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					               Announcements

• Lab Section C added (Thurs, 3pm-4:30)
• PsycInfo has changed in appearance
  library home page, article indexes, p

• Questions about PsycInfo Assignment
                    PsycInfo Assignment

To Summarize:
• a list of 5 research questions, identify the one you used for the rest of
   the assignment
• (b) an introduction using at least 3 of the articles relevant to the
   research question, ending with your research (experimental) and null
   hypotheses
• (c) a printout of the 5 references you found using PsycInfo
• (d) a properly-formatted APA-style reference section for at least 5
   references relevant to your research topic
• (d) a completed interlibrary loan form for a reference not available in
   the Acadia library (highlight this reference on the PsycInfo printout).
                  Introduction
•   Writing an Introduction APA style
•   Begin with your research question
•   Not simply a summary; compare and contrast
•   What material should an introduction contain?
•   - topic the authors investigated
•   -their hypotheses,variables, main findings
•   see links page, p. 406 text, section 1.08 (p.11)
    APA manual
            Discussion Overview

• What is different about information on the
  internet versus traditional resource material?
• What can be found on the World Wide Web?
• Evaluation techniques - CARS
• 3 central concerns: author, source, content
• Different types of Web Pages found
• Common problems and solutions
      What is different about Internet
               information?
• Anyone can print anything on the World Wide
  Web.
• Unlike traditional resources, there is no one
  to review material, edit material, or rebuke
  erroneous information.
• Search engines cannot differentiate between
  a reputable source and an expert wannabe.
  All web sites, good and bad, will be retrieved
  equally.
     What can be found on the Web?

• ANYTHING!!
• Facts - useful information if they are from a
  reputable source.
• Opinions - personal views of a subject. These
  may be useful, but use caution.
• Stories - may or may not contain facts -be
  VERY careful.
• Interpretations - again, personal views - be
  careful.
• Statistics - can be useful information if the
  source is reliable and the stats have been
  collected and analysed correctly.
• Advertising - many sites are infomercials
  designed to sell the reader on a product, a
  company, or even an idea - use extreme
  caution!
            5 Types of Web Pages

•   Personal
•   Informational
•   News
•   Advocacy
•   Business/Marketing
     Evaluating Personal Web Pages

• Are the author’s qualifications stated?
• Can you verify information about the author?
• Is there a reference section or bibliography?
• Is the material grammatically well-written?
• Is the material up-to-date? (last revised
  when?)
• Is the information complete and objective?
         Author, Content, Source

• 3 most important things to examine when
  evaluating information
• Author - Reputable? Well-known?
  Dependable? Professional? Backed by a
  well-known organization?
• Content - Accurate? Up-to-date? Objective?
  Comprehensive? Complete? Verifiable?
• Source - Respectable? Reachable? Well-
  known? Easily accessed? Professional?
      Review of Traditional Evaluation
           Techniques -CARS
• CARS = Credibility, Accuracy,
  Reasonableness, Support
• Checklist that can discriminate high quality
  information from low quality information.
• The more criterion the resource meets, the
  more likely that it is a high quality piece of
  information.
                   Credibility

• How credible is the author, the content, the
  source in general?
• Look for sources that include author’s name,
  title, organizational affiliation, and contact
  information.
• Do you recognize the author’s name from
  other sources - if not, try to find the name in
  other resource material.
        Positive Signs of Credibility
• Resource is found on an organization’s web
  site.
• Material is in an on-line journal that is peer
  reviewed.
• Material is taken from quality controlled books
  or magazines.
• Author is well reputed in his/her field, and
  highly reviewed by peers.
• Publisher has editors and fact checkers on
  staff.
          Negative Signs of Credibility

•   No author stated.
•   No obvious signs of peer reviewing.
•   Poor reviews of author, material, or web site.
•   Material is grammatically poor.
•   No indication of publisher responsibility.
•   Bias in the material - someone is trying to sell
    you something!
                    Accuracy

• Is the information true, up-to-date, sufficiently
  detailed, and comprehensive?
• Important dates to look for:
       -date first created
       -date placed on web
       -date last revised
• Browsers can show creation and modification
  dates: eg. Netscape - view/document info
                Accuracy
• Be critical of the purpose of the material.
  Articles that contain a hidden bias to
  persuade the reader in a certain direction
  are the most common kind of information
  found on the web.
• Make sure the material has been covered
  completely - sometimes on-line material has
  been edited from the printed version.
• Make sure the information has been kept up-
  to-date.
        Positive Signs of Accuracy

