THE SOUTH CAROLINA
South Carolina Nursery & Landscape Association September/October 2011
Member Profile: Super Fonz Lawn Care
Laurel Wilt – A Growing Disease Problem
Supporting the green industry by providing
education, legislative monitoring, certification and marketing.
Investing in research, environmental stewardship and
scholarship to ensure a secure future.
Kirk Young, 2013
Live Oak Landscapes, Inc.
PO Box 13091
Charleston, SC 29422
In This Issue ...
Carson Aull, 2014
164 Wild Hearts Rd.
Cameron, SC 29030
Don Brookshire, 2012
Brookshire & Assoc.
4 SCNLA Member Profile: Super Fonz Lawn Care
PO Box 3455 8 SCNLA Calendar of Events
Tega Cay, SC 29708
Phone 800-326-3313 9 Notes from Donna
David Rickenbaker, 2013 10 SCNLA New Members/ Industry News/ Website of the Month
Hi Cotton Greenhouses, LLC 11 Thoughts from the President
PO Box 197
St. Matthews, SC 29135 12 Legislative Update
13 The Uncomfort Zone: Keeping the Ball Rolling
Kari Whitley, 2013
Scout Horticultural Consulting
14 Lessons Learned from Summer Dry Spells
PO Box 22 16 Thousand Cankers: Disease of Black Walnut Detected in Virginia
Charleston, SC 29402
Phone 843-568-1102 17 Test Your Knowledge: Identify the Plants
Tom Young, 2012 18 Cicads: Moment of Nature
Young’s Garden Center 20 Turf-Grass Research
9567 Charlotte Hwy
Fort Mill, SC 29707 21 NOAA, American Public Gardens Association Unveil Partnership
22 Insecticide Classes and Modes of Action: Groups 20 & 21
Mandi Cothran, 2013
Davidson Farms, Inc.
24 Pesticides and Storms
590 Woods Chapel Road 25 European Pepper Moth
Duncan, SC 29334
Phone 864-439-0319 26 Summertime is Tick Time
Past President 27 Update on Imprelis Herbicide
Ricky McAbee, 2012 28 Laurel Wilt: A Growing Disease Problem
Nursery & Landscaping 30 SCNLA/SCLTA 8th Annual Fall Field Day
PO Box 1053
Roebuck, SC 29376 31 Fall Armyworms in Turf
Phone 864-576-0875 32 What’s New at SCHI 2012?
Executive Director 33 The New Face of SNA
Donna Shealy Foster
4661 Crystal Drive 34 Citrus for South Carolina
Columbia, SC 29206 Green Gone Bad
Phone 803-743-4284 36
Fax 803-787-2919 38 Rain Garden Plant Selections
41 SCNLA Annual Awards Description/Nomination Form
Cover photo: Black Velvet Petunia 44 SCNLA Board Meeting Minutes
courtesy of Images by BA
45 Bradford Pear: An Invasive Plant Problem
48 PLANET Student Career Days 2011: Joliet Junior College
This newsletter does not have Tree of Merit: Chinese Fringetree
any official authority and the 50
information contained herein
should not be acted upon
without professional advice.
SCNLA Member Profile SCNLA Member Profile
L awn C a re
rFonz Super Fonz Lawn Care, LLC
Su pe By Ellen A. Vincent, Clemson University Environmental Landscape Specialist
Alfonso (Fonz) Hernandez began
specializing in lawn maintenance in
1997. He worked for other people
in South Carolina, learning the
combined craft of lawn care and
business management. He and his
wife Angie noticed something about
lawn care companies--they seemed
to be a magnet for employees and
sometimes owners who didn’t
really care about plants or people.
Angie had a background in human
resources and communications, and
had worked for MCI and Sprint
while Fonz possessed a serious work
ethic packed full of accountability
and responsibility. So when they
combined their talents to launch
their own business in 2006, they
already had a business philosophy:
be passionate about the work.
Extend personal care and attention
to details, “do it for love” says Fonz.
They also knew exactly who to
hire: people who are also passionate
about their work.
The first piece of equipment was
a Honda push mower and the
first yard was located in Lake
Keowee. Fonz has grown slowly,
only buying what he can afford
to pay for. Now there is a small
fleet of Toros and a team of four
full time and two seasonal workers.
They serve residential customers in
Greenville, Greer, Easley, and Lake
Keowee. They do not advertise
or promote themselves, they gain
customers solely from referrals
and by performance. Realtors and
absentee home owners also employ
Continued on page 7
Continued from page 5
this company because they can trust
the job will be completed precisely
and expertly every time.
Their tag line is “Lawn Care Like
No Other.” The details they attend to
appear to be a magnet for customers
looking for professional quality and
character. Quality details include
rotating mowing directions each
time to reduce any appearance of
lines; ensuring that water features,
rock walls, patios, and other
hardscape features are kept totally
free of any blown debris; and
regular sharpening of mower blades
to ensure clean cuts to the grass
blades. Character details include
showing up on time; consistently
creating curb appeal; and educating
the customer before executing a and fertilizers. This company pulls they want to work in lawn care.
request. When customers ask the weeds by hand and refers customers “If you don’t love what you do,
company to prune shrubs that will to other contractors who specialize if you aren’t passionate about the
reduce or eliminate blooms, Fonz in pest control and fertilization. work, you’re doing it for the wrong
is sure to speak with them first Pruning is also done by hand in reason” warns Angie. Secondly, be
in case they aren’t aware of the order to create “a more natural look” ethical always, follow the law, and
consequences. reports Fonz. Education is important be responsible and proud of all your
to the company and they frequently actions. Angie claims Fonz is the
Super Fonz Lawn Care is a family attend Clemson Extension classes exemplar for ethics and integrity
business. Their home in Piedmont and SCNLA seminars. in business and describes how
is headquarters and the trucks and accomplished he and his crew feels
equipment are all neatly stored on Each new job starts with a customer at the end of each job. “My name is
site. The employees are almost all interview. Angie and Fonz go on every job” Fonz explains. The
relatives who Fonz and Angie trust together and uncover needs, issues, third tip for newcomers is to grow
explicitly to serve the customer to the and desires of their customers. slowly and pay for things along the
best of their ability. Even so, Fonz is They walk the grounds together to way rather than accrue debt. “If you
present at every job so the customer learn what pleases and frustrates can’t afford it, don’t buy it” advises
has the security of knowing the the homeowner in their landscape. Fonz.
person the client contracted service “Customer service is making
with is still in charge of the work. a person happy” explains Angie Fonz wanted opportunities for
Fonz and Angie’s two children- Hernandez, “We acknowledge what advancement in the work place and
Faith and Allyson (age ten and they want and then say ‘this is what he found this in self-employment.
seven) are the ambassadors. Their we can do for you’. We educate His goal however is “spending
charms (polite, gracious, articulate, them at the same time“. Honesty more time with my girls.” Self
confident, intelligent) can no-doubt and consistent above-and-beyond employment allows Angie to work
penetrate the hardest character and service builds trust, she reports. in communications and customer
most cynical soul. Many customers, Ethics are again demonstrated when service from her home office yet
report Angie, are like family. If a the company prices the job based on still run to the school if she’s asked
customer experiences hardship, the the size of the lot and the work to be to chaperone or help out in the
Hernandez family and business try done, not by the appearance of the classroom. In addition to being
to help. “We pray a lot” she admits. neighborhood or square footage of happy to go to work each day, the
the structure. Hernandez adults feel the ultimate
Environmentally sound practices purpose of the business is to help
include recycling clippings and plant Fonz and Angie suggest newcomers their two girls pursue their dreams,
debris and not applying pesticides to the field first be clear about why whatever they might be.
Calendar of Events
Sept 28, 2011
SCNLA Field Day
January 16-20, 2012
Green & Growin’
The following dates are 803-743-4284
important to you: www.scnla.com January 25-27, 2012
GGIA WINTERgreen 2012
August 1, 2011: October 7-8 2011 Gwinnett Center, Duluth GA
All Nursery and Nursery Dealer Appalachian Nursery and (706)62-0100
License Renewal packets were Landscape Expo. www.ggia.org It’s OK to brag! It SCNLA awards time. The nominating form is
emailed and/or mailed out. WNC Ag Center
email@example.com January 27-28, 2012 on page 42. And yes, it is OK to nominate yourself. During these past
September 30, 2011: 828-553-1098 Mid-States Horticultural Expo
Co-sponsored and managed few years, I know many of you have created new ways to keep your
All Nursery and Nursery Dealer Re-
newal forms and/or fees are due. October 23-26, 2011 by Kentucky Nursery and
employees motivated besides money; you’ve founds new and better
Under South Carolina law, any International Plant Landscape Association
person engaged in the produc- Propagators’ Society and Tennessee Nursery and ways to be efficient, etc. - all of that would qualify for the Member of
tion or collection of nursery stock Rainwater Conference Center Landscape Association
for sale or distribution must be a Valdosta, GA Kentucky International the Year Award. Maybe you have a supplier (who is also a SCNLA
licensed nurserymen. Licenses for www.ipps-srna.org Convention Center,
both categories run from Octo- (downtown) Louisville, KY member) who always goes the extra mile to provide quality service
ber 1st through September 30th October 28, 2011 931.473.3951 or
every year. Trees SC Annual Conference www.MSHE.org. that qualifies, too. And of course there is the Louis P. Parsons Outstanding Contribution to the
Infrastructure: Growing February 2-4, 2012 Industry Award. Read over the criteria and see if anyone you would like to nominate comes to
October 1, 2011:
2012 Nursery Certificate Tags may
Communities Among SCHI 2012
the Trees Myrtle Beach Convention mind. You all are such a great group of professionals and the Board of Directors always enjoys
be ordered. Completed Nurs-
SC State Museum Center
ery Registration and all required reading the nominations.
9:00 a.m. – 4:30 p.m. Myrtle Beach, SC
compliance agreements must be
Columbia, S.C. 29201 www.scnal.com
satisfied in order to obtain Nurs-
ery Certificate Tags. A price list for
(843)814-4620 February 23, 2012 It’s also OK to share! We are looking for items for the Silent Auction that will be held the
nursery tags may be obtained on
SCNLA Legislative Breakfast
our website at: http://dpi.clem- afternoon of Friday, February 3 at SCHI. Do you make jewelry, do you have a mountain or
November 16, 2011 Columbia, SC
SC Sod Producers Association 803-743-4284
Annual Meeting 8:00am-10:00am beach condo you would donate for a weekend, does you spouse work somewhere that could
December 31, 2011:
Myrtle Beach Convention
2011 Nursery Certificate Tags ex- donate an item? Let’s “think out of the box” and have some really cool items and raise a nice
Center February 23, 2012
Myrtle Beach, SC SCNLA Marketing Seminar donation for the SCNLA Fund at the Horticulture Research Institute.
843-514-1218 Columbia, SC
All forms and regulations can be www.scsod.org 803-743-4284
found on our website at: http:// 10:30am-3:00 pm
www.clemson.edu/public/regu- January 11, 2012
latory/plant_industry/nursery_ VNLA Research Gala February 26-28, 2012
program/. All questions regarding Tir Na Nog Irish Pub National Association of Pond
Nursery and Nursery Dealer Li- Donna
Baltimore, MD in Professionals
cense renewals may be directed Conjunction with MANTS Conference and Expo
to Negar Edwards at (864) 646- Las Vegas, NV
2126 or plantindustry@clemson. www.nationalpondpro.com
SCNLA Industry News
THoughts from the President
SC Department of Obituaries
Revenue to Host
Former SNA Executive Tommy Henegar
Sales and Use Tax passed away on July 26, 2012 after a short illness.
Seminar Our sympathies to his wife Mary.
The SC Department of Rev- Ken Harris passed away on August 23, 2011. “Fall is the time for planting; let us take
Ken was a sales representative for Cherokee Mfg. and
enue will host a Sales and
a longtime participant in SCNLA events.
advantage of all that the season has to offer.”
Use Tax Seminar for the Agri-
The funeral was held on August 25 in McMinnville, TN.
culture Industry on October 4
Our sympathy to Ken’s family.
from 9 a.m. - 12 p.m. at the
SpringHill Suites in Columbia,
The topics being present- Congratulations
ed are very applicable to
the agriculture industry and Congratulations to our newest
would benefit the members SCNLA Certified Nursery Professional Dear Members,
of your association. Elizabeth Zembry, Windsor Farms, Blackstock, SC
Those urged to attend in-
clude business managers, Congratulations to Wilbur Mull, As the summer heat begins to subside, I am looking forward to cooler temperatures. I hope that
Chief Financial Officers, ac- who recently received the Georgia Green Industry Association
Lifetime Achievement Award in recognition of you were able to manage the summer and all of its difficulties including the water shortages. I trust
counting staff, tax profession-
this longevity and his dedication to the industry. the recent rains have alleviated some of these water issues and we are prepared for a successful fall
als and others who work with Mull, owner of Classic Groundcovers in Athens, GA
Sales and Use Taxes. Among is widely known for his eye catching marketing and trade show planting season.
the topics to be discussed exhibits and “sudden service” has also received numerous
are Sales Tax exemptions for other industry awards. Classic Groundcovers is a
the agriculture industry, SC long time member of SCNLA and a SCHI Exhibitor. Now that fall is upon us, there is much to be excited about…after all, fall is the time for plant-
electronic services, and the ing (not to mention, football season). The South Carolina Department of Agriculture Fall Flower
basics of Sales, Use and Lo-
Festivals are in full bloom in Greenville, Florence and Columbia. I attended last year’s Columbia
SCNLA New Members
The cost is $25 to attend Festival and it was a pleasure to see how many homeowners were out shopping for plant material.
the seminar which includes
Zack Bilderback Elizabeth Zembry
The SCNLA Fall Field Day is an interesting event…contrary to popular belief, there is more than
all materials and coffee. The
SpringHill Suites is located at Harrell’s, LLC Windsor Farms just pesticide credits to be had here. As with all these festivals and shows, there is an abundance to
511 Lady Street in Columbia. 6830 Crescent Moon Ct, Apt 302 32 Mount Olive Church Road
Raleigh, NC 27606 Blackstock, SC 29014 see and learn from others in our industry.
