THE SOUTH CAROLINA

South Carolina Nursery & Landscape Association   September/October 2011

  Member Profile: Super Fonz Lawn Care
  Laurel Wilt – A Growing Disease Problem
                                                     Supporting the green industry by providing
                                            education, legislative monitoring, certification and marketing.
                                                Investing in research, environmental stewardship and
                                                         scholarship to ensure a secure future.

Executive Committee
            for 2011
                  Kirk Young, 2013
           Live Oak Landscapes, Inc.
                      PO Box 13091
               Charleston, SC 29422
                Phone 843-860-5548

                                            In This Issue ...
                     President Elect
                  Carson Aull, 2014
                        Dothan Trees
                 164 Wild Hearts Rd.
                 Cameron, SC 29030
                 Phone 803-531-1876

               Don Brookshire, 2012
                Brookshire & Assoc.
                                             4    SCNLA Member Profile: Super Fonz Lawn Care
                       PO Box 3455           8    SCNLA Calendar of Events
                 Tega Cay, SC 29708
                Phone 800-326-3313           9    Notes from Donna
          David Rickenbaker, 2013           10    SCNLA New Members/ Industry News/ Website of the Month
      Hi Cotton Greenhouses, LLC            11    Thoughts from the President
                       PO Box 197
            St. Matthews, SC 29135          12    Legislative Update
                Phone 803-874-4747
                                            13    The Uncomfort Zone: Keeping the Ball Rolling
                 Kari Whitley, 2013
     Scout Horticultural Consulting
                                            14    Lessons Learned from Summer Dry Spells
                         PO Box 22          16    Thousand Cankers: Disease of Black Walnut Detected in Virginia
             Charleston, SC 29402
                Phone 843-568-1102          17    Test Your Knowledge: Identify the Plants
                   Tom Young, 2012          18    Cicads: Moment of Nature
             Young’s Garden Center          20    Turf-Grass Research
                 9567 Charlotte Hwy
                 Fort Mill, SC 29707        21    NOAA, American Public Gardens Association Unveil Partnership
                Phone 803-548-0722
                                            22    Insecticide Classes and Modes of Action: Groups 20 & 21
              Mandi Cothran, 2013
               Davidson Farms, Inc.
                                            24    Pesticides and Storms
             590 Woods Chapel Road          25    European Pepper Moth
                 Duncan, SC 29334
                Phone 864-439-0319          26    Summertime is Tick Time
                      Past President        27    Update on Imprelis Herbicide
               Ricky McAbee, 2012           28    Laurel Wilt: A Growing Disease Problem
                 Roebuck Wholesale
              Nursery & Landscaping         30    SCNLA/SCLTA 8th Annual Fall Field Day
                       PO Box 1053
                 Roebuck, SC 29376          31    Fall Armyworms in Turf
                Phone 864-576-0875          32    What’s New at SCHI 2012?
                  Executive Director        33    The New Face of SNA
                Donna Shealy Foster
                   4661 Crystal Drive       34    Citrus for South Carolina
                 Columbia, SC 29206               Green Gone Bad
                 Phone 803-743-4284         36
                    Fax 803-787-2919        38    Rain Garden Plant Selections
                                            41    SCNLA Annual Awards Description/Nomination Form
        Cover photo: Black Velvet Petunia   44    SCNLA Board Meeting Minutes
                courtesy of Images by BA
                                            45    Bradford Pear: An Invasive Plant Problem
                                            48    PLANET Student Career Days 2011: Joliet Junior College
This newsletter does not have                     Tree of Merit: Chinese Fringetree
any official authority and the              50
information contained herein
    should not be acted upon
  without professional advice.
SCNLA Member Profile                                                                    SCNLA Member Profile

                       L awn C a re
        rFonz                         Super Fonz Lawn Care, LLC
Su   pe                                By Ellen A. Vincent, Clemson University Environmental Landscape Specialist

                                                                                                 Alfonso (Fonz) Hernandez began
                                                                                                 specializing in lawn maintenance in
                                                                                                 1997. He worked for other people
                                                                                                 in South Carolina, learning the
                                                                                                 combined craft of lawn care and
                                                                                                 business management. He and his
                                                                                                 wife Angie noticed something about
                                                                                                 lawn care companies--they seemed
                                                                                                 to be a magnet for employees and
                                                                                                 sometimes owners who didn’t
                                                                                                 really care about plants or people.
                                                                                                 Angie had a background in human
                                                                                                 resources and communications, and
                                                                                                 had worked for MCI and Sprint
                                                                                                 while Fonz possessed a serious work
                                                                                                 ethic packed full of accountability
                                                                                                 and responsibility. So when they
                                                                                                 combined their talents to launch
                                                                                                 their own business in 2006, they
                                                                                                 already had a business philosophy:
                                                                                                 be passionate about the work.
                                                                                                 Extend personal care and attention
                                                                                                 to details, “do it for love” says Fonz.
                                                                                                 They also knew exactly who to
                                                                                                 hire: people who are also passionate
                                                                                                 about their work.

                                                                                                 The first piece of equipment was
                                                                                                 a Honda push mower and the
                                                                                                 first yard was located in Lake
                                                                                                 Keowee. Fonz has grown slowly,
                                                                                                 only buying what he can afford
                                                                                                 to pay for. Now there is a small
                                                                                                 fleet of Toros and a team of four
                                                                                                 full time and two seasonal workers.
                                                                                                 They serve residential customers in
                                                                                                 Greenville, Greer, Easley, and Lake
                                                                                                 Keowee. They do not advertise
                                                                                                 or promote themselves, they gain
                                                                                                 customers solely from referrals
                                                                                                 and by performance. Realtors and
                                                                                                 absentee home owners also employ
                                                                                                                 Continued on page 7
                          4                                                5
    Continued from page 5

    this company because they can trust
    the job will be completed precisely
    and expertly every time.

    Their tag line is “Lawn Care Like
    No Other.” The details they attend to
    appear to be a magnet for customers
    looking for professional quality and
    character. Quality details include
    rotating mowing directions each
    time to reduce any appearance of
    lines; ensuring that water features,
    rock walls, patios, and other
    hardscape features are kept totally
    free of any blown debris; and
    regular sharpening of mower blades
    to ensure clean cuts to the grass
    blades. Character details include
    showing up on time; consistently
    creating curb appeal; and educating
    the customer before executing a           and fertilizers. This company pulls      they want to work in lawn care.
    request. When customers ask the           weeds by hand and refers customers       “If you don’t love what you do,
    company to prune shrubs that will         to other contractors who specialize      if you aren’t passionate about the
    reduce or eliminate blooms, Fonz          in pest control and fertilization.       work, you’re doing it for the wrong
    is sure to speak with them first          Pruning is also done by hand in          reason” warns Angie. Secondly, be
    in case they aren’t aware of the          order to create “a more natural look”    ethical always, follow the law, and
    consequences.                             reports Fonz. Education is important     be responsible and proud of all your
                                              to the company and they frequently       actions. Angie claims Fonz is the
    Super Fonz Lawn Care is a family          attend Clemson Extension classes         exemplar for ethics and integrity
    business. Their home in Piedmont          and SCNLA seminars.                      in business and describes how
    is headquarters and the trucks and                                                 accomplished he and his crew feels
    equipment are all neatly stored on        Each new job starts with a customer      at the end of each job. “My name is
    site. The employees are almost all        interview. Angie and Fonz go             on every job” Fonz explains. The
    relatives who Fonz and Angie trust        together and uncover needs, issues,      third tip for newcomers is to grow
    explicitly to serve the customer to the   and desires of their customers.          slowly and pay for things along the
    best of their ability. Even so, Fonz is   They walk the grounds together to        way rather than accrue debt. “If you
    present at every job so the customer      learn what pleases and frustrates        can’t afford it, don’t buy it” advises
    has the security of knowing the           the homeowner in their landscape.        Fonz.
    person the client contracted service      “Customer service is making
    with is still in charge of the work.      a person happy” explains Angie           Fonz wanted opportunities for
    Fonz and Angie’s two children-            Hernandez, “We acknowledge what          advancement in the work place and
    Faith and Allyson (age ten and            they want and then say ‘this is what     he found this in self-employment.
    seven) are the ambassadors. Their         we can do for you’. We educate           His goal however is “spending
    charms (polite, gracious, articulate,     them at the same time“. Honesty          more time with my girls.” Self
    confident, intelligent) can no-doubt      and consistent above-and-beyond          employment allows Angie to work
    penetrate the hardest character and       service builds trust, she reports.       in communications and customer
    most cynical soul. Many customers,        Ethics are again demonstrated when       service from her home office yet
    report Angie, are like family. If a       the company prices the job based on      still run to the school if she’s asked
    customer experiences hardship, the        the size of the lot and the work to be   to chaperone or help out in the
    Hernandez family and business try         done, not by the appearance of the       classroom. In addition to being
    to help. “We pray a lot” she admits.      neighborhood or square footage of        happy to go to work each day, the
                                              the structure.                           Hernandez adults feel the ultimate
    Environmentally sound practices                                                    purpose of the business is to help
    include recycling clippings and plant     Fonz and Angie suggest newcomers         their two girls pursue their dreams,
    debris and not applying pesticides        to the field first be clear about why    whatever they might be.
6                                                               7
 South Carolina
                                                Calendar of Events
                                         Sept 28, 2011
                                         SCNLA Field Day
                                         Sandhill Lakehouse
                                                                       January 16-20, 2012
                                                                       Green & Growin’
                                                                       Greensboro Coliseum
                                                                       Greenboro, NC
                                                                                                                       N om
    The following dates are              803-743-4284
       important to you:                        January 25-27, 2012
                                                                       GGIA WINTERgreen 2012
August 1, 2011:                          October 7-8 2011              Gwinnett Center, Duluth GA
All Nursery and Nursery Dealer           Appalachian Nursery and       (706)62-0100
License Renewal packets were             Landscape Expo.                                                      It’s OK to brag! It SCNLA awards time. The nominating form is
emailed and/or mailed out.               WNC Ag Center
                                        January 27-28, 2012                                        on page 42. And yes, it is OK to nominate yourself. During these past
September 30, 2011:                      828-553-1098                 Mid-States Horticultural Expo
                                                                      Co-sponsored and managed                                   few years, I know many of you have created new ways to keep your
All Nursery and Nursery Dealer Re-
newal forms and/or fees are due.         October 23-26, 2011          by Kentucky Nursery and
                                                                                                                                 employees motivated besides money; you’ve founds new and better
Under South Carolina law, any            International Plant          Landscape Association
person engaged in the produc-            Propagators’ Society         and Tennessee Nursery and                                  ways to be efficient, etc. - all of that would qualify for the Member of
tion or collection of nursery stock      Rainwater Conference Center Landscape Association
for sale or distribution must be a       Valdosta, GA                 Kentucky International                                     the Year Award. Maybe you have a supplier (who is also a SCNLA
licensed nurserymen. Licenses for            Convention Center,
both categories run from Octo-                                        (downtown) Louisville, KY                                  member) who always goes the extra mile to provide quality service
ber 1st through September 30th           October 28, 2011             931.473.3951 or
every year.                              Trees SC Annual Conference                   that qualifies, too. And of course there is the Louis P. Parsons Outstanding Contribution to the
                                         Preserving Green
                                         Infrastructure: Growing      February 2-4, 2012              Industry Award. Read over the criteria and see if anyone you would like to nominate comes to
October 1, 2011:
2012 Nursery Certificate Tags may
                                         Communities Among            SCHI 2012
                                         the Trees                    Myrtle Beach Convention         mind. You all are such a great group of professionals and the Board of Directors always enjoys
be ordered. Completed Nurs-
                                         SC State Museum              Center
ery Registration and all required                                                                     reading the nominations.
                                         9:00 a.m. – 4:30 p.m.        Myrtle Beach, SC
compliance agreements must be
                                         Columbia, S.C. 29201
satisfied in order to obtain Nurs-
ery Certificate Tags. A price list for
                                         (843)814-4620                February 23, 2012                  It’s also OK to share! We are looking for items for the Silent Auction that will be held the
nursery tags may be obtained on
                                                                      SCNLA Legislative Breakfast
our website at: http://dpi.clem-                                                                      afternoon of Friday, February 3 at SCHI. Do you make jewelry, do you have a mountain or
                                         November 16, 2011            Columbia, SC
                                         SC Sod Producers Association 803-743-4284
                                         Annual Meeting               8:00am-10:00am                  beach condo you would donate for a weekend, does you spouse work somewhere that could
December 31, 2011:
                                         Myrtle Beach Convention
2011 Nursery Certificate Tags ex-                                                                     donate an item? Let’s “think out of the box” and have some really cool items and raise a nice
                                         Center                       February 23, 2012
                                         Myrtle Beach, SC             SCNLA Marketing Seminar         donation for the SCNLA Fund at the Horticulture Research Institute.
                                         843-514-1218                 Columbia, SC
All forms and regulations can be                803-743-4284
found on our website at: http://                                      10:30am-3:00 pm             January 11, 2012
latory/plant_industry/nursery_           VNLA Research Gala           February 26-28, 2012
program/. All questions regarding        Tir Na Nog Irish Pub         National Association of Pond
Nursery and Nursery Dealer Li-                                                                        Donna
                                         Baltimore, MD in             Professionals
cense renewals may be directed           Conjunction with MANTS       Conference and Expo
to Negar Edwards at (864) 646-                                        Las Vegas, NV
2126 or plantindustry@clemson.                              