• Material has been recently or continually
  revised.
• Material is from a reputable publisher and
  author.
• Dates are clearly and completely displayed.
• Information is complete and un-bias.
• Goals of material clearly stated.
        Negative Signs of Accuracy

• Material has no date appearing on it, or an
  old date on material that changes rapidly.
• Material is vague or general.
• Material is bias or one-sided.
• Errors are found in the information presented.
                   C.A.R.S.
                Reasonableness
•   Is the information presented fairly?
•   Are the arguments reasonable?
•   Is the information consistent?
•   Is the information at a suitable level for the
    intended use? (is it intended for children, high
    school, university, or professionals)
      Positive Signs of Reasonability

• Material is presented in a concise and
  effective manner.
• All aspects of the subject are covered
  objectively and clearly.
• Material is written without bias.
• Material is believable and makes sense.
• Information is consistent throughout
  presentation.
     Negative Signs of Reasonability

• Material has an emotional undertone.
• Information seems exaggerated to get a point
  across.
• Material conflicts with common sense or is
  unbelievable. (This is not to say that
  seemingly unbelievable information is never
  fact, but it needs to checked out carefully
  before accepted.)
                  C.A.R.S.
                  Support
• Is the material supported by citations from
  other sources?
• Are the other sources valid and dependable?
• Is a bibliography or reference section
  included?
• Can the material be backed up by other
  resource materials?
         Positive Signs of Support

• Material is backed up with references and
  citations from credible sources.
• Author gives contact information.
• Links are relevant and credible.
• Additional information links are provided.
         Negative signs of Support

• Material has no references to back up
  information.
• External collaboration is difficult or impossible
  to find.
• Author or publisher does not provide contact
  information.
• Other internet sources fail to back up the
  material.
               5 Types of Web Pages

• Personal (url will normally contain a tilde (~) somewhere in
  the address)
• News (URL normally ends in .com)
• Informational      (Usually sponsored by educational institutions
  (URL ends with .edu) or government agencies (URL ends with .gov).
• Advocacy ( url will normally end in .org.)
• Business/Marketing (URL usually ends with .com)
     Problems: Web Page Instability

• Browsers can alter web page design and
  format, putting information out of context.
• Pages may move or disappear without notice,
  leaving you unable to refer back to the
  reference.
• Web pages can be deliberately or
  accidentally altered.
          Problems with Web Pages

• Always document the source as fully as
  possible, or print the material off so you have
  it to use as a reference later.
• Always include the date of retrieval as part of
  the reference.
• Attempt to verify the information by using
  external sources.
                 Conclusions

• The Internet is a valuable and necessary part
  of research in today’s high tech world.
• Because technology advances so quickly,
  standards and review boards cannot keep up.
• It is up to the individual (YOU) to evaluate the
  material being read.
• Familiarizing yourself with these guidelines
  will help you decide whether the information
  is high quality or low quality.
          Evaluating WWW Sources

• Always examine the author, content, and
  source.
• Type of Knowledge- authority, personal
  observation, reasoning, scientific method
• CARS -credibility, accuracy, reasonableness,
  support.
• Decide what type of web page it is, which will
  help you decide how reliable the information
  is.
             Accessing Information Part II
     WWW sources and evaluating web pages assignment
• Choose a topic
• Find 3 websites
     – electronic media source
     – scientific
     – nonscientific
Create your own website on your axe account
email the site of your webpage to Jill
Print and submit for Oct 5(A) / Oct 7(B/C)
•   your webpage ;
•   the first page of each of your 3 linked sites
• PRACTICE! Go web surfing and evaluate the
  pages you find. What seems difficult at first
  will become easy with practice.

• For a list of web sites that are useful
  examples, go to:
  http://www2.widener.edu/Wolfgram-Memorial-
  Library/examples.htm
                            Credits
• The information for this presentation was
  adapted from the following sources:
• http://www.sccu.edu/faculty/R_Harris/evalu8it.htm
• http://www.vuw.ac.nz/~agsmith/evaln/index.htm
• http://www.library.ucla.edu/libraries/college/instruct/web/critical.h
  tm
• http://www2.widener.edu/Wolfgram-Memorial-
  Library/webeval/eval1198/index.htm
• http://www2.widener.edu/Wolfgram-Memorial-
  Library/perspg.htm
• compiled by Crystal Todd

				
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posted:9/22/2012
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