For more information, please Mason Rutledge
see the attached brochure or Unity Designs, LLC Be sure to inform everyone that conditions are optimal for happy healthy plants. Fall is the time for
visit our website http://www. 1358 Little David Court
sctax.org/Tax+Workshops/ Charleston, SC 29412 planting; let us take advantage of all that the season has to offer. Success is ours to be had. Don’t
forget to spend time with family, friends and football!
WEBSITE of the Month Kirk Young
Pesticide Information Program at Clemson University
LEGISLATIVE UPDATE THE UN-COMFORT ZONE
with Robert Wilson
These articles are provided by SCNLA and ANLA as a
Lighthouse Program partner benefit.
Keeping the Ball Rolling
Federal Legislative Update I know an advertising agency owner who never fully takes a vacation. He takes his family to fairly exotic
locations, but never so alien that they are outside the reach of modern communication. In other words,
he is never further than a cell phone call or email away. He checks in with the office several times a day –
much to the chagrin of his family who want him to be fully engaged in the holiday at hand. So, he ends up
ing safety rules. After reviewing both written and
Federal Motor Carrier Safety verbal comments, the Agency released this state-
sneaking off under the guise of visiting the restroom, or going to the bar for a cocktail, in order to connect
with his staff, a client or a prospect. His wife and kids aren’t fooled; they just sigh and accept the inevitable.
Administration ment: “FMCSA is pleased with the input we’ve I used to think he was a control freak – someone who couldn’t let go and let someone else take over – until
received from the agricultural community and I came to understand the concept of Momentum.
Recently, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Ad- members of Congress. We have received about
ministration said that it has no intention to pro- 17,000 comments and the vast majority called for In science, Momentum is equal to Mass times Velocity. Or just think of Indiana Jones in Raiders of the Lost
pose new regulations governing the transport of us to preserve the guidance that leaves states to Ark running as fast as he can out of the tunnel while that huge stone ball rolls faster and faster after him.
agriculture products. This announcement came carry out the Farm Exemptions as they have for In business, Momentum is the point at which success begins to come easily. Business veterans jokingly
after a call from this agency in May 31, 2011 ask- many years.” FMCSA administrator, Anne Ferro, refer to it as having, “paid my dues.” In short, Momentum is an accumulation of acquired knowledge, skill,
ing farmers’ Farm organizations and the public to said, “We want to make crystal clear that we are experience and connections. And, those who understand it... also know it can be fragile and easily lost.
provide input on the federal agencies long stand- not imposing any new regulations.”
Sales professionals who have achieved Momentum will tell you that you must pursue a number of activities
to generate sales leads: phone calls, emails, sales letters, networking events, etc. You keep it up building
dozens, then hundreds of leads at a time. Then to convert those leads to sales you keep following up on
each of them in a timely fashion. Meanwhile, you are still maintaining all the activities that continue to
generate leads. So between generating leads, following up on leads, then turning leads into sales, you
begin to feel like the guy in the circus who spins plates on top of poles – rushing from one plate to the next
for the to keep them spinning.
No wonder these folks hate to take vacations – it breaks the Momentum they’ve spent months or years
creating and they know it takes time to get it going again.
Years ago when I first started giving speeches, a seasoned professional speaker advised me, “It took me
ten years to quit sweating cash flow, but even so, it is still all about non-stop marketing.” In other words:
For a growing company, Momentum is the point where you have done enough advertising, marketing,
Go to the link below – public relations, networking, customer service, and so forth that business begins to flow. It is the point where
you are garnering the precious and often elusive word-of-mouth referrals. Momentum is about building a
It only takes about 5 minutes. reputation. Acquiring it, however, doesn’t mean you can taper off on your efforts... but it does mean that
your efforts will become easier.
http://ir4.rutgers.edu/ The best thing about Momentum is that once you get it, motivation becomes self-perpetuating. Momentum
Ornamental/Survey/index.cfm is energizing. It keeps you on your toes. And, the rewards come quickly and regularly.
I have found this tobe true in all pursuits. Even when I am writing fiction there is always a certain point in a
It’s your chance novel that it takes on a life of its own and demands my daily attention, energy and focus until it is complete.
to voice your concerns on Unfortunately, nothing quite puts the brakes on Momentum like finishing a book, or completing any other
major task. The trick to avoid losing that Momentum is to begin another book or another task before you
the pest and production complete the first one. Then you just shift your energy over to the next project that is already under way.
problems we are having Robert Evans Wilson, Jr. is an author, speaker and humorist. He works with companies that want to be more
in South Carolina... competitive and with people who want to think like innovators. For more information on Robert, please visit
from Summer Dry Spells
Bob Polomski, Ph.D., Horticulturist/ISA Certified Arborist, Clemson University
The savagery of this summer is now history: it After more than 2 decades of South Carolina
left scores of damaged or withered plants in summers, I have become a more knowledge-
its wake. Despite the losses I sustained in my able and a less cynical gardener: “it is what it
own garden and landscape, I will continue to is.” For this short article I distilled 7 lessons that
garden. Can you say the same about your cus- may be worth sharing with your customers to
tomers? help them cope with whatever¹s in store next
I don¹t expect you to conduct Saturday
morning grief counseling sessions to help 1. Select plants that match the conditions in
your customers deal with drought-stricken your landscape.
shrubs, trees, and perennials. However, you Besides meeting a plant’s requirements for sun-
should take advantage of this teachable mo- light, be mindful of dry and wet areas in the
ment. Now is the time to educate and em-
landscape. Take advantage of areas that re-
power your customers. You and I know with
main wet for extended periods of time, such as
certainty that next summer will be hot, humid,
and dry, but that is no reason to stop garden- sloping areas on the northern or eastern sides 3. Mulch. 5. Add organic matter to the planting area.
ing. of your landscape. Then, select plants that will Blanket the soil around trees, shrubs, and flower When added to clay soil, organic matter holds
thrive in those moist conditions. beds with a two- to four-inch layer of mulch, the clay particles apart, improving air and water
such as compost, leaf litter, shredded wood, or movement in the soil. It also acts like a sponge
South Carolina Also, group plants together according to their pine straw. It will conserve moisture, suppress to retain moisture in the soil.
Horticulture Industry requirements for water. Divide your landscape weeds, and enhance plant growth. For trees, ex-
Trade Show and Seminars into “hydrozones.” Place plants together that tend the mulch to the outermost reaches of the 6. Water new plantings regularly until they
have the same needs for water. So, in your low branches. Leave a space of three inches or become established.
February 2-4, 2012 water use hydrozone in full sun, plant drought-
tolerant shrubs such as glossy abelia, beautyber-
more around the trunk to keep the bark dry and
to discourage rodents.
Spring-and summer plantings are especially vul-
nerable to perishing from a lack of water dur-
Myrtle Beach Convention Center ry, and yaupon holly. In your high water use ing their “growing-in” period. During the first
zone, plant moisture-loving shrubs such as but- 4. Avoid heavy applications of fertilizer to few weeks, water often enough to keep the soil
Myrtle Beach, SC
tonbush, inkberry holly, and Virginia sweetspire. your plantings. moist. Then, start cutting back on watering to
Plants do not have to receive three square every few days or longer. Eventually, water on
NEW this Year: a weekly or “as needed” basis by testing the
Planting in hydrozones allows you to water more meals a day with a couple of snacks in be-
tween. Heavy applications of fertilizer will result soil and rootball for moisture until the plants be-
Get Prepared for Spring! efficiently. Obviously, plants in the low water use
in a lot of soft, lush top growth that will have to come established.
Spring Boot Camp zone will not have to be watered as frequently
be supported by regular applications of water.
as those in the high water use zone. So, only the
Eventually this growth may have to be held in 7. Finally, go on vacation next summer and
Roundtable Issues and Lunch plants that desperately need water will receive it.
check by pruning. don’t worry about your garden or landscape.
Heed the advice of the world-famous American
Breakfast with Ambrosia Beetles AKA 2. Install a drip or microsprinkler irrigation horticulturist Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858-1954): “I
Solutions for Scale Insects and Borers system. Apply fertilizer according to the results of a soil
stayed home from a vacation one summer that
test. My advice is to keep your plants “lean,
They are simple to install and use less water than I might keep my plants from dying. I have since
green, and mean,” which will help them deal
SC, NC, GA Pesticide Applicators conventional irrigation systems. Calibrate your with summertime stresses. learned that if the plants in my borders cannot
Re-certification credits system so you¹re applying the right amount of take care of themselves for a few weeks, they
water to the plants that need it. are of little comfort to me.”
TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
IDENTIFY THESE PLANTS
Photo Credit: Ned Tisserat Photo Credit: Whitney Cranshaw 1 2 3
Colorado State University, Bugwood.org Colorado State University, Bugwood.org
Disease of Black Walnut Detected in Virginia
Bob Polomski, Ph.D.,
Horticulture and Urban Forestry School of Agricultural, Forestry, and Environmental Science, Clemson University
4 5 6
Since the mid-1990s I’ve been fol- and New Mexico, is associated with of cankers, eventually succumb within
lowing Thousand Cankers Disease or Arizona walnut (J. major) and per- 3 to 4 years of the initial attack.2, 7
TCD and the demise of black walnuts haps other native southwestern species
(Juglans nigra) in the western U.S.1, such as J. californica and J. hindsii.5 Currently, there are no preventive
Then the Tennessee Department The walnut twig beetle was originally or curative measures against TCD.
of Agriculture in August 2010 found described in 1928, but only recently Officials in quarantined areas recom-
TCD in Knoxville, the first state east was the disease complex recognized mend rapid detection and removal of
of the Mississippi that detected its and described in Colorado.6 infected trees. To curb its spread, offi-
presence in the black walnut’s native cials prohibit the movement of all
range.3 Nearly a year later the Virginia Alone, the bark beetle and fungus do walnut plants and plant parts of wal-
Department of Agriculture and not kill trees; together, they prove to nut, including logs, stumps, firewood,
Consumer Affairs issued a press release be a lethal combination. The tunnels roots, branches, mulch and chips from
that documented the arrival of TCD in and egg galleries created by the larvae quarantined areas. Unfortunately, the 7 8 9
Chesterfield and Henrico counties.4 and adults, respectively, provide colo- actions and movements of the walnut
nizing sites for the fungus. Infections twig beetles and accompanying fungus
TCD is an insidious disease that lead to the formation of quarter-sized are unknown, as well as the impact of
requires the complicity of two vectors: cankers in cambial tissue. These can- TCD on native black walnut ecosys-
a walnut twig beetle and a fungus, kers eventually coalesce and lead to tems.
10 Rudbeckia hirta 'Radiance' (Radiance Black-Eyed Susan)
Geosmitha morbida. The walnut twig twig, branch, and trunk dieback. TCD- 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Albrizia julibrissin (Silktree,Mimosa)
beetle, native to Arizona, California, afflicted trees, riddled with a multitude 8 . . . . Hemerocallis 'Ruby Stella' (Ruby Stella Daylilly)
7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fagus grandifolia (American Beech)
1. Pest Alert: Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease of Black Walnut (http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/ 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V i t u s r o t u n d i f o l i a ( G ra p e V i n e )
2. USDA Forest Service Pest Alert: Thousand Cankers Disease (http://na.fs.fed.us/pubs/palerts/cankers_disease/thousand_
5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V i g n a c a r a c a l l a ( S n a i l V i n e )
cankers_disease_screen_res.pdf). 4 Calibrachoa x hybrida (Double Amethyst Calibrachoa)
3. Thousand Cankers Disease (http://www.tn.gov/agriculture/regulatory/tcd.shtml).
4. VDACS 2011 press releases (http://www.vdacs.virginia.gov/news/releases-b/072111tcd.shtml).
3 . . . . . . . . . . Ilex x 'Emily Bruner' (Emily Bruner Holly)
5. Mycologia, 103(2):325–332, 2011. 2 Liriope muscari 'Silvery Sunproof' (Slivery Sunproof Lilyturf)
6. Plant Health Progress, 11Aug 2009. (www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum.aspx?id=8033&photo=4600).