                                                      8                                                                                               9
                      SCNLA Industry News
                                                                                                                                 THoughts                    from the President
 SC Department of                                           Obituaries
  Revenue to Host
                                               Former SNA Executive Tommy Henegar
 Sales and Use Tax                         passed away on July 26, 2012 after a short illness.
     Seminar                                      Our sympathies to his wife Mary.

   The SC Department of Rev-                 Ken Harris passed away on August 23, 2011.                                                    “Fall is the time for planting; let us take
                                        Ken was a sales representative for Cherokee Mfg. and
enue will host a Sales and
                                               a longtime participant in SCNLA events.
                                                                                                                                         advantage of all that the season has to offer.”
Use Tax Seminar for the Agri-
                                        The funeral was held on August 25 in McMinnville, TN.
culture Industry on October 4
                                                    Our sympathy to Ken’s family.
from 9 a.m. - 12 p.m. at the
SpringHill Suites in Columbia,
   The topics being present-                            Congratulations
ed are very applicable to
the agriculture industry and                        Congratulations to our newest
would benefit the members                        SCNLA Certified Nursery Professional              Dear Members,
of your association.                       Elizabeth Zembry, Windsor Farms, Blackstock, SC
   Those urged to attend in-
clude business managers,                             Congratulations to Wilbur Mull,               As the summer heat begins to subside, I am looking forward to cooler temperatures. I hope that
Chief Financial Officers, ac-       who recently received the Georgia Green Industry Association
                                             Lifetime Achievement Award in recognition of          you were able to manage the summer and all of its difficulties including the water shortages. I trust
counting staff, tax profession-
                                            this longevity and his dedication to the industry.     the recent rains have alleviated some of these water issues and we are prepared for a successful fall
als and others who work with              Mull, owner of Classic Groundcovers in Athens, GA
Sales and Use Taxes. Among         is widely known for his eye catching marketing and trade show   planting season.
the topics to be discussed            exhibits and “sudden service” has also received numerous
are Sales Tax exemptions for               other industry awards. Classic Groundcovers is a
the agriculture industry, SC              long time member of SCNLA and a SCHI Exhibitor.          Now that fall is upon us, there is much to be excited about…after all, fall is the time for plant-
electronic services, and the                                                                       ing (not to mention, football season). The South Carolina Department of Agriculture Fall Flower
basics of Sales, Use and Lo-
                                                                                                   Festivals are in full bloom in Greenville, Florence and Columbia. I attended last year’s Columbia
                                          SCNLA New Members
cal Taxes.
   The cost is $25 to attend                                                                       Festival and it was a pleasure to see how many homeowners were out shopping for plant material.
the seminar which includes
                                  Zack Bilderback                    Elizabeth Zembry
                                                                                                   The SCNLA Fall Field Day is an interesting event…contrary to popular belief, there is more than
all materials and coffee. The
SpringHill Suites is located at   Harrell’s, LLC                     Windsor Farms                 just pesticide credits to be had here. As with all these festivals and shows, there is an abundance to
511 Lady Street in Columbia.      6830 Crescent Moon Ct, Apt 302     32 Mount Olive Church Road
                                  Raleigh, NC 27606                  Blackstock, SC 29014          see and learn from others in our industry.
For more information, please      Mason Rutledge
see the attached brochure or      Unity Designs, LLC                                               Be sure to inform everyone that conditions are optimal for happy healthy plants. Fall is the time for
visit our website http://www.     1358 Little David Court          Charleston, SC 29412                                             planting; let us take advantage of all that the season has to offer. Success is ours to be had. Don’t
                                                                                                   forget to spend time with family, friends and football!

                WEBSITE of the Month                                                               Kirk Young

            Pesticide Information Program at Clemson University

                                                 10                                                                                                 11
     LEGISLATIVE UPDATE                                                                                                    THE UN-COMFORT ZONE
                                                                                                                                                 with Robert Wilson
                                 These articles are provided by SCNLA and ANLA as a
                                         Lighthouse Program partner benefit.
                                                                                                                                    Keeping the Ball Rolling
                         Federal Legislative Update                                                            I know an advertising agency owner who never fully takes a vacation. He takes his family to fairly exotic
                                                                                                               locations, but never so alien that they are outside the reach of modern communication. In other words,
                                                                                                               he is never further than a cell phone call or email away. He checks in with the office several times a day –
                                                                                                               much to the chagrin of his family who want him to be fully engaged in the holiday at hand. So, he ends up
                                                          ing safety rules. After reviewing both written and
Federal Motor Carrier Safety                              verbal comments, the Agency released this state-
                                                                                                               sneaking off under the guise of visiting the restroom, or going to the bar for a cocktail, in order to connect
                                                                                                               with his staff, a client or a prospect. His wife and kids aren’t fooled; they just sigh and accept the inevitable.
Administration                                            ment: “FMCSA is pleased with the input we’ve         I used to think he was a control freak – someone who couldn’t let go and let someone else take over – until
                                                          received from the agricultural community and         I came to understand the concept of Momentum.
Recently, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Ad-            members of Congress. We have received about
ministration said that it has no intention to pro-        17,000 comments and the vast majority called for     In science, Momentum is equal to Mass times Velocity. Or just think of Indiana Jones in Raiders of the Lost
pose new regulations governing the transport of           us to preserve the guidance that leaves states to    Ark running as fast as he can out of the tunnel while that huge stone ball rolls faster and faster after him.
agriculture products. This announcement came              carry out the Farm Exemptions as they have for       In business, Momentum is the point at which success begins to come easily. Business veterans jokingly
after a call from this agency in May 31, 2011 ask-        many years.” FMCSA administrator, Anne Ferro,        refer to it as having, “paid my dues.” In short, Momentum is an accumulation of acquired knowledge, skill,
ing farmers’ Farm organizations and the public to         said, “We want to make crystal clear that we are     experience and connections. And, those who understand it... also know it can be fragile and easily lost.
provide input on the federal agencies long stand-         not imposing any new regulations.”
                                                                                                               Sales professionals who have achieved Momentum will tell you that you must pursue a number of activities
                                                                                                               to generate sales leads: phone calls, emails, sales letters, networking events, etc. You keep it up building
                                                                                                               dozens, then hundreds of leads at a time. Then to convert those leads to sales you keep following up on

           IT’S TIME
                                                                                                               each of them in a timely fashion. Meanwhile, you are still maintaining all the activities that continue to
                                                                                                               generate leads. So between generating leads, following up on leads, then turning leads into sales, you
                                                                                                               begin to feel like the guy in the circus who spins plates on top of poles – rushing from one plate to the next

                 for the                                                                                       to keep them spinning.

