Diabetes (The Sugar)

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					          WHAT IS DIABETES?

Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes) is
 combined diseases that takes place
 because of high blood glucose
 levels that results from defects in
 the body’s ability to produce or use
 insulin.
                   TYPES OF DIABETES
 Type 1 diabetes (Mellitus)
 No insulin is produced
 Prediabetes
 Type 2 diabetes (most severe)
 No insulin is produced or the cells ignore the insulin
                           SYMPTOMS
 In Type 1
a.   Frequent urination
b.   Unusual thirst
c.   Extreme hunger
d.   Unusual weight loss
e.   Extreme fatigue and irritability
               SYMPTOMS (CONT.)
Type 2
a.   Any of the symptoms from type 1
b.   Frequent infections
c.   Blurred vision
d.   Cuts/bruises(slowly healed)
e.   Tingling/numbness (hands& feet)
f.   Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
  HOW TO TELL IF YOU HAVE DIABETES OR
  PREDIABETES
 The A1c test
 The fasting plasma glucose test (FPG)
a. This implies that you have impaired fasting glucose
 The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
a. This implies that you have impaired glucose tolerance
BIOCHEMISTRY OF DIABETES
                      WHO IS AT RISK
 People of all ages and races . Some groups have a higher risk than
  others.

 Type 1
 Children and young adults

 Type 2 (most common form)
 African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, and Asian
  Americans/Pacific Islanders
 Pregnant women
 Gestational diabetes develops around 24 weeks of pregnancy. ( this
  does not mean you have diabetes.
                             THE STATS
Data from the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet (released Jan. 26, 2011)
Total prevalence of diabetes
Total: 25.8 million children and adults in the United States—8.3% of the
     population—have diabetes.
Diagnosed: 18.8 million people
Undiagnosed: 7.0 million people
Prediabetes: 79 million people*
New Cases: 1.9 million new cases of diabetes are diagnosed in people aged 20
     years and older in 2010.
* In contrast to the 2007 National Diabetes Fact Sheet, which used fasting
     glucose data to estimate undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes, the 2011
     National Diabetes Fact Sheet uses both fasting glucose and A1C
     levels to derive estimates for undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. These
     tests were chosen because they are most frequently used in clinical
     practice.
                  HISTORY OF DIABETES
In the first century A.D a Greek Aretaeus described the nature of the disease
    and gave it its name “Diabetes”
Diabetes comes from the Greek word “Siphon”
 Human Guinea pigs
In the 17th century a London physician, Dr. Thomas Willis, determined whether
    his patients had diabetes or not by sampling their urine. If it had a sweet
    taste he would diagnose them with diabetes mellitus- "honeyed" diabetes.
    This method of monitoring blood sugars went largely unchanged until the
    20th century.
In the early 20th century, diabetologists such as Dr. Frederick Allen
    prescribed low calorie diets-as little as 450 calories per day for his patients.
    His diet prolonged the life of people with diabetes but kept them weak and
    suffering from near starvation. In effect, the most a person afflicted with
    diabetes could do was blindly offer himself to the medical establishment
    and pray for a cure.
          HISTORY OF DIABETES CONT.
In his book, The Discovery of Insulin, Michael Bliss describes the painful
    wasting death of many people with diabetes before insulin: "Food and
    drink no longer mattered, often could not be taken. A restless
    drowsiness shaded into semi-consciousness. As the lungs heaved
    desperately to expel carbonic acid (as carbon dioxide), the
    dying diabetic took huge gasps of air to try to increase his capacity.
    'Air hunger' the doctors called it, and the whole process was
    sometimes described as 'internal suffocation.' The gasping and sighing
    and sweet smell lingered on as the unconsciousness became a deep
    diabetic coma. At that point the family could make its arrangements
    with the undertaker, for within a few hours death would end the
    suffering."
           HISTORY OF DIABETES CONT.
in 1921 something truly miraculous occurred in Ontario, Canada. A young
    surgeon Frederick Banting, and his assistant Charles Best, kept a severely
    diabetic dog alive for 70 days by injecting it with a murky concoction of
    canine pancreas extract. With the help of Dr. Collip and Dr. Macleod,
    Banting and Best administered a more refined extract of insulin to Leonard
    Thompson, a young boy dying of diabetes. Within 24 hours, Leonard's
    dangerously high blood sugars had dropped to near normal levels. Until the
    discovery of insulin, most children diagnosed with diabetes were expected
    to live less than a year. In a matter of 24 hours the boy's life had been saved.
    News of the miracle extract, insulin, spread like wildfire across the world.
Since insulin's discovery, medical breakthroughs continued to prolong and ease
   the lives of people with diabetes. In 1935 Roger Hinsworth discovered there
   were two types of diabetes: "insulin sensitive" (type I) and "insulin
   insensitive" (type II). By differentiating between the two types of diabetes,
   Hinsworth helped open up new avenues of treatment.
                 LIVING WITH DIABETES
The first portable glucose meter was created in
  1969 by Ames Diagnostics
 Insulin pump- late 70’s
 Syring- 1961
 A1c test- 1979
 Metformin -1995
                        PREVENTION
 To Prevent type 2 diabetes is to
 Change you're diet.
 Increase your physical activity
 Maintain a healthy weight


 Type 1 diabetes
 Currently no prevention
                        DAILY DIET
 Carbohydrates 45% to 65%
 Proteins 15% to 20%
 Fats 20% to 35%
                           TREATMENT
 You can use a blood glucose meter to measure your sugars
 A1C - measures your average blood glucose control for the past 2-3
  months
 Insulin pump
 Take insulin
 Rosiglitazone; brand name Avandia
ROSIGLITAZONE




                C18H19N3O3S
                  FAMOUS DIABETICS
Halle Berry
James Brown
Johnny Cash
Dick Clark
Aretha Franklin
Joe Faizer
                          REFERENCES
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MHlWM8_iqfA&feature=player_embedded
 http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/symptoms/
 http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/prevention/pre-
  diabetes/?loc=DropDownDB-prediabetes
 http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/?loc=DropDownDB-
  stats
 http://diabetes.webmd.com/tc/type-1-diabetes-prevention
 http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/diabetes/takinginsulin.php
 http://www.3dchem.com/moremolecules.asp?ID=265&othername=Diabetes#
 http://kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/genetic/hypoglycemia.html

				
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posted:9/22/2012
language:English
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