7. American Nurseryman, June, p. 20-21, 2011. 10 1 Aronia melanocarpa 'Autumn Magic' (Black Chokeberry)
During this past year, I’ve had
the opportunity to observe and
capture many moments of nature
up close as I prune, examine and/
or water city trees. It is my hope
Moment of Nature
that you learn something new and
be enriched by the wonders ofour
– Liz Gilland City of Camden Urban Forester I’d like to focus on this moment of
nature with an unlikely summer-
time celebrity and alien-looking
creature that I have become fasci-
nated with, the cicada.The name
of this unusual bug is a direct der-
ivation of the Latincicada, mean-
ing “tree cricket”. Most common
around here is the annual or dog-
day cicada(Tibicenspp.)a signa-
ture element of our dog-days of
summer, which, have descended
upon us with a vengeance. at times can be quite annoy- When full-grown, nymphs burrow
ing and rather loud. Adults are out of the ground at night,creating
So, what is a cicada and what approximately 1 ½ inches lon- a hole the size of jumbomagic
does it do? There are about 2,500 gand live for about four to six marker. They crawl up a nearby
species of cicada around the weeks following emergence. After tree or wall and the skin splits
world, and many of them remain mating, the adult females begin along the back. What emerges
unclassified. Cicadas are flying, to lay eggs in slits in the twigs of is a big-headed, bulging-eyed-
plant-sucking insects that do not various plants. Upon hatching, winged adultthat hangs from the
sting or bite. They live in temper- nymphs (juvenile’s) drop to the plant for several hours. This new-
ate to tropical climates where ground, burrow beneath the soil lymorphed creature hardensand
they are among the most widely surface and spend the next two thenflies away, leaving behind
recognized of all insects, mainly to five years feeding on root sap their cast nymphal skins. On one
due to their large size and unique of various trees and shrubs, oak of our newly planted street trees
sound. Cicadas are often col- trees in particular. The nymphs I have found as many as a dozen
loquially called locusts, although are usuallytan in color, rather such skeletons stuck to the bark,
they are unrelated to true locusts, hunch-backedand have stout twigs and leaves.In general, cica-
which are a kind of grasshopper. forelegs they use to dig through das are not considered a major
Cicadas are actually related to soil. To me, they look like an alien plant pest and usually do only
leafhoppers and spittlebugswhich creature similar to what has been minor damage to plant twigs.
are common to many southern recreated on many sci-fi mov- Other than that, their role in the
landscapes. ies. If I were 10 years old again, cycle of life is to make a good
they’d make a great object to food source for other insects and
Male cicadas attract females by scare a younger sibling with, if I birds.
their characteristic songs, which had a younger sibling!
Sources: Colorado State University Extension, Texas A&M University – AgriLife Extension and Wikipedia
Photo captions: full grown cicada resting on tree / nymph skeleton / cicada emerging from nymphal skin
Note: All photos taken in Camden by Liz Gilland, Urban Forester
Climate Changing Our Nation’s Landscapes:
Grows Hefty Cash Crop NOAA, American Public Gardens Association
Clemson molecular biologist drought or where the water may faster and spread more
Unveil Partnership to Enhance Awareness
Hong Luo’s research focuses on have a high salinity level.” robustly, which could impact
how to improve plants without other species. To control The National Oceanic and patterns, earlier bloom or leaf-budding professionals on climate change
turning them into environmental One plant Luo works with is invasiveness, Luo investigates Atmospheric Administration times, or that some plant species are issues; and development of a public
problems. Luo’s colleague, creeping bentgrass, a perennial, molecular ways to sterilize trait- (NOAA) and the American Public able to grow in different areas,” said clearinghouse for information about
Haibo Liu is an expert in turfgrass which is used on golf courses. enhanced plants. The industry Gardens Association (APGA) Daniel J. Stark, executive director of climate change and adaptation.
physiology and co-principal “We are looking for genes that --golf course maintenance, today announced an innovative APGA. “Our partnership with NOAA
investigator on research grants would improve its salt tolerance, landscaping, lawn care, pilot project at Longwood Gardens allows us to better understand how The impacts of global climate
in Kennett Square, Pa., that links some of those impacts are linked change have emerged as one of the
that federal officials have allowing growers to irrigate with sports field management
NOAA’s internationally recognized to climate change. It is clear we greatest challenges facing current
funded for nearly $1.2 million brackish water. It would not only -- in South Carolina has an
climate services and APGA’s public need to understand more about the and future generations of Americans.
to date. “Many people do not offer growers a benefit but also annual economic value For decades, NOAA and its partners
gardens, which receive more than effects of climate change so that
realize that turfgrass is part of golf course managers. It could ranging between $1 billion and have been providing climate data,
70 million visitors a year. This marks we can educate the public about
the state’s green industry, the be a real plus for South Carolina $1.5 billion in comparison with services and other information to
the beginning of a new partnership the impacts these changes will
No. 2 agriculture sector in South and other coastal states.” Florida with $8 billion and North focused on educating gardeners have, and share best practices on the nation. With the accelerating
Carolina,” said Luo. “We are Carolina with about $4 billion, and garden enthusiasts about the mitigating the effects. To do our best need for such information, NOAA will
looking at how to help it grow in But perennials with enhanced according to Haibo Liu. possible effects of climate change on job as a trusted resource for the ensure that APGA, and the nation,
stressful environments, such as growing traits can grow America’s gardens, landscapes and public, we need the best available have access to the best possible
green spaces. information on current and future environmental information for the
Contact Hong Luo at firstname.lastname@example.org. impacts so we can begin addressing many millions of yearly visitors to
“Climate change is happening these challenges now.” America’s public gardens.
now, and it’s beginning to affect the
things we care about, such as our “Sharing the important work of Founded in 1940, the American
treasured gardens, parks and natural NOAA with our staff, guests, and Public Gardens Association
landscapes,” said Jane Lubchenco, community is integral to our mission is an organization devoted to
Ph.D., under secretary of commerce and continues Longwood Gardens’ strengthening the public gardens
for oceans and atmosphere and commitment to environmental throughout North America. With more
NOAA administrator. “This new stewardship,” said Paul Redman, than 65 years of work increasing
partnership provides a special Longwood Gardens Director. “There cooperation and awareness among
opportunity for NOAA to connect with is telling evidence that climate the gardens, APGA has built a
gardeners and communities across change is affecting plant life around membership of more than 500 public
the nation to help everyone better the world and here at Longwood. gardens located in all 50 states,
understand what changes in local For example, through Longwood the District of Columbia, Canada
climate mean for the plants, trees Gardens-sponsored research and seven other countries. Their
and landscaped areas around them.” we have observed that plants are members include public gardens as
flowering earlier on average 1 day well as arboreta and zoos. APGA
Using NOAA climate data, the per decade over the last 150 years. has also built up an international
project exhibits maps showing how Longwood is proud to be the first network of individual members in
changes in average annual minimum garden to share with our guests the the U.S., Canada, and 24 other
temperatures affect climate-related APGA/NOAA inaugural interpretive countries. The APGA is committed
planting zones. This information can experience about climate change to increasing public awareness
help gardeners, landscapers and and its far-reaching effects on all of for public gardens and supplying
farmers identify which plant species our lives.” resources to the industry. Through
will best survive in certain conditions. their leadership and advocacy, public
The exhibit is augmented by a cell- Priorities of the new partnership gardens have become vital to public
phone recording that explains what include: increased climate literacy appreciation and understanding of
the changing planting zones mean for via public education at public the irreplaceable value of plants.
local plants in Longwood Gardens, gardens; increased community
as well as for area gardeners. engagement in addressing NOAA’s mission is to understand
climate variability and change as and predict changes in the Earth’s
“Millions of Americans visit public part of both short- and long-term environment, from the depths of the
gardens annually as a place to relax community planning and adaptation; ocean to the surface of the sun, and
and learn. America’s public gardens ongoing professional exchanges to conserve and manage our coastal
are starting to notice changes in between NOAA and public garden and marine resources.
temperature and precipitation
Tolfenpyrad (Hachi-Hachi by SePRO) is the newest (2011) and Sanmite in 2002. Target pests of Akari are spider mites,
METI (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor) miticides and broad mite, cyclamen mite, eriophyid mites and mealybugs in
insecticides (Group 21A) to be introduced to the ornamentals greenhouse ornamental production. Akari is effective against all
market. The target pests are aphids, leafhoppers, caterpillars mite life stages and residual is effective up to 21 days. The target
(early instar), scale insects, thrips, and whiteflies on greenhouse pests of Sanmite are spider mites, broad mite and whiteflies in
ornamentals. Several trials reported good efficacy of Hachi- greenhouse and nursery. Sanmite has activity on all life stages
Modes of Action
Hachi against western flower thrips; thus, this product represents of mite with residual up to 45 days. Both products have only
a viable option in an insecticide rotation scheme against this contact activity; therefore, good spray coverage is needed.
increasingly difficult to control pest. However, a 2010 study by Fenpyroximate is reported to be compatible with predatory
Dr. Mike Parrella (UC-Davis; supported by the IR4 Program) mites but pyridaben is not.
suggested that tolfenpyrad is quite harmful (close to 60%
mortality) to Hypoaspis aculiefer and Amblyseius swirskii, two Rotenone has the same mode of action as fenpyroximate,
Group 20: Mitochondrial Complex III Electron of the most commonly used predatory mites against the western
flower thrips. More studies are needed to better evaluate the
pyridaben, fenazaquin and tolfenpyrad but it is listed in a
different chemical class. The French botanist and explorer
Transport Inhibitors negative impacts of tolfenpyrad on natural enemies. Folks
practicing biological control in their operations should make
Emmanuel Geoffroy first isolated, but never reported, rotenone
in French Guiana in 1890s. For centuries before its isolation,
careful observations and considerations when using tolfenpyrad rotenone has been used as a fish and insect poison by native
Group 21: Mitochondrial Complex I Electron or any other product. people of many countries, who extract rotenone by smashing
roots of plants, particularly those in the genera Derris and
Fenazaquin, another member of Group 21A, was developed Lonchocarpus, in water. The solution is poured into a water
in the 1980s, introduced to the fruit production market in the body, and all the fishes (yes, all, 100%!) got poisoned and
1990s, and introduced to the ornamentals market in 2010 float to the surface, making them easy to capture. Interestingly,
Juang-Horng ‘JC’ Chong as Magus (by Gowan). This product has contact activity on rotenone is poorly absorbed by human intestinal tracts so the
Turf & Ornamental Entomologist, Clemson University, Pee Dee Research & Education Center whiteflies and mites (spider mite, rust mite, broad mite, etc.) poisoned fishes are perfectly safe to eat (For better or worse,
and an REI of 12 hours. Whitefly control may need a higher I am one of the living examples!) These days, the commercial
2200 Pocket Road • Florence, SC 29506 rate than that used for mite control. Although registered for application of rotenone as pesticide has largely relegated to
Tel.: 843-662-3526 ext. 224 • E-mail: email@example.com use on ornamental plants in golf courses, it is not to be used on uses as organic pesticide in home gardens or for parasitic mite
turfgrass. This product should have activity on all life stages of control in poultry productions and animal husbandry. Rotenone
Chemicals in the IRAC groups 20 and 21 disrupt energy such as Maxforce, is perhaps the most well-known of the Group mites. Because Magus has no systemic or translaminar activity, is generally considered safe because it is not absorbed through
production and metabolism in insects and mites. The target 20 compounds. Because it is a stomach poison, hydramethylnon good coverage of the treated plant is critical to good efficacy. skin and breaks down rapidly under sunlight. Sometimes
organ of Group 20 and 21 chemicals is the mitochondrion, is often formulated as baits. Hydramethylnon is a slow-acting Dr. Raymond Cloyd (Kansas State University) suggested roses rotenone is used as a research tool to study fish biodiversity in
which is the same for Group 12 and 13 chemicals (see SC poison; thus, instead of killing them on the spot the slow activity may exhibit phytotoxicity reactions to Magus. It is a good idea restricted water bodies because all poisoned fishes, even those
Nurserymen, March/April 2011). The exact mode of action of allows ants to carry the baits back to the nest and share the baits to test the product (or any other chemicals) on a small set of well-hidden, will float to the water surface.
Group 20 and 21 is a bit different from Group 12 and 13. with their nest mates before the toxin sets in. The flip-side of plants for phytotoxicity reactions. I am not aware of data to help
this slow activity is that it may take a few days before mortality determine the compatibility of Magus and biological control. Chemicals in Group 20 and 21 are generally toxic to fish and
Let’s refresh our memory about mitochondrion and energy is noticed. Since its discovery by American Cyanamid in 1977 aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, it is important to read the labels
metabolism in insects, Bambi, and us. Mitochondria are the and registration in 1980, hydramethylnon has been used to Fenpyroximate (Akari by SePRO) and pyridaben (Sanmite by carefully and adhere to restrictions on chemigation, buffer zone,
power plants of all living things. Mitochondria convert chemical control ants, termites, and cockroaches. Beside red imported fire Gowan) are older METI miticides. Akari was introduced in 2000 drift and runoff, and equipment cleaning procedures.
energy in food into energy that can be used in all cellular ants, products containing hydramethylnon are also registered for
process. Electrons released from food pass through a series control of native fire ants, harvester ants, big-headed ants, and
of membranes (called Electron Transport Complex I, II and Argentine ants. Hydramethylnon is sometime combined with an Table 1. The IRAC group numbers, modes of action, chemical classes, common names, example trade names and use sites of some
III) in the inner most part of mitochondrion, activate ionic insect growth regulator, such as methoprene in Amdro Firestrike commonly products containing in IRAC Group 20 and 21. Check product label for target pests, application rate, restricted entry
pumps, and create a proton and energy gradient. As protons and Extinguish Plus, to achieve elimination of brood. There are interval (REI), use site restrictions, and other vital information.
reenter the mitochondrion via a protein (ATP synthase) in an clear restrictions on use site, waiting period before harvest (fruit
attempt to balance the gradient, energy in the form of adenosine or hay), and amount used per year. Please check the labels for IRAC
triphosphate (ATP) is produced. ATP is then transported and instructions. Group Mode of action Chemical class Common name Trade name Use Sites
used as the energy molecule for other cellular functions. No.