                                                                                                               No wonder these folks hate to take vacations – it breaks the Momentum they’ve spent months or years
                                                                                                               creating and they know it takes time to get it going again.

      IR4 SURVEY
                                                                                                               Years ago when I first started giving speeches, a seasoned professional speaker advised me, “It took me
                                                                                                               ten years to quit sweating cash flow, but even so, it is still all about non-stop marketing.” In other words:
                                                                                                               maintaining Momentum.

                                                                                                               For a growing company, Momentum is the point where you have done enough advertising, marketing,
         Go to the link below –                                                                                public relations, networking, customer service, and so forth that business begins to flow. It is the point where
                                                                                                               you are garnering the precious and often elusive word-of-mouth referrals. Momentum is about building a
    It only takes about 5 minutes.                                                                             reputation. Acquiring it, however, doesn’t mean you can taper off on your efforts... but it does mean that
                                                                                                               your efforts will become easier.                                                                                 The best thing about Momentum is that once you get it, motivation becomes self-perpetuating. Momentum
   Ornamental/Survey/index.cfm                                                                                 is energizing. It keeps you on your toes. And, the rewards come quickly and regularly.

                                                                                                               I have found this tobe true in all pursuits. Even when I am writing fiction there is always a certain point in a
           It’s your chance                                                                                    novel that it takes on a life of its own and demands my daily attention, energy and focus until it is complete.
     to voice your concerns on                                                                                 Unfortunately, nothing quite puts the brakes on Momentum like finishing a book, or completing any other
                                                                                                               major task. The trick to avoid losing that Momentum is to begin another book or another task before you
      the pest and production                                                                                  complete the first one. Then you just shift your energy over to the next project that is already under way.
      problems we are having                                                                                   Robert Evans Wilson, Jr. is an author, speaker and humorist. He works with companies that want to be more
         in South Carolina...                                                                                  competitive and with people who want to think like innovators. For more information on Robert, please visit

                                                     12                                                                                                               13
           from Summer Dry Spells
                Bob Polomski, Ph.D., Horticulturist/ISA Certified Arborist, Clemson University

The savagery of this summer is now history: it            After more than 2 decades of South Carolina
left scores of damaged or withered plants in              summers, I have become a more knowledge-
its wake. Despite the losses I sustained in my            able and a less cynical gardener: “it is what it
own garden and landscape, I will continue to              is.” For this short article I distilled 7 lessons that
garden. Can you say the same about your cus-              may be worth sharing with your customers to
tomers?                                                   help them cope with whatever¹s in store next
I don¹t expect you to conduct Saturday
morning grief counseling sessions to help                 1. Select plants that match the conditions in
your customers deal with drought-stricken                 your landscape.
shrubs, trees, and perennials. However, you               Besides meeting a plant’s requirements for sun-
should take advantage of this teachable mo-               light, be mindful of dry and wet areas in the
ment. Now is the time to educate and em-
                                                          landscape. Take advantage of areas that re-
power your customers. You and I know with
                                                          main wet for extended periods of time, such as
certainty that next summer will be hot, humid,
and dry, but that is no reason to stop garden-            sloping areas on the northern or eastern sides           3. Mulch.                                                  5. Add organic matter to the planting area.
ing.                                                      of your landscape. Then, select plants that will         Blanket the soil around trees, shrubs, and flower          When added to clay soil, organic matter holds
                                                          thrive in those moist conditions.                        beds with a two- to four-inch layer of mulch,              the clay particles apart, improving air and water
                                                                                                                   such as compost, leaf litter, shredded wood, or            movement in the soil. It also acts like a sponge
            South Carolina                                Also, group plants together according to their           pine straw. It will conserve moisture, suppress            to retain moisture in the soil.
          Horticulture Industry                           requirements for water. Divide your landscape            weeds, and enhance plant growth. For trees, ex-
       Trade Show and Seminars                            into “hydrozones.” Place plants together that            tend the mulch to the outermost reaches of the             6. Water new plantings regularly until they
                                                          have the same needs for water. So, in your low           branches. Leave a space of three inches or                 become established.
       February 2-4, 2012                                 water use hydrozone in full sun, plant drought-
                                                          tolerant shrubs such as glossy abelia, beautyber-
                                                                                                                   more around the trunk to keep the bark dry and
                                                                                                                   to discourage rodents.
                                                                                                                                                                              Spring-and summer plantings are especially vul-
                                                                                                                                                                              nerable to perishing from a lack of water dur-
     Myrtle Beach Convention Center                       ry, and yaupon holly. In your high water use                                                                        ing their “growing-in” period. During the first
                                                          zone, plant moisture-loving shrubs such as but-          4. Avoid heavy applications of fertilizer to               few weeks, water often enough to keep the soil
             Myrtle Beach, SC
                                                          tonbush, inkberry holly, and Virginia sweetspire.        your plantings.                                            moist. Then, start cutting back on watering to
                                                                                                                   Plants do not have to receive three square                 every few days or longer. Eventually, water on
                NEW this Year:                                                                                                                                                a weekly or “as needed” basis by testing the
                                                          Planting in hydrozones allows you to water more          meals a day with a couple of snacks in be-
                                                                                                                   tween. Heavy applications of fertilizer will result        soil and rootball for moisture until the plants be-
          Get Prepared for Spring!                        efficiently. Obviously, plants in the low water use
                                                                                                                   in a lot of soft, lush top growth that will have to        come established.
            Spring Boot Camp                              zone will not have to be watered as frequently
                                                                                                                   be supported by regular applications of water.
                                                          as those in the high water use zone. So, only the
                                                                                                                   Eventually this growth may have to be held in              7. Finally, go on vacation next summer and
       Roundtable Issues and Lunch                        plants that desperately need water will receive it.
                                                                                                                   check by pruning.                                          don’t worry about your garden or landscape.
                                                                                                                                                                               Heed the advice of the world-famous American
   Breakfast with Ambrosia Beetles AKA                    2. Install a drip or microsprinkler irrigation                                                                      horticulturist Liberty Hyde Bailey (1858-1954): “I
   Solutions for Scale Insects and Borers                 system.                                                  Apply fertilizer according to the results of a soil
                                                                                                                                                                              stayed home from a vacation one summer that
                                                                                                                   test. My advice is to keep your plants “lean,
                                                          They are simple to install and use less water than                                                                  I might keep my plants from dying. I have since
                                                                                                                   green, and mean,” which will help them deal
         SC, NC, GA Pesticide Applicators                 conventional irrigation systems. Calibrate your          with summertime stresses.                                  learned that if the plants in my borders cannot
              Re-certification credits                    system so you¹re applying the right amount of                                                                       take care of themselves for a few weeks, they
                                                          water to the plants that need it.                                                                                   are of little comfort to me.”

                                                     14                                                                                                                  15
                                                                                                                                     TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE
                                                                                                                                                                                 IDENTIFY THESE PLANTS

                    Photo Credit: Ned Tisserat                                     Photo Credit: Whitney Cranshaw                             1                                     2                                                         3
              Colorado State University,                            Colorado State University,

                   THOUSAND CANKERS
      Disease of Black Walnut Detected in Virginia
                                                   Bob Polomski, Ph.D.,
       Horticulture and Urban Forestry School of Agricultural, Forestry, and Environmental Science, Clemson University
                                                                                                                                              4                                     5                                                        6
Since the mid-1990s I’ve been fol-           and New Mexico, is associated with          of cankers, eventually succumb within
lowing Thousand Cankers Disease or           Arizona walnut (J. major) and per-          3 to 4 years of the initial attack.2, 7
TCD and the demise of black walnuts          haps other native southwestern species
(Juglans nigra) in the western U.S.1,        such as J. californica and J. hindsii.5     Currently, there are no preventive
    Then the Tennessee Department            The walnut twig beetle was originally       or curative measures against TCD.
of Agriculture in August 2010 found          described in 1928, but only recently        Officials in quarantined areas recom-
TCD in Knoxville, the first state east       was the disease complex recognized          mend rapid detection and removal of
of the Mississippi that detected its         and described in Colorado.6                 infected trees. To curb its spread, offi-
presence in the black walnut’s native                                                    cials prohibit the movement of all
range.3 Nearly a year later the Virginia     Alone, the bark beetle and fungus do        walnut plants and plant parts of wal-
Department of Agriculture and                not kill trees; together, they prove to     nut, including logs, stumps, firewood,
Consumer Affairs issued a press release      be a lethal combination. The tunnels        roots, branches, mulch and chips from
that documented the arrival of TCD in        and egg galleries created by the larvae     quarantined areas. Unfortunately, the                7                                     8                                                        9
Chesterfield and Henrico counties.4          and adults, respectively, provide colo-     actions and movements of the walnut
                                             nizing sites for the fungus. Infections     twig beetles and accompanying fungus
TCD is an insidious disease that             lead to the formation of quarter-sized      are unknown, as well as the impact of
requires the complicity of two vectors:      cankers in cambial tissue. These can-       TCD on native black walnut ecosys-
a walnut twig beetle and a fungus,           kers eventually coalesce and lead to        tems.
                                                                                                                                                       10 Rudbeckia hirta 'Radiance' (Radiance Black-Eyed Susan)
Geosmitha morbida. The walnut twig           twig, branch, and trunk dieback. TCD-                                                                     9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . Albrizia julibrissin (Silktree,Mimosa)
beetle, native to Arizona, California,       afflicted trees, riddled with a multitude                                                                 8 . . . . Hemerocallis 'Ruby Stella' (Ruby Stella Daylilly)
                                                                                                                                                       7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fagus grandifolia (American Beech)
      1. Pest Alert: Walnut Twig Beetle and Thousand Cankers Disease of Black Walnut (                               6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V i t u s r o t u n d i f o l i a ( G ra p e V i n e )
      2. USDA Forest Service Pest Alert: Thousand Cankers Disease (
                                                                                                                                                       5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .V i g n a c a r a c a l l a ( S n a i l V i n e )
          cankers_disease_screen_res.pdf).                                                                                                             4 Calibrachoa x hybrida (Double Amethyst Calibrachoa)
      3. Thousand Cankers Disease (
      4. VDACS 2011 press releases (
                                                                                                                                                       3 . . . . . . . . . . Ilex x 'Emily Bruner' (Emily Bruner Holly)
      5. Mycologia, 103(2):325–332, 2011.                                                                                                              2 Liriope muscari 'Silvery Sunproof' (Slivery Sunproof Lilyturf)
      6. Plant Health Progress, 11Aug 2009. (
      7. American Nurseryman, June, p. 20-21, 2011.                                                                                               10   1 Aronia melanocarpa 'Autumn Magic' (Black Chokeberry)

                                                                16                                                                                            17
                                              During this past year, I’ve had

 Cicadas –
                                              the opportunity to observe and
                                              capture many moments of nature
                                              up close as I prune, examine and/
                                              or water city trees. It is my hope

Moment of Nature
                                              that you learn something new and
                                              be enriched by the wonders ofour
                                              natural world.

