectual Style and the culturally defined
        notion of truth


        • Permanent truth  Deductive Intellectual Style
        • Flexible truth  Dialectical Intellectual Style


        • Notions of truth are related to a country`s status
         in the world order


                                                               21
5. Conditions and Consequences



    Intellectual Style and social structures


    • vertical, polarized and individualist tectonic
    • horizontal, individualist and polarized  gallic
    • horizontal, individualist and less polarized  saxonic
    • vertical, collectivist and non polarized  nipponic




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5. Conditions and Consequences



      The situation of peripheries


      • Hypothesis: periphery intellectual cultures don`t
       produce anything new, but do only imitate their
       center




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6. World Intellectual Style




           • World Intellectual Style is improbable
            because of cultural and language variety
           • If there was a World Intellectual Style
             Saxonic
                  • industrialization
                  • exigencies of UN system




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Thank you for your attention!




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