Another chemical class within Group 20 is Acequinocyl. The 20 Mitochondrial complex III electron Hydramethylnon (20A) hydramethylnon Amdro Pro, Ambro GC, L, N, S
Group 20 and 21 inhibit the normal functions of electron only member in this chemical class, acequinocyl, is the active transport inhibitors Firestrike, Extinguish
transport complexes by binding to a family of proteins called ingredient in the miticide Shuttle O. This product is registered Plus, Siege Pro
cytochromes. Cytochromes are the central pieces in the electron for control of several members in the spider mite family on Acequinocyl (20B) acequinocyl Shuttle O GH, I, L, N
transport process and the reduction-oxidation reaction. Their indoor and outdoor ornamentals. Shuttle O is effective against 21 Mitochondrial complex I electron METI acaricides and fenazaquin Magus C, GH, I, N,
neat organization in the mitochondrial electron transport all life stages of mites, have residual of over 28 days, and are transport inhibitors insecticides (21A) L
complexes allow the electrons to be transported along the compatible with some of the most commonly used predatory fenpyroximateAkari C, GH, N
membrane. Chemicals in Group 20 and 21 bind to cytochromes mite, such as Amblyseius swirskii. In contrast to hydramethylnon pyridaben Sanmite GH, N
on Electron Transport Complex III and I, respectively, interfere which is a stomach poison, acequinocyl is a contact miticide; tolfenpyrad Hachi-Hachi GH
with the electron transport process, and inhibit the production therefore good spray coverage of the treated plant is essential Rotenone (21B) rotenone Bonide Dragoon Dust, L (home)
of ATP. The insects and mites basically run until their batteries to effective control. This compound was developed by DuPont Bonide Liquid Rotenone,
dry up. in 1975 and introduced to the markets in the 1990s. Shuttle Bonide Rotenone Dust,
was first introduced to the ornamentals market by Arysta Garden Dust
Hydramethylnon, the active ingredient in ant baits such as LifeScience, but the marketing right was acquired by OHP in Use sites: C = Christmas tree; GC = Golf courses; GH = Greenhouse; I = Interiorscapes; L = Landscape (by commercial applicator); N
Amdro, Siege Pro and Extinguish Plus, and cockroach baits 2008. The REI of Shuttle O is 12 hours. = Nursery; S = Sod farm.
PESTICIDES & STORMS European Pepper Moth
What to Do About Your Pesticides
Before a Storm (EMP)
Hurricanes and similar storms, including flooding and tornadic labels and labeling. Doors, windows and other points of access
winds, can wreak havoc with agricultural operations. In addi- to storage locations should be secured and locked. If you are
tion to the disastrous effects that spring to mind, such severe going to board up windows on your house, do the same for pes- Rebecca A. Bech • Deputy Administrator • Plant Protection and Quarantine
weather events can cause both dollar loss and environmental ticide and other chemical storage areas. Don’t leave chemicals
pollution with respect to agricultural chemicals. Fertilizers, pes- in vehicles, or in application equipment.
ticides, solvents, fuels, etc. can be physically lost, contaminated The Animal and Plant Health Inspection
themselves, or contaminate the surrounding environment and As you prepare for a storm, as you hurry to put lots of things Service (APHIS) is providing information
environments “downstream” of chemical storage and use areas. into secure locations, be sure all of these items are compatible. on the current status and strategy for
Don’t, for instance, put pesticides and fuels in the same building the European Pepper Moth (EPM),
If the time comes, you need to have a plan ready and know with animals, or animal feeds.
when to implement it. Here is some guidance that can be ap- Duponchelia fovealis, in the United States.
plied to any situations where pesticides and other chemicals are NOW is the time to read the storage and spill containment
used and stored, e.g. farms, golf courses, mosquito control oper- sections of your MSDSs. Round up your pesticide and other On October 29, 2010, APHIS provided
ations, nurseries, greenhouse operations, pest control firms, etc. chemical MSDSs and put these in a secure location. And if you information on national survey results
have not done so, provide local emergency first responders with
Be aware of weather predictions on the morning, noon and eve- a copy of these, along with a copy of your chemical inventory. indicating that EPM was detected in 13
ning news casts. states, including Alabama, Arizona, California,
Secure your personal protective equipment. You may need it as Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North
Do not delay action. You need to take action EARLY to prepare part of your own cleanup operations after the storm. Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina,
for the potential of the hurricane now on the weather screen.
And remember, others can follow. Be sure that your buildings will stay where they are as much as Texas, and Washington. The national survey
possible! Are the roofs tied into the building? Can you tie down was conducted in cooperation with State
Do an INVENTORY of what pesticides and other chemicals small storage buildings and storage tanks? departments of agriculture as a result of the initial
you have on hand. Such an inventory will be useful for insur- detection of EPM in California on July 16, 2010.
ance purposes, or in the event of necessary pesticide or chemi- If you leave your location during a severe weather event, be
cal clean ups. Include product and container sizes in your inven- sure that buildings that store pesticides and other chemicals are
tory. Receipts for the purchase of these materials are useful for well signed. In partnership with the National Plant Board,
this, or in some cases may suffice themselves. APHIS convened discussions with subject
Have on hand all emergency phone numbers you need. matter experts, affected States, and potentially
Do the inventory NOW, before you take other measures. Put
impacted industries, and has concluded main groups, including: Industry Leadership
the inventory in a safe location. In the case of large scale storms Consult your chemical dealer and insurance agent for addition-
or flooding, it may be useful to make a copy of your inventory al suggestions, but do it soon. that traditional containment and regulatory (IL), Technical Working Group (TWG), and
and mail or fax it to a friend or business associate that lives out- approaches may not be practical solutions for Interagency Working Group (IWG). IL consists
side of the potentially affected area. Sit down NOW and think about what you need to do to prepare EPM. This determination is based on the wide of representatives from potentially-impacted
Do you know where your INSURANCE policy is? Do you for a storm. Think about what kinds of things you will need
distribution and current host range of EPM, which industries, including fruit and vegetables,
know exactly what kind of coverage you have? Does it cover and may need to do after a storm. Write it all down. Get family
your chemical inventory or the damage it could cause? Find out members and others in your operation help with this. They may includes peppers, pomegranates, aquatic floriculture, and nursery and is responsible
NOW. If you need to know later, your insurance agent may be need to help later. plants, bedding plants, and nursery stock. for providing the overall coordination and
very busy. communication of the PMP. The TWG consists
You may also want to read the publication “Storm-Damaged As an alternative to a regulatory program, APHIS, of subject matter experts and specialists from
Consider not using or making applications of agricultural Agrichemical Facilities” (University of Florida). This fact sheet
chemicals, or at least holding off, until the potential of impend- provides guidelines useful for persons or organizations needing State cooperators, and industry stakeholders universities, extension service, private industry,
ing severe weather is resolved. to secure pesticides and other agricultural chemicals that have are establishing an ad hoc EPM Task Force to Federal, and State agencies, and NGOs and
been subjected to severe storm conditions. facilitate the development and communication is responsible for providing the technical
Delay purchase or delivery of additional chemicals to your op- of Pest Management Practices (PMP) in order support for the PMP. The IWG includes federal
For pesticide emergencies in South Carolina:
eration until after any impending storm risk is past. If you have Phone numbers for the South Carolina Department of Pesticide
any such deliveries scheduled for the coming week you may to prevent or minimize the pest’s potential and state regulatory officials from potentially
want to cancel them. - Main office, Pendleton/ Clemson: 864-646-2150 effects on various industries within American impacted states to provide operational
- Columbia: 803-736-7680 agriculture. The task force will encompass three and logistical support to the task force.
Secure all of your chemicals. This includes fertilizers, pesti- - Florence (Pee Dee REC): 843-667-1393
- Conway: 843-365-7341
cides, solvents, fuels, etc. Close and secure container lids, move - Charleston: 843-225-7062, 7065 For additional information on the EPM task force,
containers and application equipment to the most secure lo- The DPR has a complete DIRECTORY of their phone numbers on their
cation. Raise chemicals from the floor or cover materials that you may contact Diane Schuble, Staff Officer, at (301) 734-8723.
web site http://dpr.clemson.edu/Directory/ The numbers of individual
could be damaged by water. Do what you can to protect product offices are also in the phone book under ‘Clemson University’.
SummeRtime “Fall is for Planting” Update on
is TICK TIME Why is fall actually a better time to plant
than the spring season?
Drs. Patrick McCullough1, Mark Czarnota2, and Clint Waltz1
April Reese Sorrow 1
Assistant and Associate Professor, respectively,
News Editor, University of Georgia, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences Fall planting follows the extreme heat of summer and precedes Department of Crop and Soil Science,
a cooler winter season. It is a time of rejuvenation. Shrubs, trees 2
Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture,
and most landscape plants planted in the fall use this timing to University of Georgia, Griffin, GA
Use tweezers to remove ticks. Pinch the tick close or after having been where ticks hang out, see a their advantage. Plant roots grow anytime the soil temperature
is about 40 degrees F or slightly higher, and this occurs nearly all The new herbicide from DuPont, Imprelis, has been
to the mouthparts to remove as much as possible. If doctor promptly.” winter long in most of the state. recalled with a stop sale order on all future purchases.
the tick head is left behind, don’t worry. Having tick The active ingredient in Imprelis, aminocyclopyrachlor,
mouthparts in the skin is like having a thorn. Your Prevention Therefore during the winter months, the root systems of the is the first pyrimidine carboxylic acid herbicide and is a
body will expel it over time. “Ticks don’t fly, jump, leap or climb very high, so fall-planted specimens thrive and become well-established. similar chemistry to pyridines, such as clopyralid (Lontrel).
When the spring arrives, this well-developed root system makes Aminocyclopyrachlor is also an active ingredient in new
Image credit: Nancy Hinkle. they are seldom found high above ground,” Hinkle it possible for the plant to take advantage of the full surge combination products from Dupont released this year
said. “They hang on low-growing vegetation, stick of spring growth. Much of the possible “transplanting shock” for non-crop areas including Streamline, Perspective,
It’s summer, and outdoor activities are on the out their hook-like claws and when we walk by, associated with spring-planted shrubs and trees can also be Viewpoint, and Plainview.
menu. Make sure you don’t end up on the menu they latch on and climb upward.” minimized by fall planting.
of a blood-sucking travel partner when you are out Aminocyclopyrachlor has been extensively tested
and about, say University of Georgia experts. The best way to avoid tick bites is to stay in areas So, if you’ve been considering adding a new tree, or a grouping throughout the United States for turfgrass tolerance and
where the vegetation is open or maintained below of shrubs to the landscape, or if there is an area in your has shown excellent activity on many annual and perennial
landscape that needs “restoration” from the drought, the fall broadleaf weeds. Unfortunately, numerous practitioners
“Think of them as little vampires,” said Elmer Gray, a ankle height. Walking trails should be kept mowed, have reported substantial injury to trees, shrubs, and other
months are not only an excellent time, but the best time to do
UGA Cooperative Extension entomologist. “All ticks and hikers should avoid any vegetation brushing so. I always say, “If I was a newly planted shrub in San Antonio, I landscape plants following turf applications. Reports in
require blood meals to survive and reproduce. And against their legs during the summer. would rather go against a typical mild winter, instead of a harsh, the last six to eight weeks have associated Imprelis to
the United States has about 80 species of ticks that devilish, drought-ridden summer.” injury on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Eastern White
can feed on humans and other mammals, reptiles, Hinkle recommends treating socks and pant legs Pine (Pinus strobus) trees in Minnesota, Michigan, Indiana,
birds and even frogs.” up to the knee with Permanone products that Unfortunately, spring is still the season you’ll find the greatest Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Wisconsin.
contain permethrin. selection of shrubs and trees. But most Texas nurseries and
garden centers are beginning to recognize the value of fall There have been no reports of injury to trees or ornamental
Ticks common in Georgia are the lone star tick, species in Georgia. It is not known whether cultivars of
planting and making special efforts to provide their customers
American dog tick, blacklegged or deer tick and For added protection, tuck pant cuffs into your with the best selection possible throughout the fall and early Norway Spruce and Eastern White Pine, other species
brown dog tick. socks. “That keeps ticks on the treated surface and winter season. of Picea or Pinus, or other ornamental genera will be
off our skin,” she said. affected. It appears that most reports of injury are
Transmit diseases When selecting those special plants for your landscape, always primarily on trees that are not adapted or commonly
“Most people are naturally repulsed by the idea Repellents help reduce the chance of getting a look for healthy, well-grown plants. Always buy from a reputable found in Georgia. However, Imprelis is a new turf herbicide
of something sucking their blood,” said Nancy tick bite, too. It’s important to target the feet, legs nursery with an experienced staff of Texas Certified Nursery and injury reports on ornamentals have received
Professionals. These nurseries are in the business of selling service noinvestigation in Georgia and limited investigation in
Hinkle, an entomologist with the UGA College of and waistline when applying repellents. other states. More non-target species could potentially
Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. “But ticks year-round, and in turn, they depend on loyal customers
to return. Only by selling quality plants can such a nursery be injured or killed by Imprelis. Turf managers should be
can transmit diseases, too.” Reduce ticks around the house by keeping grass operation be assured of their customers continued confidence cautious when using this herbicide especially in areas
and brush cut short. Gray said this not only reduces in their business. that border sensitive species or in areas with potential for
While tick-borne diseases are relatively uncommon places for ticks to live, but exposes them to sunlight, lateral movement in soil.
in Georgia, the Georgia Division of Public Health which can kill them. Plants, like all goods and services, come in a vast array of
reports 50-80 suspected cases of Rocky Mountain shapes, sizes, colors and most importantly, qualities. It is just as Dupont is currently working with twenty certified arborist
important to evaluate plants individually before purchasing as it companies to evaluate claims. The company has
spotted fever each year in addition to a few cases Use tweezers to remove ticks that are attached started a toll free hotline (866-796-4783) for practitioners
of Lyme Disease. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is to skin. Pinch the tick close to the mouthparts to is to carefully inspect a new shirt or a television set. Shopping for
plants by telephone or looking for the least expensive price can to report damage to trees from Imprelis. There is also
the most commonly reported tick-borne disease remove as much as possible. Apply an antiseptic to a website, www.imprelis-facts.com, available to present
be a foolish decision. That old saying, “You get what you pay
in Georgia. Lone star ticks and blacklegged ticks the site immediately after removing a tick. for,” is more often true than false, and certainly can apply to the the latest news about these issues. Dupont is continuing
both can carry human ehrlichiosis, a family of to work on this issue with the Environmental Protection
purchase of new landscape plant materials. Many times you will
sometimes-deadly diseases with a range of flu-like Check your pooch, too find that not all nurseries and garden centers are created equal.