– Liz Gilland City of Camden Urban Forester   I’d like to focus on this moment of
                                              nature with an unlikely summer-
                                              time celebrity and alien-looking
                                              creature that I have become fasci-
                                              nated with, the cicada.The name
                                              of this unusual bug is a direct der-
                                              ivation of the Latincicada, mean-
                                              ing “tree cricket”. Most common
                                              around here is the annual or dog-
                                              day cicada(Tibicenspp.)a signa-
                                              ture element of our dog-days of
                                              summer, which, have descended
                                              upon us with a vengeance.               at times can be quite annoy-            When full-grown, nymphs burrow
                                                                                      ing and rather loud. Adults are         out of the ground at night,creating
                                              So, what is a cicada and what           approximately 1 ½ inches lon-           a hole the size of jumbomagic
                                              does it do? There are about 2,500       gand live for about four to six         marker. They crawl up a nearby
                                              species of cicada around the            weeks following emergence. After        tree or wall and the skin splits
                                              world, and many of them remain          mating, the adult females begin         along the back. What emerges
                                              unclassified. Cicadas are flying,       to lay eggs in slits in the twigs of    is a big-headed, bulging-eyed-
                                              plant-sucking insects that do not       various plants. Upon hatching,          winged adultthat hangs from the
                                              sting or bite. They live in temper-     nymphs (juvenile’s) drop to the         plant for several hours. This new-
                                              ate to tropical climates where          ground, burrow beneath the soil         lymorphed creature hardensand
                                              they are among the most widely          surface and spend the next two          thenflies away, leaving behind
                                              recognized of all insects, mainly       to five years feeding on root sap       their cast nymphal skins. On one
                                              due to their large size and unique      of various trees and shrubs, oak        of our newly planted street trees
                                              sound. Cicadas are often col-           trees in particular. The nymphs         I have found as many as a dozen
                                              loquially called locusts, although      are usuallytan in color, rather         such skeletons stuck to the bark,
                                              they are unrelated to true locusts,     hunch-backedand have stout              twigs and leaves.In general, cica-
                                              which are a kind of grasshopper.        forelegs they use to dig through        das are not considered a major
                                              Cicadas are actually related to         soil. To me, they look like an alien    plant pest and usually do only
                                              leafhoppers and spittlebugswhich        creature similar to what has been       minor damage to plant twigs.
                                              are common to many southern             recreated on many sci-fi mov-           Other than that, their role in the
                                              landscapes.                             ies. If I were 10 years old again,      cycle of life is to make a good
                                                                                      they’d make a great object to           food source for other insects and
                                              Male cicadas attract females by         scare a younger sibling with, if I      birds.
                                              their characteristic songs, which       had a younger sibling!

                                                      Sources: Colorado State University Extension, Texas A&M University – AgriLife Extension and Wikipedia
                                                      Photo captions: full grown cicada resting on tree / nymph skeleton / cicada emerging from nymphal skin
                                                                         Note: All photos taken in Camden by Liz Gilland, Urban Forester

                                        18                                                              19
                                                                                                                Climate Changing Our Nation’s Landscapes:
                   Turf-Grass Research
                               Grows Hefty Cash Crop                                                                           NOAA, American Public Gardens Association
Clemson molecular biologist           drought or where the water may      faster and spread more
                                                                                                                                Unveil Partnership to Enhance Awareness
Hong Luo’s research focuses on        have a high salinity level.”        robustly, which could impact
how to improve plants without                                             other species.        To control     The      National     Oceanic     and      patterns, earlier bloom or leaf-budding   professionals on climate change
turning them into environmental       One plant Luo works with is         invasiveness, Luo investigates       Atmospheric            Administration      times, or that some plant species are     issues; and development of a public
problems. Luo’s colleague,            creeping bentgrass, a perennial,    molecular ways to sterilize trait-   (NOAA) and the American Public             able to grow in different areas,” said    clearinghouse for information about
Haibo Liu is an expert in turfgrass   which is used on golf courses.      enhanced plants. The industry        Gardens Association (APGA)                 Daniel J. Stark, executive director of    climate change and adaptation.
physiology and co-principal           “We are looking for genes that      --golf course maintenance,           today announced an innovative              APGA. “Our partnership with NOAA
investigator on research grants       would improve its salt tolerance,   landscaping,       lawn     care,    pilot project at Longwood Gardens          allows us to better understand how        The impacts of global climate
                                                                                                               in Kennett Square, Pa., that links         some of those impacts are linked          change have emerged as one of the
that federal officials have           allowing growers to irrigate with   sports     field  management
                                                                                                               NOAA’s internationally recognized          to climate change. It is clear we         greatest challenges facing current
funded for nearly $1.2 million        brackish water. It would not only   -- in South Carolina has an
                                                                                                               climate services and APGA’s public         need to understand more about the         and future generations of Americans.
to date. “Many people do not          offer growers a benefit but also    annual       economic      value                                                                                          For decades, NOAA and its partners
                                                                                                               gardens, which receive more than           effects of climate change so that
realize that turfgrass is part of     golf course managers. It could      ranging between $1 billion and                                                                                            have been providing climate data,
                                                                                                               70 million visitors a year. This marks     we can educate the public about
the state’s green industry, the       be a real plus for South Carolina   $1.5 billion in comparison with                                                                                           services and other information to
                                                                                                               the beginning of a new partnership         the impacts these changes will
No. 2 agriculture sector in South     and other coastal states.”          Florida with $8 billion and North    focused on educating gardeners             have, and share best practices on         the nation. With the accelerating
Carolina,” said Luo. “We are                                              Carolina with about $4 billion,      and garden enthusiasts about the           mitigating the effects. To do our best    need for such information, NOAA will
looking at how to help it grow in     But perennials with enhanced        according to Haibo Liu.              possible effects of climate change on      job as a trusted resource for the         ensure that APGA, and the nation,
stressful environments, such as       growing   traits   can  grow                                             America’s gardens, landscapes and          public, we need the best available        have access to the best possible
                                                                                                               green spaces.                              information on current and future         environmental information for the
                                Contact Hong Luo at                                                                                     impacts so we can begin addressing        many millions of yearly visitors to
                                                                                                                  “Climate change is happening            these challenges now.”                    America’s public gardens.
                                                                                                               now, and it’s beginning to affect the
                                                                                                               things we care about, such as our            “Sharing the important work of          Founded in 1940, the American
                                                                                                               treasured gardens, parks and natural       NOAA with our staff, guests, and          Public      Gardens     Association
                                                                                                               landscapes,” said Jane Lubchenco,          community is integral to our mission      is an organization devoted to
                                                                                                               Ph.D., under secretary of commerce         and continues Longwood Gardens’           strengthening the public gardens
                                                                                                               for oceans and atmosphere and              commitment to environmental               throughout North America. With more
                                                                                                               NOAA administrator. “This new              stewardship,” said Paul Redman,           than 65 years of work increasing
                                                                                                               partnership provides a special             Longwood Gardens Director. “There         cooperation and awareness among
                                                                                                               opportunity for NOAA to connect with       is telling evidence that climate          the gardens, APGA has built a
                                                                                                               gardeners and communities across           change is affecting plant life around     membership of more than 500 public
                                                                                                               the nation to help everyone better         the world and here at Longwood.           gardens located in all 50 states,
                                                                                                               understand what changes in local           For example, through Longwood             the District of Columbia, Canada
                                                                                                               climate mean for the plants, trees         Gardens-sponsored           research      and seven other countries. Their
                                                                                                               and landscaped areas around them.”         we have observed that plants are          members include public gardens as
                                                                                                                                                          flowering earlier on average 1 day        well as arboreta and zoos. APGA
                                                                                                               Using NOAA climate data, the               per decade over the last 150 years.       has also built up an international
                                                                                                               project exhibits maps showing how          Longwood is proud to be the first         network of individual members in
                                                                                                               changes in average annual minimum          garden to share with our guests the       the U.S., Canada, and 24 other
                                                                                                               temperatures affect climate-related        APGA/NOAA inaugural interpretive          countries. The APGA is committed
                                                                                                               planting zones. This information can       experience about climate change           to increasing public awareness
                                                                                                               help gardeners, landscapers and            and its far-reaching effects on all of    for public gardens and supplying
                                                                                                               farmers identify which plant species       our lives.”                               resources to the industry. Through
                                                                                                               will best survive in certain conditions.                                             their leadership and advocacy, public
                                                                                                               The exhibit is augmented by a cell-        Priorities of the new partnership         gardens have become vital to public
                                                                                                               phone recording that explains what         include: increased climate literacy       appreciation and understanding of
                                                                                                               the changing planting zones mean for       via public education at public            the irreplaceable value of plants.
                                                                                                               local plants in Longwood Gardens,          gardens; increased community
                                                                                                               as well as for area gardeners.             engagement         in   addressing        NOAA’s mission is to understand
                                                                                                                                                          climate variability and change as         and predict changes in the Earth’s
                                                                                                                “Millions of Americans visit public       part of both short- and long-term         environment, from the depths of the
                                                                                                               gardens annually as a place to relax       community planning and adaptation;        ocean to the surface of the sun, and
                                                                                                               and learn. America’s public gardens        ongoing professional exchanges            to conserve and manage our coastal
                                                                                                               are starting to notice changes in          between NOAA and public garden            and marine resources.
                                                                                                               temperature     and   precipitation
                                                     20                                                                                                                     21
                       Insecticide Classes
                                                                                                                                                Tolfenpyrad (Hachi-Hachi by SePRO) is the newest (2011)                    and Sanmite in 2002. Target pests of Akari are spider mites,
                                                                                                                                                METI (mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor) miticides and            broad mite, cyclamen mite, eriophyid mites and mealybugs in
                                                                                                                                                insecticides (Group 21A) to be introduced to the ornamentals               greenhouse ornamental production. Akari is effective against all