Agency, state regulators and university extension
specialists. We at the University of Georgia would like to
symptoms. While dogs don’t seem to be affected by Rocky be aware of any suspected injury following an Imprelis
Mountain spotted fever, they can suffer joint pain Currently, due to lack of uniform standards in the nursery
application. Please feel free to contact us or your local
In general, a tick has to be attached to its host for from Lyme disease, Gray said. And dogs and cats industry, all plants have vast differences in plant size, as well as
County Extension Agent,www.extension.uga.edu, if you
at least 24 hours to transmit disease. can catch other deadly diseases from ticks. Ask a appearance and quality. Remember, not all sales are bargains.
suspect injury to trees, ornamentals, or other non-target
Please, do shop around. Compare prices before you make that
veterinarian for an appropriate treatment to repel final decision. Paying a little bit extra may make a big difference.
“The diseases most often associated with ticks in ticks. Shrubs and trees are available in the fall typically as container-
Georgia are often typified by the onset of flu-like From our trials, Imprelis is an effective postemergence
grown stock. Container-grown plants are usually available in herbicide for many of the broadleaf species we have in
symptoms, including severe headaches, fever, rash “Check your pets daily for ticks,” Hinkle said. “Run various sizes. One, two, three and five “gallon” sizes are the most Georgia. When properly used and the label is followed,
and a general flu-like condition,” Gray said. “If you your fingers through their coat and remove any common. An old wise man was once asked, “What size plant Imprelis can be a valuable tool for weed management.
have any of these symptoms following a tick bite ticks before they start feeding.” should I buy?” He responded, “What size hole have you dug?” Check www.GeorgiaTurf.com for information regarding
David Rodriguez, Texas Cooperative Extension this and other local turfgrass issues.
Reprinted from www.ugaurbanag.org The Texas A&M University System, Extension Horticulturist
A Growing Disease Problem
in Bays and Other Woody Species
Joel Gramling, Department of Biology, The Citadel
South Carolina’s coastal plant communities have been changing jumps in the distribution of Laurel Wilt. Today there are satellite
over the last eight years. Visitors to barrier islands from Hilton populations as far west as Jackson County in coastal Mississippi,
Head to Dewees Island may have noticed redbay trees (Persea as far south as Miami-Dade County in Florida and as far north as
borbonia) with lots of brown leaves hanging off of their limbs Horry County. There are no recorded outbreaks yet in the adjacent
(See Fig. 1). In the late fall or winter one might assume these counties of these three satellite populations, suggesting that the Figure 1. Understory redbay trees showing laurel wilt symptoms. Figure 2. Redbay ambrosia beetle. Photo courtesy of Michael C.
understory trees are simply dropping their leaves for the season, disease has been transported at least in part by humans. To monitor Photo courtesy of author. Thomas, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
but these are evergreens. This change has little to do with new the spread of laurel wilt, go to http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/foresthealth/ Bugwood.org
residential developments or management practices. South Atlantic laurelwilt/maps/regional_infestation_map_march3_2011.jpg
maritime and swamp forests have been stricken with a new plant Table 1: Plants in the Laurel Family (Lauraceae) found in South
the redbay ambrosia beetle is thought to have originated. Whether
disease called laurel wilt. What we are witnessing is actually a The laurel family includes several notable trees and shrubs in Carolina
ornamental or agricultural, native or introduced, the ultimate
complex biological cascade set in motion by something as small as South Carolina (Table 1) and is most frequent in coastal plant com-
impact of Laurel Wilt on plants in the Lauraceae is unknown at Scientific Name Common Name
the arrival of one or more ¼ inch-long beetles at Port Wentworth munities. Redbay and swampbay (Persea palustris) have been the
this time, but continued vigilance is warranted.
in Savannah, Georgia in 2002. hardest hit species in South Carolina. Many dense stands of these Cinnamomum camphora* camphortree
understory trees have been nearly wiped out in both maritime for-
Plants may not be the only group of taxa to suffer from the spread Lindera benzoin northern spicebush
Laurel wilt is caused by a fungal pathogen that invades the vascular ests (primarily redbay) and swamp forests (primarily swampbay)
of laurel wilt. Larvae of spicebush swallowtail and palamedes
structures of trees and shrubs in the laurel family (Lauraceae). The from the Savannah River to the Francis Marion National Forest. Lindera melissifolia pondberry
swallowtail butterflies are known to feed upon Lauraceous plants
fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) is not known to spread from plant to The recent identification of laurel wilt in Lewis Ocean Bay State
in South Carolina. As the effects of laurel wilt become more Lindera subcoriacea bog spicebush
plant on its own via spores the way that many fungi do. Instead, an Park suggests that this will continue into the near future.
widespread we may witness a domino effect: humans transport a
exotic insect that has become known as the redbay ambrosia beetle
minute exotic insect halfway around the world, which transmits a
Litsea aestivalis pondspice
(Xyleborus glabratus) (Fig. 2) inoculates trees with this pathogenic Sassafras is a widespread tree in South Carolina that has been Persea borbonia redbay
fungal pathogen to native plants, thus reducing the food supply of
fungus. Ambrosia beetles are a diverse group of over 3,000 species shown to die from laurel wilt, but its low density populations and
several native insects while threatening an agricultural enterprise. Persea palustris swampbay
related to bark beetles. Their name comes from the fact that the infrequent occurrence across the Lowcountry have not resulted in
In this age of global connectivity perhaps the cascading effects of
adult typically carves out galleries in dead or dying wood exposing large scale laurel wilt infestations. This is good news for now; but Sassafras albidum sassafras
laurel wilt will provide a lesson on how truly interconnected the
the woody tissue to one or more fungal symbionts. These fungi given the broad distribution of sassafras across the eastern United
natural world is and how vigilant we must be to deal with current
become established inside the beetles’ galleries and put up fruiting States, we should be on the lookout for any instances of sassafras Note: Camphortree was introduced from southeastern Asia and may
and future threatens to our natural systems.
structures that the adults and larvae will feast upon like “the food die-off in South Carolina. While spicebush (Lindera spp.), pond- occur as a planted ornamental or an invasive plant.
of the gods.” Ambrosia beetles have long been known to transport berry (Lindera melissifolia) and pondspice (Litsea aestivalis) are
What can you do? Here are several general guidelines that South
associated species of fungi, but the laurel wilt pathogen is the first vulnerable to Laurel Wilt, current research suggests that the redbay
Carolinians can adhere to in order to avoid spreading Laurel Wilt:
ambrosia beetle symbiont to be associated with a lethal vascular ambrosia beetle prefers large diameter stems that are less frequent
wilt disease. in these species. Nonetheless, pondspice does grow large enough •
· Restrict the transport of firewood, logs, driftwood, mulch, Figure 3. Wound in redbay tree and an ambrosia beetle who found it.
in some areas to warrant concern and pondberry is a federally and other unprocessed wood of redbay or other known Photo courtesy of R. Scott Cameron, Advanced Forest Protection,
What is particularly disturbing about this beetle-fungus dynamic endangered shrub that should be closely watched for any signs of hosts, out of counties (or other designated areas) in which Inc., Bugwood.org
is that the aromatic properties of bay trees, sassafras and other laurel wilt. laurel wilt is known to occur.
laurel family members may actually attract the beetles to a living
host tree. Something as simple as a broken branch or deer rub can A close relative of our native bay trees is an introduced crop spe- •
· When camping, use firewood from local sources only.
produce a scented wound. The female beetle may be drawn to cies: avocado (Persea americana). Florida farmers and agricul- Don’t take home leftover wood; burn it all before leaving
the wounded tree (See Fig. 3) and attempt to carve out a gallery. tural agents are concerned about laurel wilt, because it has been your campsite.
She may be unsuccessful at colonizing the living tissue and so fly shown to readily infect commercial avocado plants in Florida
to a rotten individual nearby, but she has just exposed the woody where it is a multi-million dollar enterprise. An even greater fear is •
· Dispose of wood from killed redbays and other laura-
tissues of the living tree to the laurel wilt pathogen. In such a sce- that laurel wilt might get to California (the U.S. leader in avocado ceous species as locally as possible.
nario the living tree will then exhibit localized or even complete production) and Mexico (the world leader in avocado production).
die-back, providing lots of dead or dying tissue for redbay ambro- •
· Inspect Lauraceous plants in nurseries or containers for
sia beetles to colonize. Another introduced Lauraceous plant is camphortree (Cinnamomum signs of Laurel Wilt and avoid transporting or importing
camphora), a common ornamental in the Southeast which the such plants unless you are certain that they have not been
The effects of laurel wilt were first noted in 2003 as redbay trees South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council has identified as an infected. Purchase only plants that have been inspected
were dying on Hilton Head Island. A year later the beetle and fun- invasive plant that is a “severe threat” to plant communities in the by Clemson’s Dept. of Plant Industry or other official
gus were identified as the culprits. By 2005 laurel wilt had spread coastal plain. Unfortunately camphortree has shown resistance agency.
to a dozen counties primarily around the mouth of the Savannah to laurel wilt and may not be as susceptible as our native laurels. •
· Report signs of Laurel Wilt to the SC Forestry Commission:
River in South Carolina and Georgia. One population had also Camphortree’s ability to survive or even avoid laurel wilt might be (Laurie Reid, (803) 896-8830, firstname.lastname@example.org )
popped up in northern Florida. This was the first of many observed associated with the fact that it is native to southeastern Asia where
SCNLA /SCLTA 8th Annual Fall Field Day An Outreach of the UGA Center for Urban Agriculture:
Wednesday, September 28, 2011
Lake House, Sandhill Research & Education Center, Columbia, SC
FALL ARMYWORMS IN TURF
8:45 - 9:30 a.m. Pick up name badges & registration. Visit with Exhibitors Will Hudson, Cheri Abraham and Kris Braman, UGA Entomologists
9:30 - 10:30 a.m. Landscaping the Carolina Yard Mary Nivens, Clemson University In late summer, almost every year, caterpillars in-
Landscaping practices can affect water quality, both positively and negatively. Learn how plant selection and grouping, proper use vade turfgrass throughout Georgia. The damage to
of fertilizers and pesticides, compost practices and homeowner-scale best management practices can protect and improve water
established turf is mostly aesthetic, but newly sod-
quality. This presentation will also introduce you to advanced tools like rain gardens, rain water harvesting, and pervious pavement.
ded or sprigged areas can be more severely dam-
Creating a more sustainable landscape for homeowners may also make for more sustainable clientele!
.5 SC Pesticide Applicators’ Recertification Credit
aged or even killed. While there are several caterpil-
lars that can damage turfgrass, in late summer most
10:30 - 11:00 a.m. Break & visit with exhibitors of the problems are from fall armyworms.
11:00 - Noon Strategies for Dealing with Invasive Plants Randy Westbrooks, U.S. Geological Survey Hot, dry weather can intensify fall armyworm prob-
This program offers a strategic plan for identifying, preventing and eradicating invasive plants that can harm our environment. lems when egg-laying adults concentrate their eggs
1 SC Pesticide Applicators’ Recertification Credit in irrigated, green turf. At least some cultivars of all
warm season grasses are susceptible. Cool season
Noon - 1:00 p.m. Lunch and visit with exhibitors grasses like tall fescue are very favorable for fall ar-
myworm growth and development too, and do not
1:00 - 2:00 p.m. Back to the Basics Jimmy Walters, SC Forestry Commission regenerate as readily as the stoloniferous grasses.
Based on our experience with a statewide tree planting project, it seems we need to get back to the basics of tree selection and
planting. This presentation will deal with the question, “Are we planting bad trees, or are we planting trees badly?” Little things Fall armyworm adults migrate northward every year
can make a big difference, not only in initial survival of trees, but especially in the long-term survival in the landscape. We’ll look from southern overwintering areas. Adult armyworm
at examples of good and bad tree selection and planting techniques, and how to greatly improve the quality of our work.
moths are active at night and females lay eggs in er indicators of armyworm infestations may include
2:00 - 3:00 p.m. Pesticide Safety Equipment: Ya’ Gotta Use it Right! masses of 50 to several hundred. These night-flying birds or even paper wasps that use the fall army-
Dr. Robert Bellinger, Clemson University, John Hayes, Outdoor Appearance moths are attracted to lights and to lighter colored worms as food.
There is a variety of equipment and personal protective equipment available to keep you safe while using pesticides and other surfaces. Egg masses on structures around turf
chemicals in the landscape or nursery. However, you must use this equipment correctly to get its full protection. This session will (eaves and gutters, fence and porch posts, flags on Control of armyworms and other turf caterpillars
help you select the correct equipment for the appropriate job and to use it RIGHT! Proper cleaning and care of this equipment will golf courses) and even on taller foliage plants can is relatively simple once the problem is identified.
also be covered. 1 SC Pesticide Applicators Recertification Credit. be the first indicators of incipient infestations. There are several pesticides from which to choose
depending upon the site you are treating. Consult
The first 100 to pre-register will receive a FREE Fall Day tee shirt, sponsored by a grant from the Department of Agriculture. Eggs hatch in a few days, and the young larvae be- the UGA Pest Management Handbook or your local
Tee shirts will be given out at the registration desk. gin to feed on leaf tissue. Damage from small larvae Extension Agentfor recommendations. See the links
may at first look like skeletonizing, but as the worms below for contact information. Read and follow all
Complete Brochure and ON LINE REGISTRATION AT: www.scnla.com grow, the entire leaf is consumed. Small larvae at label directions when using pesticides.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- this time are easier to control and have inflicted less
damage than full grown (35-50 mm long) larvae. Full Armyworms are most active late in the day and at
Fall Field Day 2011 Registration Form grown larvae will soon pupate in upper soil/thatch night, so pesticide applications should be made as
Deadline to Register September 22, 2011 • No refunds after September 24, 2011 layer and will not be susceptible to insecticides at late as practical for best results. It is not necessary
this point. to water after application but an application rate
Company__________________________________________ To pay by credit card: MC Visa Am Exp of 20 - 25 gallons of solution per acre as a minimum
Address___________________________________________ Exp date___________________ Armyworm larvae are most active early and late in will ensure good coverage. Cutting the grass prior
the day, spending the hotter hours down near the to application may improve control, but do not cut
City______________________________________________ card number______________________________________ soil in the shade. Larvae feed for 2 to 3 weeks before grass for 1 –3 days after application.
State_________ Zip_______________________________ name on card_____________________________________ pupating in the soil. Moths emerge 10 - 14 days later.
The entire life cycle from egg to adult moth takes In addition to the birds and paper wasps mentioned
phone_____________________________________________ signature_________________________________________ about 28 days in the warm weather of August and above, a number of other insects feed on army-
Name(s) of attendees_________________________________ Please make your check payable to: September. worms, including tiger beetles and other ground
__________________________________________________ SC Nursery & Landscape Assn beetles. Fall armyworms, like many other turf in-
If there is any doubt about whether worms are pres- festing caterpillars can also be heavily parasitized
__________________________________________________ Mail to: ent, pouring soapy water on the grass (1/2 oz. dish- by tiny wasps that kill the caterpillars and cause no
SCNLA • 4661 Crystal Drive • Columbia, SC 29206 washing soap/gallon water) will bring them up very harm to humans or pets. These natural enemies can
For more information, 803-743-4284 or 803-787-0996 quickly. Heavily infested turf will also have visible be conserved by spot rather than blanket spraying
__________________________________________________ greenish-black fecal pellets on the soil surface. Oth- and properly timing control efforts.
@ $45 per person = $____________ (includes Lunch) Register on line at www.scnla.com
Photo credits: Large Armyworm and small armyworms on leaves – Kris Braman, UGA Entomologist
Paper wasp feeding on caterpillar – Cheri Abraham, PhD Candidate, UGA Entomology Department
WHAT’S NEW at SCHI 2012? The NEW Face of SNA
Three New Programs are scheduled for SCHI 2012 –
While the complete program and brochure will be ready in early December, we thought The Southern Nursery Association (SNA) is undergoing an extreme makeover. There’s no
you might like to know about these new events, so you can work them in to your schedule. radical surgery involved, but it’s certainly more than a fresh coat of paint or a new logo. This will
SC, NC and GA Pesticide Applicators’ Licenses re-certification credits never be a tv reality show, but it’s a story worth telling.
have been applied for the presentations that may qualify. After several years of economic pressure, industry change and consolidation, the 112-
You will be able to register on line and on the usual SCHI form in December. year old association found itself in a downward spiral. But a dedicated board of directors and
a core group of past presidents and members decided the association was worth saving.
Get Prepared for Spring – Spring BOOT CAMP nematode sampling, and irrigation water testing as an integral part It’s no more business as usual for SNA. The future focus will be on issues that cross state
of your management plan. We will discuss when you should use lines and impact the region. Vital industry services, current news and relevant information will
Not just for Garden Center employees! specific tests, how to properly take and submit samples, and how to
Friday, February 3, 2012 9:00 am – 1:15 pm Room 101 interpret your lab results. Using these basic services and following be delivered online through a new website scheduled to go live very soon. This new website will
Registration Fee $40 before 1/22/12 $50 after 1/22/12 their recommendations will lead to healthier plants - saving you time, feature a virtual marketplace, more than 10,000 pages of horticultural research, industry forums,
Pre-registration suggested – space limited money, and headaches. blogs, email alerts, and more.
9:00 am - 10:00 am The Best and Brightest new Annual and
At a recent board meeting, several committees were designated and will be functioning
12:15 pm - 1:15 pm Make Your Cash Registers Ring with Color soon. These new committees will assist with efforts to provide communication, education,
Perennials – Results from the University of Georgia Trial Gardens Felicity Henderson, Felicity’s Flowers information and marketing opportunities throughout the region. In addition, the annual business
10:00 am - 11:00 Top 10 LEAST WANTED Pests in the Garden, Why sell a 4-pack of annuals when you can sell so much more.
Ideas for add on sales – some of the best combinations to make your meeting and research conference have been scheduled and will be held in conjunction with
Meg William, Clemson University the GSHE in Mobile, AL in January of 2012.
A preview of the pests to look out for in spring gardens: How to cash register ring.
You can expect to see many changes and lots of activity in the coming months as the
identify and control these pests in the home flower and vegetable
gardens. Preventive procedures will also be discussed. Round Tables Issues and Lunch new website is launched, committees developed, member surveys conducted, regional news
Registration Fee $ 25 before 1/22/12 $30 after 1/22/12 and information disseminated once again, and industry leaders recognized through the SNA
11:00 am - 11:15 am Break Lunch is included awards program. The end result of this makeover is sure to leave everyone smiling as SNA moves
Thursday, February 2, 2012 • 12:15 pm - 1:30 pm • Room 203 forward with a new face!
11:15 am - 12:15 pm How to Take Useful Samples Pre-Registration strongly Recommended! Space is limited to 40
Cory Tanner, Clemson University Pick a topic and pull up a chair. Discuss Industry Issues with your
Keeping plants healthy is the key to avoiding insect pests, diseases, and For more information on the SNA, go to www.sna.org.
peers, share ideas, and enjoy lunch.
other stress-related problems, and managing plants to avoid stress is
dependent on an overall understanding of the environmental conditions Topics of Discussion:
in which they are being grown. This session will explain how you can
incorporate analytical services like soil testing, plant tissue analysis, Employee Motivation and Retention
Discussion Leader, Derek Wade
Production Software/GPS/Technology/Job Tracking
Discussion Leader, Missy Mosny
Discussion Leader, Sarah White
Immigration/ I-9’ s
Discussion Leader, TBA / Representative from SC- LLR
Surviving Shrinking Margins
Discussion Leader, Marge Rudisill
New Adcock Ad to go here
Breakfast with Ambrosia Beetles AKA
Solutions for Scale Insects and Borers -
More Than Just Two Bricks
Registration Fee $ 35 before 1/22/12 $45 after 1/22/12 Printer will scan and place this time
Breakfast Included Room 203
Saturday, February 4 6:45 am – 9:00 am
Pete Schultz, Virginia Tech
Chris Ranger, USDA
Juang-Horng “JC” Chong, Clemson Univeristy
Scale insects and various wood boring insects are two of the most
damaging pest groups of ornamental and shade trees grown in nursery
and landscape. Effective integrated management of these pests is
possible with an understanding of their life history, monitoring methods
and available management tools. This presentation will provide the
audience with information on the life history of scale insects and wood
boring insects (ambrosia beetles, clearwing moths and flathead borers),
the methods in detecting and monitoring their activity, and effective
management tools (e.g. pesticides and cultural control).
CITRUS for South Carolina
by Darren Sheriff
Citrus are subtropical or warm temperature plants them around the tree and then place a plastic
adapted to growing in sandy soils along floodplains. sheet over it. This will give a few extra degrees of
To a degree, many parts of South Carolina greatly protection, which is sometimes all that is needed. A
resemble Southeast Asia, the native habitats of spotlight placed at the bottom of the tree, pointed
citrus. Rainfall patterns are also very similar. up will also work. Just remember to have it removed
at sunrise or you risk the chance of burning the tree
Like many plants, citrus prefer well drained, loamy or having it break dormancy. A southern or western
soil. Citrus can succeed in heavier clays as long exposure will also give the 8-10 hours of sunlight that
as they are well drained. No citrus can stand citrus enjoy most of the year.
wet feet and will rapidly decline under persistently
wet conditions. That being said, citrus need to be There are many, many varieties of Citrus. Books upon
well watered at all times. They can be somewhat books have been written about the cross breeding
drought tolerant depending upon variety, but all will of the different varieties, both of natural crosses and
do better if given sufficient moisture. Remember, man made. While you may not be able to grow the
Winter is the drier season and special attention sweetest of Oranges in the upstate, there are some
will need to be given to citrus during this time. cultivars that will work. Ambersweet, Hamlin and
Parson Brown are just a few. Grapefruits are also a
When planting citrus it is always a good idea to have good choice to try. There is a Ruby Red Grapefruit
the soil tested. Citrus appear to be more sensitive being grown in Columbia that produces some of the
to deficiencies and when they enter a new flush most delicious fruit I have ever tasted. No protection,
of growth. New growth will immediately show the no special treatment, just the perfect micro-climate.
deficiencies. Correcting them is a challenge after Kumquats and their hybrids are also possible. Lemons
that! Slow release fertilizers with a ratio of 8-8-8 are and Limes need to be avoided in the upstate areas,
excellent, especially if it also contains micronutrients they are the most frost sensitive. There are a few
such as iron, magnesium and manganese. A foliar decent Lemons and Limes that the rest of the state
feed (spraying the plants so the leaves absorb can try (Meyer and Harvey Lemons- Persian and
the food) with fish emulsion is also a good idea. Kaffir Limes). Tangerines or Satsumas (Kimbrough,
One of the very best fertilizers on the market is Owari and Early St. Anne) are more good possibilities
put out by Espoma…..It is called Citrus-Tone. If to try. This is just a tiny fraction of what is out there, a
Citrus-Tone is not available, the water soluable little digging will uncover many more.
fertilizer used on Acid Loving plants is the next best
thing. You will want to start feeding the trees in Purchasing Citrus trees can be somewhat of a
late February. Feed them about every 3 months, challenge due to many quarantines that have
stopping by Labor Day. This will give the tree time been put in place however. Charleston County and
to harden off the new growth before it gets cold. Beaufort County are under quarantine for Citrus
Greening Disease. No citrus leaves, stems, twigs,
When it comes to where in the yard you should plants or any other part of the plant can be moved
plant a citrus, there are a few factors that can from these two counties. There are quarantines in
come into play. South Carolina does occasionally place in many other parts of the country also, and
have some really cold snaps, below 28 degrees. A PLEASE, under NO CIRCUMSTANCES should you bring
southern or western exposure is the best. If you can any Citrus trees out of Florida, this is a major violation
plant it close to the house or a brick wall, this will of the law.
give it some extra protection. The building or wall will
absorb heat during the day and give it back to the McKenzie Farms up in Olanta (http://mckenzie-
tree at night. A mature citrus tree will handle down farms.com) and Woodlanders in Aiken (http://
to 28 degrees or lower for a brief period of time. All woodlanders.net) are two places that you can
of this is subject to how long the freeze is and how purchase cold hardy Citrus trees. They do not fall in
much time the tree has had to go dormant prior to the quarantine areas.
the freeze event. Younger trees should have some I am always willing to help out with your Citrus
additional protection. One of the most festive ways questions, be it pest problems, where the
is to get some C-7 or C-9 Christmas lights the old quarantines are, or cultivars to try, I can be reached
ones, the new ones don‘t produce any heat. Wrap at TheCitrusGuy@netzero.com
For all my gardening friends, please check out: http://www.thecitrusguy.blogspot.com
GREEN GONE BAD
Green Gone Bad
Featured Ornamental Plant – ELAEAGNUS PUNGENS (Thorny Olive, Silverthorn)
Featured Ornamental Plant: Elaeagnus pungens (Thorny Olive, Silverthorn)
Some exotic ornamental plants behave badly when they escape from the place they
are planted. Infestations of these plants have negative impacts on nature. One of
these plants is Elaeagnus pungens; common name: Thorny Olive or Silverthorn.
Elaeagnus pungens is a dense evergreen shrub in the family
Elaeagnaceae (not a true olive). The native range of Elaeagnus
pungens is Eastern Asia. It was introduced in the U.S. as an
ornamental plant in 1830. It has been frequently planted in
hedgerows and on highway right-of-ways and is also used for
landscaping. It has escaped ornamental plantings and begun to
spread into natural areas in the midlands and coastal plains of
South Carolina. An example of a severe infestation can be seen
at The Audubon Society Wannamaker Preserve on the north side
of Hwy.6, five miles east of Saint Matthews, S.C. A project to
control this infestation is ongoing by members of the Columbia Audubon Society in order to improve
habitats for native birds and restore the native plant community.
Elaeagnus pungens shrubs typically have multiple stems and very dense
branches with long shoots extending from the top. Twigs are brown with
brown scales and hairy when young. The leaves are alternate, oval to
elliptical, with irregular wavy margins and silvery surfaces especially
underneath, 2-4 inches in length and thick. Axillary clusters of small,
sweet-smelling, white to brown flowers develop in the fall. Fruit are
small, red, dotted with small brown scales and develop in the spring.
Thorny Olive resembles two other exotic olives, autumn olive and
Russian olive which also have silvery foliage. It also can take the form of a climbing plant, growing
over and shading out other plants. The name Silverthorn, comes from the thorns on its branches.
Elaeagnus pungens often becomes a problem when it escapes from
planted landscapes into natural areas. Because Thorny Olive is a
fast-growing, weedy ornamental, it can grow and thrive in a variety
of conditions, and can tolerant shade, drought, and salt. Mammals
and birds disperse seed, widening its area of distribution.