                                                                                                                                                market. The target pests are aphids, leafhoppers, caterpillars             mite life stages and residual is effective up to 21 days. The target
                                                                                                                                                (early instar), scale insects, thrips, and whiteflies on greenhouse        pests of Sanmite are spider mites, broad mite and whiteflies in
                                                                                                                                                ornamentals. Several trials reported good efficacy of Hachi-               greenhouse and nursery. Sanmite has activity on all life stages

                         Modes of Action
                                                                                                                                                Hachi against western flower thrips; thus, this product represents         of mite with residual up to 45 days. Both products have only
                                                                                                                                                a viable option in an insecticide rotation scheme against this             contact activity; therefore, good spray coverage is needed.
                                                                                                                                                increasingly difficult to control pest. However, a 2010 study by           Fenpyroximate is reported to be compatible with predatory
                                                                                                                                                Dr. Mike Parrella (UC-Davis; supported by the IR4 Program)                 mites but pyridaben is not.
                                                                                                                                                suggested that tolfenpyrad is quite harmful (close to 60%
                                                                                                                                                mortality) to Hypoaspis aculiefer and Amblyseius swirskii, two             Rotenone has the same mode of action as fenpyroximate,
           Group 20: Mitochondrial Complex III Electron                                                                                         of the most commonly used predatory mites against the western
                                                                                                                                                flower thrips. More studies are needed to better evaluate the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           pyridaben, fenazaquin and tolfenpyrad but it is listed in a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           different chemical class. The French botanist and explorer
                       Transport Inhibitors                                                                                                     negative impacts of tolfenpyrad on natural enemies. Folks
                                                                                                                                                practicing biological control in their operations should make
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Emmanuel Geoffroy first isolated, but never reported, rotenone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           in French Guiana in 1890s. For centuries before its isolation,
                                                                                                                                                careful observations and considerations when using tolfenpyrad             rotenone has been used as a fish and insect poison by native
            Group 21: Mitochondrial Complex I Electron                                                                                          or any other product.                                                      people of many countries, who extract rotenone by smashing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           roots of plants, particularly those in the genera Derris and

                       Transport Inhibitors
                                                                                                                                                Fenazaquin, another member of Group 21A, was developed                     Lonchocarpus, in water. The solution is poured into a water
                                                                                                                                                in the 1980s, introduced to the fruit production market in the             body, and all the fishes (yes, all, 100%!) got poisoned and
                                                                                                                                                1990s, and introduced to the ornamentals market in 2010                    float to the surface, making them easy to capture. Interestingly,
                                            Juang-Horng ‘JC’ Chong                                                                              as Magus (by Gowan). This product has contact activity on                  rotenone is poorly absorbed by human intestinal tracts so the
             Turf & Ornamental Entomologist, Clemson University, Pee Dee Research & Education Center                                            whiteflies and mites (spider mite, rust mite, broad mite, etc.)            poisoned fishes are perfectly safe to eat (For better or worse,
                                                                                                                                                and an REI of 12 hours. Whitefly control may need a higher                 I am one of the living examples!) These days, the commercial
                                      2200 Pocket Road • Florence, SC 29506                                                                     rate than that used for mite control. Although registered for              application of rotenone as pesticide has largely relegated to
                           Tel.: 843-662-3526 ext. 224 • E-mail:                                                            use on ornamental plants in golf courses, it is not to be used on          uses as organic pesticide in home gardens or for parasitic mite
                                                                                                                                                turfgrass. This product should have activity on all life stages of         control in poultry productions and animal husbandry. Rotenone
Chemicals in the IRAC groups 20 and 21 disrupt energy                    such as Maxforce, is perhaps the most well-known of the Group          mites. Because Magus has no systemic or translaminar activity,             is generally considered safe because it is not absorbed through
production and metabolism in insects and mites. The target               20 compounds. Because it is a stomach poison, hydramethylnon           good coverage of the treated plant is critical to good efficacy.           skin and breaks down rapidly under sunlight. Sometimes
organ of Group 20 and 21 chemicals is the mitochondrion,                 is often formulated as baits. Hydramethylnon is a slow-acting          Dr. Raymond Cloyd (Kansas State University) suggested roses                rotenone is used as a research tool to study fish biodiversity in
which is the same for Group 12 and 13 chemicals (see SC                  poison; thus, instead of killing them on the spot the slow activity    may exhibit phytotoxicity reactions to Magus. It is a good idea            restricted water bodies because all poisoned fishes, even those
Nurserymen, March/April 2011). The exact mode of action of               allows ants to carry the baits back to the nest and share the baits    to test the product (or any other chemicals) on a small set of             well-hidden, will float to the water surface.
Group 20 and 21 is a bit different from Group 12 and 13.                 with their nest mates before the toxin sets in. The flip-side of       plants for phytotoxicity reactions. I am not aware of data to help
                                                                         this slow activity is that it may take a few days before mortality     determine the compatibility of Magus and biological control.               Chemicals in Group 20 and 21 are generally toxic to fish and
Let’s refresh our memory about mitochondrion and energy                  is noticed. Since its discovery by American Cyanamid in 1977                                                                                      aquatic invertebrates. Therefore, it is important to read the labels
metabolism in insects, Bambi, and us. Mitochondria are the               and registration in 1980, hydramethylnon has been used to              Fenpyroximate (Akari by SePRO) and pyridaben (Sanmite by                   carefully and adhere to restrictions on chemigation, buffer zone,
power plants of all living things. Mitochondria convert chemical         control ants, termites, and cockroaches. Beside red imported fire      Gowan) are older METI miticides. Akari was introduced in 2000              drift and runoff, and equipment cleaning procedures.
energy in food into energy that can be used in all cellular              ants, products containing hydramethylnon are also registered for
process. Electrons released from food pass through a series              control of native fire ants, harvester ants, big-headed ants, and
of membranes (called Electron Transport Complex I, II and                Argentine ants. Hydramethylnon is sometime combined with an              Table 1. The IRAC group numbers, modes of action, chemical classes, common names, example trade names and use sites of some
III) in the inner most part of mitochondrion, activate ionic             insect growth regulator, such as methoprene in Amdro Firestrike          commonly products containing in IRAC Group 20 and 21. Check product label for target pests, application rate, restricted entry
pumps, and create a proton and energy gradient. As protons               and Extinguish Plus, to achieve elimination of brood. There are          interval (REI), use site restrictions, and other vital information.
reenter the mitochondrion via a protein (ATP synthase) in an             clear restrictions on use site, waiting period before harvest (fruit
attempt to balance the gradient, energy in the form of adenosine         or hay), and amount used per year. Please check the labels for           IRAC
triphosphate (ATP) is produced. ATP is then transported and              instructions.                                                            Group            Mode of action                    Chemical class            Common name               Trade name             Use Sites
used as the energy molecule for other cellular functions.                                                                                          No.
                                                                         Another chemical class within Group 20 is Acequinocyl. The               20    Mitochondrial complex III electron       Hydramethylnon (20A)          hydramethylnon Amdro Pro, Ambro                GC, L, N, S
Group 20 and 21 inhibit the normal functions of electron                 only member in this chemical class, acequinocyl, is the active                 transport inhibitors                                                                  Firestrike, Extinguish
transport complexes by binding to a family of proteins called            ingredient in the miticide Shuttle O. This product is registered                                                                                                     Plus, Siege Pro
cytochromes. Cytochromes are the central pieces in the electron          for control of several members in the spider mite family on                                                             Acequinocyl (20B)             acequinocyl    Shuttle O                       GH, I, L, N
transport process and the reduction-oxidation reaction. Their            indoor and outdoor ornamentals. Shuttle O is effective against           21       Mitochondrial complex I electron      METI acaricides and           fenazaquin     Magus                           C, GH, I, N,
neat organization in the mitochondrial electron transport                all life stages of mites, have residual of over 28 days, and are                  transport inhibitors                  insecticides (21A)                                                           L
complexes allow the electrons to be transported along the                compatible with some of the most commonly used predatory                                                                                              fenpyroximateAkari                             C, GH, N
membrane. Chemicals in Group 20 and 21 bind to cytochromes               mite, such as Amblyseius swirskii. In contrast to hydramethylnon                                                                                      pyridaben    Sanmite                           GH, N
on Electron Transport Complex III and I, respectively, interfere         which is a stomach poison, acequinocyl is a contact miticide;                                                                                         tolfenpyrad  Hachi-Hachi                       GH
with the electron transport process, and inhibit the production          therefore good spray coverage of the treated plant is essential                                                        Rotenone (21B)                 rotenone     Bonide Dragoon Dust,              L (home)
of ATP. The insects and mites basically run until their batteries        to effective control. This compound was developed by DuPont                                                                                                        Bonide Liquid Rotenone,
dry up.                                                                  in 1975 and introduced to the markets in the 1990s. Shuttle                                                                                                        Bonide Rotenone Dust,
                                                                         was first introduced to the ornamentals market by Arysta                                                                                                           Garden Dust
Hydramethylnon, the active ingredient in ant baits such as               LifeScience, but the marketing right was acquired by OHP in              Use sites: C = Christmas tree; GC = Golf courses; GH = Greenhouse; I = Interiorscapes; L = Landscape (by commercial applicator); N
Amdro, Siege Pro and Extinguish Plus, and cockroach baits                2008. The REI of Shuttle O is 12 hours.                                  = Nursery; S = Sod farm.