Reproduction also occurs via stem sprouts. Silverthorn can spread
and climb into trees, leading to the displacement of native
vegetation. When established, an infestation reduces biodiversity,
wildlife habitat quality, available forage, and native insect life.
It may not be widely known among horticulturalists and
landscapers that this plant can be harmful to natural habitats.
Please consider removing this species from your inventory and
gardens. There are several native shrubs that can be sold and
planted in its place. These include the evergreens Morella
cerifera (wax myrtle), Ilex vomitoria (yaupon holly), Ilex glabra
(inkberry), Ilex opaca (American holly), Baccharis halimifolia
(groundseltree), Osmanthus americanus (wild olive or
devilwood), Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel), or Leucothoe Escaped plant
fontanesiana (highland doghobble).
Please visit http://www.invasive.org/browse/subinfo.cfm?sub=4526 for more information.
Rain Garden Plant Selections
Plants Tolerant of Drought and Flooding
By Sarah A. White, Clemson University Nursery Extension Specialist
Red Columbine | Canadian Columbine| Wild Columbine | Rock-lily
Site Conditions Growth Habit
Light: Light shade, tolerates full sun if Height & Width: 1-2.5’ h x 1-1.5’ w
daylight temperatures not too hot.
Zones: 3 - 8 Spacing: 2’ – 3’
Origin: Eastern North America Type: Herbaceous perennial
Moisture: Dry to moderately moist soils Habit: Mounded, clumping.
Growth rate: Rapid, freely self-sow, Flower: Showy, nodding, blood red with
plants short-lived (3-5 years). Seedlings yellow (dominant) flowers to pink with
rapidly colonize gardens yellow flowers from March through July,
usually 6 week bloom period.
Soil: Well-drained, loose, slightly acid. Foliage: Basal and alternating up stem.
Prefers sandy loam with organic matter, Either biternate (two groups of three) or
but tolerates a range of soil types – triternate (groups of three leaflets). Dies
even clay if adequate organic matter back to ground in mid to late autumn
present. or earlier under drought conditions.
‘Corbett’: 8-10” tall with pale yellow flowers. Does not tolerate heat as well
as other A. canadensis cultivars. Prefers cool night temperatures.
Selected by Richard Simon of Bluemont Nursery in Monkton, MD.
‘Little Lanterns’: 12” tall, dwarf form of the original species. Flower color is similar
to original species. Foliage is vigorous. Very similar to ‘Canyon Vistas1.’
Geographical variants1, 2:
Aquilegia canadensis var. australis – Florida variety. Triternate basal leaves.
Aquilegia canadensis var. coccinea – Slightly larger than straight species, “stout”
spurs (tubes) and oblong sepals.
Aquilegia canadensis var. latiuscula – Triternate basal leaves and slender floral
History: The Aquilegia genus on the flowers that are reminiscent Cultivation of red columbine
consists of about 65 species, of eagle talons (from Latin began in Europe and America
20 of which are native to North “aquila” for “eagle”) or from the in the mid-1600s. Aquilegia
America. The Aquilegia genus Latin word “aquilex” for “water canadensis is now considered
was named either after the spurs finder” as nectar is abundant in an “old-fashioned” garden
floral spurs2, 3.
Continued on page 40
Continued from page 39
organic material is present with sun-tolerant perennials such
in the soil. Red columbine is as Asclepias tuberosa (Butterfly
ideally suited for rain gardens, Milkweed, summer blooms),
naturalized or wildflower gardens, Baptisia australis (Blue false indigo,
cottage gardens, and woodland
gardens. Plants perform best in
spring blooming), Conoclinium
coelestinum (Hardy ageratum, Nursery and Landscape Association
light shade with a few hours of summer – fall blooming), Iris
direct sunlight, though they are sibirica (Siberian iris, late spring
tolerant of full sun conditions if blooms), Muhlenbergia capillaris
adequate moisture is present. (Muhly grass), and Veronica
spicata (Spiked speedwell,
Care: Of the columbine
species, A. canadensis is least
susceptible to leaf miner, which
mid- to late-summer blooms).
It can also be combined with
light shade, shrubby species
plant. Native Americans utilized can significantly disfigure other including evergreen shrubs
A. canadensis as an aphrodisiac columbine species and hybrids. Mahonia bealei (Leatherleaf
(perfume) and for various
Be careful not to overwater mahonia, yellow flowers in late The Louis P. Parsons Outstanding Contribution to the
purposes; crushed seeds and
during summer, as crowns are
relatively susceptible to rot when
winter, textural contrast) and
Ilex vomitoria (Yaupon holly), Horticultural / Nursery Industry:
roots were use to treat ailments environmental conditions are or deciduous shrubs such as
including headaches, heart hot. Cutting back spent seed- Callicarpa americana (American This award is for someone who has been active for a number of years in our industry, although not
trouble, sore throat, as a salve for
poison ivy, and fever.
heads or flowers can encourage beautyberry, vivid purple fruit in fall limited to this. It’s for someone who has helped direct our industry in a positive way by being active,
a tidier appearance and may through early winter), Fothergilla
also promote renewed flowering. gardenii (Dwarf fothergilla, white supportive, and giving of their time and/or resources for the good of our state’s horticultural industry.
Features: From early March flowers spring, red/orange fall A person who, over the years, has worked in nursery production or management, horticultural educa-
through early summer, red Design considerations: color), Hamamelis vernalis or H.
columbine creates a spectacular tion and/or support, landscape installation and/or landscape management. Someone who, because of
Red columbine look best when virginiana (Ozark witch hazel or
floral display of light, nodding planted in clumps of three or more. witch hazel, red, yellow, or orange his or her pro-active efforts, has helped shape our industry into what it is today. The nominees for this
red and yellow flowers. Red
columbine is pollinated by long-
Grouping columbine permits flowers in later winter/early spring), award can come from anyone who’s a member of our state industry.
concentration of the flowers into Itea virginica (Virginia sweetspire,
tongued nectar-feeders such as a cloud of color. As columbine white, fragrant flowers summer,
hummingbirds, butterflies, and
hawk moths. Flower morphology
reseed prolifically, plan plant
placement in the garden so that
red fall color), and many other
rain garden species.
Outstanding SCNLA Member:
(funnel-shaped spur) prevents colonizing seedlings enhance or
small bees from accessing nectar. contribute to the garden design An Award for an SCNLA Member who during the past year has gone above and beyond in at least of
Plants selected from:
goal. In South Carolina, the floral Rain Gardens: A Rain Garden Manual the following areas: time, talents and influence freely given to improve themselves and/or their busi-
Siting: Red columbine is the show typically begins in early-mid for South Carolina Author: Katie
only columbine native to eastern Giacalone
ness, their employees, our industry, our environment, our political clout on the state and/or federal
March and continues into late
North America and its range April or early May. In southern Rain Gardening in the South: level, and the public’s perception about our industry. Or to a person who has successfully overcome a
extends south from Nova Scotia Ecologically Designed Gardens for
climates, columbine foliage can Drought, Deluge, and Everything in specific obstacle in their business. Or through planning, design, installation, and environmental stew-
through Florida, where it is now be semi-evergreen, appearing
considered endangered4. Its when average temperatures
Between. Authors Helen Kraus and ardship, been outstanding in their field or work. Or a Retail Garden Center, it’s owner, or employee of
habitat encompasses a range of increase to above 40 °F. Rain Gardens: Managing water the garden center who has through display, new ideas, advertising, labeling, industry promotions, and
soil and moisture gradients. Red sustainably in the garden and designed
columbine can be found along landscape. Authors: Nigel Dunnett and
a general overall neat, clean appearance been outstanding in their field. The recipient should be a
Red columbine is the most
the edges/borders of hardwood vigorous columbine species, and Andy Clayden company or individual whose professionalism, work ethic, and stability has supported and represented
and conifer forests, in rocky, thus is a good plant choice for our state industry well. The nominees for this award can come from one’s self, an employee, or others
wooded hillsides, ledges, slopes, References:
a back of border plant or as a Armitage, A.M. 2008. Herbaceous who are members of our industry.
marshy areas, and open glades. screen. As the red columbine Perennial Plants. 3rd ed. Stipes
floral show lasts only around Publishing LLC. Chicago.
Red columbine is tolerant of a
Outstanding Horticultural Student:
6-weeks, it is important to plan 2
Nold, R. 2003. Columbines: Aquilegia,
wide range of soil and moisture companion plantings to provide Paraquilegia, and Semiaquilegia.
conditions as long as adequate additional garden backbone Timber Press. Portland, Oregon.
Rook, E.J.S. 2002. Aquilegia canadensis,
An award presented to a student who is pursuing a degree in some aspect of the horticulture profes-
when red columbine begin to Wild Columbine. Accessed 2 August
fade in late summer/early fall. 2011. http://www.rook.org/earl/ sion. A student who has excelled and stands out above and beyond others through grades, interest,
Suggested companion plants bwca/nature/herbs/aquilegiacan.
range in adaptation to sun or html participation, enthusiastic, self motivation, willingness to learn, and over all attitude. The nominees for
Wennerberg, S. and M. Skinner. this award can be 2 year students as well as those striving for higher degrees. Nominations may come
shade conditions, so when utilizing
suggested plants analyze specific 2004. Plant guide Red Columbine
(Aquilegia canadensis L.) USDA- from teachers, professors, department heads, or if employed their employer.
site conditions and choose plants Natural Resource Conservation
best adapted to that site. Service, National Plant Data Center,
Red columbine can be paired Baton Rouge, LA.
Awards Program Nomination Form
Deadline for Entry: November 30, 2011
Mail to: Nominating Committee / SCNLA • 4661 Crystal Drive • Columbia, SC 29206 All Natural Potting Mix - Who cares if it’s a
blended, PH balanced, Bark Media! Dirt is Dirt
Humates and Specially Blended Slow Release
Fertilizers - Who cares about root building,
Name of Nominee: _______________________________________________ healthier and hardier plants! Fertilizer is Fertilizer
Nominees Firm/School: ___________________________________________ Spin Out - Who cares if the roots circle in the
Nominees Address: ______________________________________________
container! A pot is a pot isn’t it?
Staking - Who cares if the trunks aren’t straight!
phone and fax numbers: __________________________________________ Crooked trunks have more character don’t they?
Pruning - Who cares about uniformity and con-
Category: (please check one)
We’ve Been Accused sistency! Unpruned plants fill in better and have
better shape don’t they?
( ) Outstanding Contribution to the Horticulture/Nursery Industry of Paying Too Who Cares?
( ) Outstanding SCNLA Member We Do!!
( ) Outstanding Horticulture Student Much Attention “Growers of 15-30 gallon quality
to our Plants... containerized plant material”
Based on the Awards Descriptions, please write a narrative description of why this person
is being nominated. Any pertinent information, newspaper articles, other awards, stories,
contributions, photos and/or plans may be attached and included. 1-800-255-0928
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to accept the budget with the proposed changes. It was
seconded and all approved.
Upcoming Events: Foster reported the joint program
with the SC Landscape and Turf Grass Association on
business management for Landscape Contractors
is scheduled for August 2. Foster has been including
brochures in dues notices and will do a broadcast fax
South Carolina Nursery & Landscape Association in late June. Registration for the event is already on the
Board Meeting Minutes website. The Fall Field Day is scheduled for September 28.
June 16, 2011 Included in the grant requests were funds for a marketing
seminar to be held in February. Foster asked if the Board
Palmetto Agri-Business Council Conference Room, SC wanted her to plan a nursery tour for 2012. They said yes
and made suggestions for possible locations. Foster will
Present: Kirk Young, Kari Whitely, Tom Young, Don motion was made for Foster to contact Helms-Briscoe follow up.
Brookshire, David Rickenbaker, Carson Aull and Mandi about our 2015 contract in Myrtle Beach. Forster reported
Cothran that the ANLA sponsored Webinar on I-9 audits offered to Research Endowment Fund:
several southern states had 94 participants but none of Foster asked the Board to start thinking of possible fund
Also Present: Jackie Moore, Donna Foster, Sarah White, them were from SC. It was sad that no one from SCNLA raising ideas for the REF.
and Gary Spires participated when others felt it was worthwhile.
Specialty Crop Grants: Foster reported that the
President Kirk Young called the meeting to order at 9:35 Specialty Crop Grants: SC Department of Agriculture Specialty Crops Grant
am. He introduced Kari Whitley who was unable to attend Foster reported that the SC Department of Agriculture reimbursement of $8,600 for 2010-11 had been received.
the first meeting of the year. He said he hoped everyone Specialty Crops Grant reimbursement of $8,600 for 2010- She had written a grant proposal for 2011-12 for $24,000.
was having a good spring or at least better than last year. 11 had been received. She had written a grant proposal The funds would be used for 6 programs – some existing,
He said the Charleston area was in a drought situation. for 2011-12 for $24,000. The funds would be used for 6 some new. We should hear in a few weeks if the proposal
He said that his company and other landscapers in the programs – some existing, some new. was approved.