                                                                    22                                                                                                                                                23
    PESTICIDES & STORMS                                                                                                                                European Pepper Moth
      What to Do About Your Pesticides
              Before a Storm                                                                                                                                                       (EMP)
Hurricanes and similar storms, including flooding and tornadic              labels and labeling. Doors, windows and other points of access
                                                                                                                                                                              Duponchelia fovealis
winds, can wreak havoc with agricultural operations. In addi-               to storage locations should be secured and locked. If you are
tion to the disastrous effects that spring to mind, such severe             going to board up windows on your house, do the same for pes-                         Rebecca A. Bech • Deputy Administrator • Plant Protection and Quarantine
weather events can cause both dollar loss and environmental                 ticide and other chemical storage areas. Don’t leave chemicals
pollution with respect to agricultural chemicals. Fertilizers, pes-         in vehicles, or in application equipment.
ticides, solvents, fuels, etc. can be physically lost, contaminated                                                                                The Animal and Plant Health Inspection
themselves, or contaminate the surrounding environment and                  As you prepare for a storm, as you hurry to put lots of things         Service (APHIS) is providing information
environments “downstream” of chemical storage and use areas.                into secure locations, be sure all of these items are compatible.      on the current status and strategy for
                                                                            Don’t, for instance, put pesticides and fuels in the same building     the   European    Pepper    Moth    (EPM),
If the time comes, you need to have a plan ready and know                   with animals, or animal feeds.
when to implement it. Here is some guidance that can be ap-                                                                                        Duponchelia fovealis, in the United States.
plied to any situations where pesticides and other chemicals are            NOW is the time to read the storage and spill containment
used and stored, e.g. farms, golf courses, mosquito control oper-           sections of your MSDSs. Round up your pesticide and other              On October 29, 2010, APHIS provided
ations, nurseries, greenhouse operations, pest control firms, etc.          chemical MSDSs and put these in a secure location. And if you          information on national survey results
                                                                            have not done so, provide local emergency first responders with
Be aware of weather predictions on the morning, noon and eve-               a copy of these, along with a copy of your chemical inventory.         indicating that EPM was detected in 13
ning news casts.                                                                                                                                   states, including Alabama, Arizona, California,
                                                                            Secure your personal protective equipment. You may need it as          Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North
Do not delay action. You need to take action EARLY to prepare               part of your own cleanup operations after the storm.                   Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina,
for the potential of the hurricane now on the weather screen.
And remember, others can follow.                                            Be sure that your buildings will stay where they are as much as        Texas, and Washington. The national survey
                                                                            possible! Are the roofs tied into the building? Can you tie down       was conducted in cooperation with State
Do an INVENTORY of what pesticides and other chemicals                      small storage buildings and storage tanks?                             departments of agriculture as a result of the initial
you have on hand. Such an inventory will be useful for insur-                                                                                      detection of EPM in California on July 16, 2010.
ance purposes, or in the event of necessary pesticide or chemi-             If you leave your location during a severe weather event, be
cal clean ups. Include product and container sizes in your inven-           sure that buildings that store pesticides and other chemicals are
tory. Receipts for the purchase of these materials are useful for           well signed.                                                           In partnership with the National Plant Board,
this, or in some cases may suffice themselves.                                                                                                     APHIS convened discussions with subject
                                                                            Have on hand all emergency phone numbers you need.                     matter experts, affected States, and potentially
Do the inventory NOW, before you take other measures. Put
                                                                                                                                                   impacted industries, and has concluded                       main groups, including: Industry Leadership
the inventory in a safe location. In the case of large scale storms         Consult your chemical dealer and insurance agent for addition-
or flooding, it may be useful to make a copy of your inventory              al suggestions, but do it soon.                                        that traditional containment and regulatory                  (IL), Technical Working Group (TWG), and
and mail or fax it to a friend or business associate that lives out-                                                                               approaches may not be practical solutions for                Interagency Working Group (IWG). IL consists
side of the potentially affected area.                                      Sit down NOW and think about what you need to do to prepare            EPM. This determination is based on the wide                 of representatives from potentially-impacted
Do you know where your INSURANCE policy is? Do you                          for a storm. Think about what kinds of things you will need
                                                                                                                                                   distribution and current host range of EPM, which            industries, including fruit and vegetables,
know exactly what kind of coverage you have? Does it cover                  and may need to do after a storm. Write it all down. Get family
your chemical inventory or the damage it could cause? Find out              members and others in your operation help with this. They may          includes peppers, pomegranates, aquatic                      floriculture, and nursery and is responsible
NOW. If you need to know later, your insurance agent may be                 need to help later.                                                    plants, bedding plants, and nursery stock.                   for providing the overall coordination and
very busy.                                                                                                                                                                                                      communication of the PMP. The TWG consists
                                                                            You may also want to read the publication “Storm-Damaged               As an alternative to a regulatory program, APHIS,            of subject matter experts and specialists from
Consider not using or making applications of agricultural                   Agrichemical Facilities” (University of Florida). This fact sheet
chemicals, or at least holding off, until the potential of impend-          provides guidelines useful for persons or organizations needing        State cooperators, and industry stakeholders                 universities, extension service, private industry,
ing severe weather is resolved.                                             to secure pesticides and other agricultural chemicals that have        are establishing an ad hoc EPM Task Force to                 Federal, and State agencies, and NGOs and
                                                                            been subjected to severe storm conditions.                             facilitate the development and communication                 is responsible for providing the technical
Delay purchase or delivery of additional chemicals to your op-                                                                                     of Pest Management Practices (PMP) in order                  support for the PMP. The IWG includes federal
                                                                            For pesticide emergencies in South Carolina:
eration until after any impending storm risk is past. If you have           Phone numbers for the South Carolina Department of Pesticide
any such deliveries scheduled for the coming week you may                                                                                          to prevent or minimize the pest’s potential                  and state regulatory officials from potentially
                                                                            Regulation (DPR):
want to cancel them.                                                        - Main office, Pendleton/ Clemson: 864-646-2150                        effects on various industries within American                impacted states to provide operational
                                                                            - Columbia: 803-736-7680                                               agriculture. The task force will encompass three             and logistical support to the task force.
Secure all of your chemicals. This includes fertilizers, pesti-             - Florence (Pee Dee REC): 843-667-1393
                                                                            - Conway: 843-365-7341
cides, solvents, fuels, etc. Close and secure container lids, move          - Charleston: 843-225-7062, 7065                                                              For additional information on the EPM task force,
containers and application equipment to the most secure lo-                 The DPR has a complete DIRECTORY of their phone numbers on their
cation. Raise chemicals from the floor or cover materials that                                                                                                      you may contact Diane Schuble, Staff Officer, at (301) 734-8723.
                                                                            web site The numbers of individual
could be damaged by water. Do what you can to protect product               offices are also in the phone book under ‘Clemson University’.

                                                                       24                                                                                                                                  25
            SummeRtime                                                                                                     “Fall is for Planting”                                                                          Update on
                              is TICK TIME                                                                                  Why is fall actually a better time to plant
                                                                                                                                     than the spring season?
                                                                                                                                                                                                     IMPRELIS HERBICIDE
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Drs. Patrick McCullough1, Mark Czarnota2, and Clint Waltz1
                                              April Reese Sorrow                                                                                                                                               1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Assistant and Associate Professor, respectively,
             News Editor, University of Georgia, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences                     Fall planting follows the extreme heat of summer and precedes                                Department of Crop and Soil Science,
                                                                                                                        a cooler winter season. It is a time of rejuvenation. Shrubs, trees                    2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Associate Professor, Department of Horticulture,
                                                                                                                        and most landscape plants planted in the fall use this timing to                                University of Georgia, Griffin, GA

Use tweezers to remove ticks. Pinch the tick close            or after having been where ticks hang out, see a          their advantage. Plant roots grow anytime the soil temperature
                                                                                                                        is about 40 degrees F or slightly higher, and this occurs nearly all         The new herbicide from DuPont, Imprelis, has been
to the mouthparts to remove as much as possible. If           doctor promptly.”                                         winter long in most of the state.                                            recalled with a stop sale order on all future purchases.
the tick head is left behind, don’t worry. Having tick                                                                                                                                               The active ingredient in Imprelis, aminocyclopyrachlor,
mouthparts in the skin is like having a thorn. Your           Prevention                                                Therefore during the winter months, the root systems of the                  is the first pyrimidine carboxylic acid herbicide and is a
body will expel it over time.                                 “Ticks don’t fly, jump, leap or climb very high, so       fall-planted specimens thrive and become well-established.                   similar chemistry to pyridines, such as clopyralid (Lontrel).
                                                                                                                        When the spring arrives, this well-developed root system makes               Aminocyclopyrachlor is also an active ingredient in new
Image credit: Nancy Hinkle.                                   they are seldom found high above ground,” Hinkle          it possible for the plant to take advantage of the full surge                combination products from Dupont released this year
                                                              said. “They hang on low-growing vegetation, stick         of spring growth. Much of the possible “transplanting shock”                 for non-crop areas including Streamline, Perspective,
It’s summer, and outdoor activities are on the                out their hook-like claws and when we walk by,            associated with spring-planted shrubs and trees can also be                  Viewpoint, and Plainview.
menu. Make sure you don’t end up on the menu                  they latch on and climb upward.”                          minimized by fall planting.
of a blood-sucking travel partner when you are out                                                                                                                                                   Aminocyclopyrachlor has been extensively tested
and about, say University of Georgia experts.                 The best way to avoid tick bites is to stay in areas      So, if you’ve been considering adding a new tree, or a grouping              throughout the United States for turfgrass tolerance and
                                                              where the vegetation is open or maintained below          of shrubs to the landscape, or if there is an area in your                   has shown excellent activity on many annual and perennial
                                                                                                                        landscape that needs “restoration” from the drought, the fall                broadleaf weeds. Unfortunately, numerous practitioners
“Think of them as little vampires,” said Elmer Gray, a        ankle height. Walking trails should be kept mowed,                                                                                     have reported substantial injury to trees, shrubs, and other
                                                                                                                        months are not only an excellent time, but the best time to do
UGA Cooperative Extension entomologist. “All ticks            and hikers should avoid any vegetation brushing           so. I always say, “If I was a newly planted shrub in San Antonio, I          landscape plants following turf applications. Reports in
require blood meals to survive and reproduce. And             against their legs during the summer.                     would rather go against a typical mild winter, instead of a harsh,           the last six to eight weeks have associated Imprelis to
the United States has about 80 species of ticks that                                                                    devilish, drought-ridden summer.”                                            injury on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Eastern White
can feed on humans and other mammals, reptiles,               Hinkle recommends treating socks and pant legs                                                                                         Pine (Pinus strobus) trees in Minnesota, Michigan, Indiana,
birds and even frogs.”                                        up to the knee with Permanone products that               Unfortunately, spring is still the season you’ll find the greatest           Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Wisconsin.
                                                              contain permethrin.                                       selection of shrubs and trees. But most Texas nurseries and
                                                                                                                        garden centers are beginning to recognize the value of fall                  There have been no reports of injury to trees or ornamental
Ticks common in Georgia are the lone star tick,                                                                                                                                                      species in Georgia. It is not known whether cultivars of
                                                                                                                        planting and making special efforts to provide their customers
American dog tick, blacklegged or deer tick and               For added protection, tuck pant cuffs into your           with the best selection possible throughout the fall and early               Norway Spruce and Eastern White Pine, other species
brown dog tick.                                               socks. “That keeps ticks on the treated surface and       winter season.                                                               of Picea or Pinus, or other ornamental genera will be
                                                              off our skin,” she said.                                                                                                               affected. It appears that most reports of injury are
Transmit diseases                                                                                                       When selecting those special plants for your landscape, always               primarily on trees that are not adapted or commonly
“Most people are naturally repulsed by the idea               Repellents help reduce the chance of getting a            look for healthy, well-grown plants. Always buy from a reputable             found in Georgia. However, Imprelis is a new turf herbicide
of something sucking their blood,” said Nancy                 tick bite, too. It’s important to target the feet, legs   nursery with an experienced staff of Texas Certified Nursery                 and injury reports on ornamentals have received
                                                                                                                        Professionals. These nurseries are in the business of selling service        noinvestigation in Georgia and limited investigation in
Hinkle, an entomologist with the UGA College of               and waistline when applying repellents.                                                                                                other states. More non-target species could potentially
Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. “But ticks                                                                     year-round, and in turn, they depend on loyal customers
                                                                                                                        to return. Only by selling quality plants can such a nursery                 be injured or killed by Imprelis. Turf managers should be
can transmit diseases, too.”                                  Reduce ticks around the house by keeping grass            operation be assured of their customers continued confidence                 cautious when using this herbicide especially in areas
                                                              and brush cut short. Gray said this not only reduces      in their business.                                                           that border sensitive species or in areas with potential for
While tick-borne diseases are relatively uncommon             places for ticks to live, but exposes them to sunlight,                                                                                lateral movement in soil.
in Georgia, the Georgia Division of Public Health             which can kill them.                                      Plants, like all goods and services, come in a vast array of
reports 50-80 suspected cases of Rocky Mountain                                                                         shapes, sizes, colors and most importantly, qualities. It is just as         Dupont is currently working with twenty certified arborist
                                                                                                                        important to evaluate plants individually before purchasing as it            companies to evaluate claims. The company has
spotted fever each year in addition to a few cases            Use tweezers to remove ticks that are attached                                                                                         started a toll free hotline (866-796-4783) for practitioners
of Lyme Disease. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is              to skin. Pinch the tick close to the mouthparts to        is to carefully inspect a new shirt or a television set. Shopping for
                                                                                                                        plants by telephone or looking for the least expensive price can             to report damage to trees from Imprelis. There is also
the most commonly reported tick-borne disease                 remove as much as possible. Apply an antiseptic to                                                                                     a website,, available to present
                                                                                                                        be a foolish decision. That old saying, “You get what you pay
in Georgia. Lone star ticks and blacklegged ticks             the site immediately after removing a tick.               for,” is more often true than false, and certainly can apply to the          the latest news about these issues. Dupont is continuing
both can carry human ehrlichiosis, a family of                                                                                                                                                       to work on this issue with the Environmental Protection
                                                                                                                        purchase of new landscape plant materials. Many times you will
sometimes-deadly diseases with a range of flu-like            Check your pooch, too                                     find that not all nurseries and garden centers are created equal.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Agency, state regulators and university extension
                                                                                                                                                                                                     specialists. We at the University of Georgia would like to
symptoms.                                                     While dogs don’t seem to be affected by Rocky                                                                                          be aware of any suspected injury following an Imprelis
                                                              Mountain spotted fever, they can suffer joint pain        Currently, due to lack of uniform standards in the nursery
                                                                                                                                                                                                     application. Please feel free to contact us or your local
In general, a tick has to be attached to its host for         from Lyme disease, Gray said. And dogs and cats           industry, all plants have vast differences in plant size, as well as
                                                                                                                                                                                                     County Extension Agent,, if you
at least 24 hours to transmit disease.                        can catch other deadly diseases from ticks. Ask a         appearance and quality. Remember, not all sales are bargains.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     suspect injury to trees, ornamentals, or other non-target
                                                                                                                        Please, do shop around. Compare prices before you make that
                                                              veterinarian for an appropriate treatment to repel        final decision. Paying a little bit extra may make a big difference.
“The diseases most often associated with ticks in             ticks.                                                    Shrubs and trees are available in the fall typically as container-
Georgia are often typified by the onset of flu-like                                                                                                                                                  From our trials, Imprelis is an effective postemergence
                                                                                                                        grown stock. Container-grown plants are usually available in                 herbicide for many of the broadleaf species we have in
symptoms, including severe headaches, fever, rash             “Check your pets daily for ticks,” Hinkle said. “Run      various sizes. One, two, three and five “gallon” sizes are the most          Georgia. When properly used and the label is followed,
and a general flu-like condition,” Gray said. “If you         your fingers through their coat and remove any            common. An old wise man was once asked, “What size plant                     Imprelis can be a valuable tool for weed management.
have any of these symptoms following a tick bite              ticks before they start feeding.”                         should I buy?” He responded, “What size hole have you dug?”                  Check for information regarding
                                                                                                                                  David Rodriguez, Texas Cooperative Extension                       this and other local turfgrass issues.
                                       Reprinted from                                                     The Texas A&M University System, Extension Horticulturist

                                                         26                                                                                                                                     27
                               LAUREL WILT
            A Growing Disease Problem
         in Bays and Other Woody Species
                                        Joel Gramling, Department of Biology, The Citadel