Charleston area had been audited by The SC Department
of Labor, Licensing and Regulation. From the news reports SCHI 2012: Research Endowment Fund Update: Foster asked the
it looked like “E-verify” would become mandatory and Sponsorship – Foster suggested that there be a sponsorship group to start thinking of fund raising projects for the REF.
that Spires would give a full report in his legislative update. committee for SCHI. Other groups are very successful at The REF’s year end is June 30. The financial files will go to
This brought up a discussion on the shortage of labor for raising sponsorship funds. Young appointed McAbee as the CPA along with the SCNLA files later in July.
agriculture. The new Immigration legislation in Alabama sponsorship chairman. Several board members started
has growers there very concerned with labor shortages lists of their suppliers that might be sponsors. Foster will Clemson Update: White reported that she was heading
and a preview of what could happen in SC. It was order “sponsor” ribbons to place in their booths and up a grant to collect information on production nursery
suggested that students in FFA might be a good source sponsors will be announced during the show. We will water run-off. And depending in the results, may be able
for summer help and internships and future employees. again hold the silent auction and Marge Rudisill will be the to get a grant to develop better ways to control water run
Foster will follow up with contacts to FFA leaders. chair. There was a discussion adding a new social event off. The CU Horticulture
to SCHI but no final decision was made.
Executive Director’s Report: SC Department of Agriculture Update: Moore reported
Foster discussed The Risk Management Agency’s possible There was a discussion about hotel contacts for 2012. We that the SCDA has a new program that sends text
changes to the crop insurance program. The grower already have the 2012 contract with the Sheraton Myrtle messages to participants with the latest farmers market
members of the Board reviewed the information and Beach but The Breakers contact is done from year to events and crop approvals. She also passed out a
said it didn’t look like it would be much help for nursery year. It was decided to not have a contract for rooms brochure on the new Columbia Farmers Market.
stock growers. Foster reported that Scott Gear, with the with The Breakers in 2012 since we were obligated to fill
US Department of Labor, wage and Hour division, had ours room block at the Sheraton (since the Sheraton and Legislative Update: Spires reported that the SC General
retired. Gear had been good to work with in the past and the Convention Center are both owned by the City of Assembly was back in session trying to finish up business
at the present time his replacement has not been named. Myrtle Beach, using the convention center is contingent for this session. Topics include immigration, re-districting.
There was a discussion on the discount prescription on blocking rooms at the Sheraton). The current immigration legislation would make e-verify
cards that had been offered to the Association by Rx mandatory but the exemption for growers is still in place.
Cut. Foster had gone to the website and reviewed Budget: Other southern states are enacting their own immigration
participating pharmacies. Board members had heard of The Board reviewed the 2011-12 Budget prepared legislation but also dealing with elements that may not
similar programs but there was great concern on “what by Foster. The budget reflected a short fall. Possible be constitutional. The SC Unemployment tax went up
the catch” was and a hesitance to give them to members adjustments discussed were raising dues which have not dramatically for many of the brackets this past year but
without more information. SCNLA had exhibited at “ A SC been raised since 2003, getting sponsors for SCHI, stop new adjustments have been added to help ease this.
Taste” in May. This event promotes SC commodities to the the CLT program, publish the membership directory on a The budget for SC was not as bad as anticipated. There
SC General Assembly and their staff on the State House cd, stop printing the magazine and post it on line. After seems to be a compromise on changes in the Pesticide
grounds. Foster said it was a good event but since we a long discussion it was decided to raise active member Applicator’s licensing question that a few legislators
didn’t really have food to give out we could use our time dues to $125, which is still in line with surrounding state questioned. Spires reminded everyone that the Intrastate
and resources better at other events. The PABC legislative nursery associations and much less than other industries. DOT number is required by November 1, 2011.
breakfast had gone well. The turn out was good for the There was a motion to raise active member dues to $125
first year. The Legislators really like the gerbera daisies that per year and to raise bronze club member dues to $200, Old Business: There was no old business.
we gave out. Foster asked the board if SCNLA should silver will remain $300 and Gold $500 to effective August 1,
use the meeting procurement company Helms-Briscoe 2011. The motion was seconded and all approved. Foster New Business: There was no new business.
to negotiate our future hotel contracts. She had spoken will survey advertisers about having the magazine on line
with representatives of these companies. We would not only and report their comments back to the board. Other There was a motion to adjourn. It was seconded, all
pay any fees for their use. There was a discussion and changes: the CLT test will be dropped. There was a motion approved. The meeting was adjourned at 1:40 pm
Figure 1. A swarm of Bradford pear seedlings
Bradford (Callery) Pear:
developing in a stand of native grasses.
They arose from the clump of landscape trees in
the background. Photo courtesy of author.
An Invasive Plant Problem
By Bill Stringer
Like most of us, Bradford Pears have a dark side.......
Bradford Pear (Pyrus calleryana) has forbs, shrubs and native tree seedlings. produce seedlings with long, sturdy,
endured a long history of ambivalence. This will dramatically reduce the woody thorns (See figure 3). So the
Its huge show of white flowers in native plant diversity of the site. A trees that develop from the dense stand
early spring has made it a very popular site that might contain an attractive, of seedlings in Figure 1 will grow into
landscape tree in home, urban and interesting community of native a hostile thicket that will be dangerous
industrial site landscapes. But then, grasses, sunflowers, asters and native place to walk your pet, or for your
its weak stem and branch structure legumes is converted to an ecologically children to play in.
create huge splitting problems in our barren monoculture of Bradford pears.
occasional winter ice storms, when This loss of plant diversity has impacts So the invasive nature of Bradford
folks have to saw it up and haul it far beyond the plant world. pear has the potential to radically
away. However, Pyrus calleryana change the natural landscape in your
has a third side which makes it a 2) Bradfords are known to have few neighborhood. Diverse native plant
very poor choice for our landscapes. insect herbivores, so a dense thicket communities will be converted to a
It is proving to be highly invasive of of them produces very little biomass boring thicket of pear trees. The Figure 3.
surrounding open land. of native caterpillar and other insect loss of native species communities, Heavy thorns on Bradford pear
larvae. “Well, that’s wonderful”, you and their complex web of insect Photo courtesy of author.
Why invasive? Most Bradfords might say, but you’d be wrong. A herbivores, will create an ecologically
produce copious crops of small (1/2 strong connection has been established barren community of little value in
inch) hard pears. With the onset of between the amount of insect biomass the support of breeding populations of
cooler weather, these fruits soften up produced on a landscape and the songbirds and other wildlife. And the
a bit and become very popular with breeding success of songbirds on the pear forest will be a hostile, thorny,
birds. The seeds pass through the birds landscape. Caterpillars and other dangerous place, fit for neither man nor
and get deposited on the surrounding insect larvae are the staple food needed beast. All this from a home landscape
land. These seeds are very viable to grow songbirds to maturity. Adult tree that at best will last 15-20 years?
and germinate and establish in large songbirds have to work really hard to In my opinion, it doesn’t add up.
numbers. The result can be dense find enough food for their babies in
populations of young pear seedlings areas with low density of insect larvae. But there are some beautiful native
(see Figs. 1 and 2) which can quickly What kinds of plants produce insect tree species alternatives that are not
become a large thicket in areas that are biomass? The answer is: native trees, invasive, and that are compatible with
not mowed at least annually. If not shrubs, vines and herbaceous plants. songbirds and other wildlife. These
mowed, the fast growing seedlings will Introduced species like Bradfords have include:
become a dense “forest”. low numbers of insect species that Various hawthorns, Crataegus L. *
can reproduce on them. Thus a dense Serviceberry, Amelanchier Medik.
“Well, what’s wrong with that?” planting of Bradford pears will be an Redbud, Cercis L.
you might ask. “Won’t that be a empty plate for breeding songbirds. Fringetree, Chionanthus L.
spectacular sight in early spring?” The diverse native plant community Red maple, Acer rubrum L.
Maybe, but there are actually several that was displaced by pears would Southern sugar maple, Acer
severe problems that arise from such a be a much better habitat for breeding barbatum Michx.
(*Latin names are hyperlinks to
1) The dense cover of pear trees 3) Seeds from the thornless Bradford information pages on the USDA Plants
rapidly shades out native grasses, trees used in landscaping actually website)
Figure 2. Bradford seedlings at the base of a handy
For more information on invasiveness of Bradford pears, go to: Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas at: http://www.invasive.org/eastern/midatlantic/pyca.html bird roosting site across the street from several
For information on the links between native plants, native insects and songbirds read: landscape specimens. Photo courtesy of the author.
Bringing Nature Home: How Native Plants Sustain Wildlife in Our Gardens, by Douglas Tallamy.
with move-in at the SCHI trade 7th place (out of 54) – of 804 students): Jaime Morin - 20th,
1 show, the Rent-a-Student program Truck and Trailer Operation: Jonathan Jonathan Holmes – 43rd, Kyle Worthy
(students moved furniture, designed Holmes and Chris White. – 90th and Jonathan Smith – 96th.
Student landscapes, spread mulch, eradicated
ancient ivy and vinca plantings, and 8th place (out of 79) –
Other team members contributing to
the overall boosted performance were
Career washed roots for research), a garden
bench raffle, Bojangles’ nights, and
Business Management: Kyle Worthy, Tim Knauer, Jackie Seles and Griffin
Days 2011 a plant sale held in conjunction with
the SC Botanical Gardens spring sale
9th place (out of 48) –
Leadership Skills: Jaime Morin, After the competition, we moved to
(which generated $3000). All together downtown Chicago for a night and
Joliet Junior College, over $10,000 was donated and raised 13th place (out of 79) – enjoyed more Chicago pizza and the
for the trip. Turf and Weeds: Kyle Worthy, City sights (Millennium Park, the
Joliet IL Hancock Tower, Art Institute and
Our goal for the competition is to 15th place (out of 49) – Field Museum). On our final day,
Authors: Jeanne Briggs and Bob always improve over the previous Irrigation Assembly: Andrew Bullard we visited the BallHort headquarters
Polomski year’s performance, and the students and CR Jolly, in W. Chicago where we toured the
School of Agricultural, Forestry, and succeeded. Clemson University rose new premiere seed lab facilities and
Environmental Science, Clemson in overall ranking to 15th place out 17th place (out of 54) – greenhouses, and then travelled to
of 60 schools. (All of the higher- Paver and Retaining Wall Installation: Garfield Park Conservatory (the oldest
ranking schools but one were Mick Colacurcio and CR Jolly, in the US), which was magnificent.
Twelve Clemson students (11 comprised of teams much larger than
horticulture majors and one ours.) Individual competitive event 18th place (out of 40) – Congratulations to all of the students
construction management major) accomplishments include: Wood Construction: Mick Colacurcio on their outstanding performance!
participated in the 35th Annual Student and Kirk Holmes. Next year, Kansas State University
Career Days competition in March. 4th place (out of 59) – will be hosting the event and we are
This year Joliet Junior College, Landscape Plant Installation: Kirk Four students had total scores that looking forward to another even more
located just south of Chicago, hosted Holmes, Jaime Morin and Kyle earned rankings in the top 100 (out successful competition.
the event. Over 800 students from Worthy,
60 colleges and universities gathered
to compete in 28 events that test
knowledge and skills used in the
landscape industry. Students also
participate in training workshops
conducted by industry leaders and
attend the largest career fair for the
The Clemson University student team
enrolls in a variable credit course,
PLANET SCD Preparation (Hort
400, Sec 1), which meets weekly for
study sessions and also participates in
extracurricular fund raising activities.
Instructors are Jeanne Briggs and
Bob Polomski. All expenses for
the trip are covered by industry and
association sponsorships and student
generated revenues. This year our
generous and most appreciated
sponsors were Bartlett Tree Experts,
CU Horticulture Club, Color
Burst, Enviro AgSciences, Greater
Columbia Landscape Association,
HiCotton Greenhouses, Hunter
Industries, Martin Nursery, SC
Greenhouse Growers Association,
SC Landscape and Turf Association,
SC Nursery and Landscape
Association, and WP Law. Student
fund raising activities included helping
Tree of Merit National Brands, Homegrown Diversity
One of the most enjoyable and reward-
ing aspects of urban forestry is making the
annual rounds to visit wholesale tree nurser-
ies to select and tag trees for planting. Those
foresters who order a specific list of trees by
phone or through a broker are missing an
opportunity to discover hidden treasures in
the form of tree species or cultivars that are
new or overlooked. One small species that is
well worth the search is Chinese Fringetree,
Chionanthus retusus. Originally introduced
from Asia in 1845, the USDA Hardiness
Zone for this tree ranges from 5 to 9B/10A
While the native Fringetree, Chionanthus
virginicus, may be better known, Chinese
Fringetree has consistently provided supe-
rior performance in Savannah, Georgia. The
southern type of Chinese Fringetree can be
grown as a standard in tree form, with a
mature height and width range of 15 to 25
feet. This superb tree has many desirable
attributes. In the spring it is an absolute
showstopper, displaying an explosion of cas-
cading lacy white blooms on new terminal
shoots as foliage emerges, whereas the native
Fringetree flowers on older wood, prior to
leaf emergence. During the growing season,
rounded leaves are thick and leathery, with a
lustrous dark green color which persists late
into the year, slowly changing to yellow in
December, occasionally even into January.
Chinese Fringetree has proven to be more tol- Licensed Grower of Encore Azalea®
erant of a wider range of site conditions than
traditional ornamentals. It grows well in full
sun to partial shade, can handle occasional
drought or wet feet, has few pest problems,
and can thrive in the heat. One potential
criticism from a management standpoint is
that once established, annual terminal shoot
growth in an optimal location can approach
two feet or more. This can lead to an imbal-
anced crown if uncorrected. Periodic pruning
is necessary to maintain shape and form of
specimen trees; however, the effort is well
worth the reward.
Individual seedling grown Chinese
Fringetrees have a unique character which
makes them a fine choice for use as a speci-
men ornamental. Chionanthus retusus ‘Tokyo
Tower’ is a new introduction from Japan with
a narrow, upright growth habit (15-20’ height
x 5-7’ width) that offers a great option for
those smaller planting spaces that don’t quite
accommodate a larger tree.
www.pendernursery.com • 1.800.942.1648 • FAX 919.773.0904 • email@example.com
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