South Carolina’s coastal plant communities have been changing                 jumps in the distribution of Laurel Wilt. Today there are satellite
over the last eight years. Visitors to barrier islands from Hilton            populations as far west as Jackson County in coastal Mississippi,
Head to Dewees Island may have noticed redbay trees (Persea                   as far south as Miami-Dade County in Florida and as far north as
borbonia) with lots of brown leaves hanging off of their limbs                Horry County. There are no recorded outbreaks yet in the adjacent
(See Fig. 1). In the late fall or winter one might assume these               counties of these three satellite populations, suggesting that the       Figure 1. Understory redbay trees showing laurel wilt symptoms.             Figure 2. Redbay ambrosia beetle. Photo courtesy of Michael C.
understory trees are simply dropping their leaves for the season,             disease has been transported at least in part by humans. To monitor      Photo courtesy of author.                                                   Thomas, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
but these are evergreens. This change has little to do with new               the spread of laurel wilt, go to                                                                     
residential developments or management practices. South Atlantic              laurelwilt/maps/regional_infestation_map_march3_2011.jpg
maritime and swamp forests have been stricken with a new plant                                                                                                                                                                     Table 1: Plants in the Laurel Family (Lauraceae) found in South
                                                                                                                                                       the redbay ambrosia beetle is thought to have originated. Whether
disease called laurel wilt. What we are witnessing is actually a              The laurel family includes several notable trees and shrubs in                                                                                       Carolina
                                                                                                                                                       ornamental or agricultural, native or introduced, the ultimate
complex biological cascade set in motion by something as small as             South Carolina (Table 1) and is most frequent in coastal plant com-
                                                                                                                                                       impact of Laurel Wilt on plants in the Lauraceae is unknown at               Scientific Name                     Common Name
the arrival of one or more ¼ inch-long beetles at Port Wentworth              munities. Redbay and swampbay (Persea palustris) have been the
                                                                                                                                                       this time, but continued vigilance is warranted.
in Savannah, Georgia in 2002.                                                 hardest hit species in South Carolina. Many dense stands of these                                                                                     Cinnamomum camphora*                camphortree
                                                                              understory trees have been nearly wiped out in both maritime for-
                                                                                                                                                       Plants may not be the only group of taxa to suffer from the spread           Lindera benzoin                     northern spicebush
Laurel wilt is caused by a fungal pathogen that invades the vascular          ests (primarily redbay) and swamp forests (primarily swampbay)
                                                                                                                                                       of laurel wilt. Larvae of spicebush swallowtail and palamedes
structures of trees and shrubs in the laurel family (Lauraceae). The          from the Savannah River to the Francis Marion National Forest.                                                                                        Lindera melissifolia                pondberry
                                                                                                                                                       swallowtail butterflies are known to feed upon Lauraceous plants
fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) is not known to spread from plant to             The recent identification of laurel wilt in Lewis Ocean Bay State
                                                                                                                                                       in South Carolina. As the effects of laurel wilt become more                 Lindera subcoriacea                 bog spicebush
plant on its own via spores the way that many fungi do. Instead, an           Park suggests that this will continue into the near future.
                                                                                                                                                       widespread we may witness a domino effect: humans transport a
exotic insect that has become known as the redbay ambrosia beetle
                                                                                                                                                       minute exotic insect halfway around the world, which transmits a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Litsea aestivalis                   pondspice
(Xyleborus glabratus) (Fig. 2) inoculates trees with this pathogenic          Sassafras is a widespread tree in South Carolina that has been                                                                                        Persea borbonia                     redbay
                                                                                                                                                       fungal pathogen to native plants, thus reducing the food supply of
fungus. Ambrosia beetles are a diverse group of over 3,000 species            shown to die from laurel wilt, but its low density populations and
                                                                                                                                                       several native insects while threatening an agricultural enterprise.         Persea palustris                    swampbay
related to bark beetles. Their name comes from the fact that the              infrequent occurrence across the Lowcountry have not resulted in
                                                                                                                                                       In this age of global connectivity perhaps the cascading effects of
adult typically carves out galleries in dead or dying wood exposing           large scale laurel wilt infestations. This is good news for now; but                                                                                  Sassafras albidum                   sassafras
                                                                                                                                                       laurel wilt will provide a lesson on how truly interconnected the
the woody tissue to one or more fungal symbionts. These fungi                 given the broad distribution of sassafras across the eastern United
                                                                                                                                                       natural world is and how vigilant we must be to deal with current
become established inside the beetles’ galleries and put up fruiting          States, we should be on the lookout for any instances of sassafras                                                                                   Note: Camphortree was introduced from southeastern Asia and may
                                                                                                                                                       and future threatens to our natural systems.
structures that the adults and larvae will feast upon like “the food          die-off in South Carolina. While spicebush (Lindera spp.), pond-                                                                                     occur as a planted ornamental or an invasive plant.
of the gods.” Ambrosia beetles have long been known to transport              berry (Lindera melissifolia) and pondspice (Litsea aestivalis) are
                                                                                                                                                       What can you do? Here are several general guidelines that South
associated species of fungi, but the laurel wilt pathogen is the first        vulnerable to Laurel Wilt, current research suggests that the redbay
                                                                                                                                                       Carolinians can adhere to in order to avoid spreading Laurel Wilt:
ambrosia beetle symbiont to be associated with a lethal vascular              ambrosia beetle prefers large diameter stems that are less frequent
wilt disease.                                                                 in these species. Nonetheless, pondspice does grow large enough              •
                                                                                                                                                           ·	 Restrict the transport of firewood, logs, driftwood, mulch,          Figure 3. Wound in redbay tree and an ambrosia beetle who found it.
                                                                              in some areas to warrant concern and pondberry is a federally                     and other unprocessed wood of redbay or other known                Photo courtesy of R. Scott Cameron, Advanced Forest Protection,
What is particularly disturbing about this beetle-fungus dynamic              endangered shrub that should be closely watched for any signs of                  hosts, out of counties (or other designated areas) in which        Inc.,
is that the aromatic properties of bay trees, sassafras and other             laurel wilt.                                                                      laurel wilt is known to occur.
laurel family members may actually attract the beetles to a living
host tree. Something as simple as a broken branch or deer rub can             A close relative of our native bay trees is an introduced crop spe-          •
                                                                                                                                                           ·	 When camping, use firewood from local sources only.
produce a scented wound. The female beetle may be drawn to                    cies: avocado (Persea americana). Florida farmers and agricul-                    Don’t take home leftover wood; burn it all before leaving
the wounded tree (See Fig. 3) and attempt to carve out a gallery.             tural agents are concerned about laurel wilt, because it has been                 your campsite.
She may be unsuccessful at colonizing the living tissue and so fly            shown to readily infect commercial avocado plants in Florida
to a rotten individual nearby, but she has just exposed the woody             where it is a multi-million dollar enterprise. An even greater fear is       •
                                                                                                                                                           ·	 Dispose of wood from killed redbays and other laura-
tissues of the living tree to the laurel wilt pathogen. In such a sce-        that laurel wilt might get to California (the U.S. leader in avocado              ceous species as locally as possible.
nario the living tree will then exhibit localized or even complete            production) and Mexico (the world leader in avocado production).
die-back, providing lots of dead or dying tissue for redbay ambro-                                                                                         •
                                                                                                                                                           ·	 Inspect Lauraceous plants in nurseries or containers for
sia beetles to colonize.                                                      Another introduced Lauraceous plant is camphortree (Cinnamomum                    signs of Laurel Wilt and avoid transporting or importing
                                                                              camphora), a common ornamental in the Southeast which the                         such plants unless you are certain that they have not been
The effects of laurel wilt were first noted in 2003 as redbay trees           South Carolina Exotic Pest Plant Council has identified as an                     infected. Purchase only plants that have been inspected
were dying on Hilton Head Island. A year later the beetle and fun-            invasive plant that is a “severe threat” to plant communities in the              by Clemson’s Dept. of Plant Industry or other official
gus were identified as the culprits. By 2005 laurel wilt had spread           coastal plain. Unfortunately camphortree has shown resistance                     agency.
to a dozen counties primarily around the mouth of the Savannah                to laurel wilt and may not be as susceptible as our native laurels.          •
                                                                                                                                                           ·	 Report signs of Laurel Wilt to the SC Forestry Commission:
River in South Carolina and Georgia. One population had also                  Camphortree’s ability to survive or even avoid laurel wilt might be               (Laurie Reid, (803) 896-8830, )
popped up in northern Florida. This was the first of many observed            associated with the fact that it is native to southeastern Asia where
                                                                         28                                                                                                                                                   29
SCNLA /SCLTA 8th Annual Fall Field Day                                                                                                                               An Outreach of the UGA Center for Urban Agriculture:
                           Wednesday, September 28, 2011
            Lake House, Sandhill Research & Education Center, Columbia, SC
                                                                                                                                                                      FALL ARMYWORMS IN TURF
8:45 - 9:30 a.m. Pick up name badges & registration. Visit with Exhibitors                                                                                                            Will Hudson, Cheri Abraham and Kris Braman, UGA Entomologists

9:30 - 10:30 a.m. Landscaping the Carolina Yard Mary Nivens, Clemson University                                                                                   In late summer, almost every year, caterpillars in-
Landscaping practices can affect water quality, both positively and negatively. Learn how plant selection and grouping, proper use                                vade turfgrass throughout Georgia. The damage to
of fertilizers and pesticides, compost practices and homeowner-scale best management practices can protect and improve water
                                                                                                                                                                  established turf is mostly aesthetic, but newly sod-
quality. This presentation will also introduce you to advanced tools like rain gardens, rain water harvesting, and pervious pavement.
                                                                                                                                                                  ded or sprigged areas can be more severely dam-
Creating a more sustainable landscape for homeowners may also make for more sustainable clientele!
.5 SC Pesticide Applicators’ Recertification Credit
                                                                                                                                                                  aged or even killed. While there are several caterpil-
                                                                                                                                                                  lars that can damage turfgrass, in late summer most
10:30 - 11:00 a.m. Break & visit with exhibitors                                                                                                                  of the problems are from fall armyworms.

11:00 - Noon Strategies for Dealing with Invasive Plants Randy Westbrooks, U.S. Geological Survey                                                                 Hot, dry weather can intensify fall armyworm prob-
This program offers a strategic plan for identifying, preventing and eradicating invasive plants that can harm our environment.                                   lems when egg-laying adults concentrate their eggs
1 SC Pesticide Applicators’ Recertification Credit                                                                                                                in irrigated, green turf. At least some cultivars of all
                                                                                                                                                                  warm season grasses are susceptible. Cool season
Noon - 1:00 p.m. Lunch and visit with exhibitors                                                                                                                  grasses like tall fescue are very favorable for fall ar-
                                                                                                                                                                  myworm growth and development too, and do not
1:00 - 2:00 p.m. Back to the Basics Jimmy Walters, SC Forestry Commission                                                                                         regenerate as readily as the stoloniferous grasses.
Based on our experience with a statewide tree planting project, it seems we need to get back to the basics of tree selection and
planting. This presentation will deal with the question, “Are we planting bad trees, or are we planting trees badly?” Little things                               Fall armyworm adults migrate northward every year
can make a big difference, not only in initial survival of trees, but especially in the long-term survival in the landscape. We’ll look                           from southern overwintering areas. Adult armyworm
at examples of good and bad tree selection and planting techniques, and how to greatly improve the quality of our work.
                                                                                                                                                                  moths are active at night and females lay eggs in               er indicators of armyworm infestations may include
2:00 - 3:00 p.m. Pesticide Safety Equipment: Ya’ Gotta Use it Right!                                                                                              masses of 50 to several hundred. These night-flying             birds or even paper wasps that use the fall army-
Dr. Robert Bellinger, Clemson University, John Hayes, Outdoor Appearance                                                                                          moths are attracted to lights and to lighter colored            worms as food.
There is a variety of equipment and personal protective equipment available to keep you safe while using pesticides and other                                     surfaces. Egg masses on structures around turf
chemicals in the landscape or nursery. However, you must use this equipment correctly to get its full protection. This session will                               (eaves and gutters, fence and porch posts, flags on             Control of armyworms and other turf caterpillars
help you select the correct equipment for the appropriate job and to use it RIGHT! Proper cleaning and care of this equipment will                                golf courses) and even on taller foliage plants can             is relatively simple once the problem is identified.
also be covered. 1 SC Pesticide Applicators Recertification Credit.                                                                                               be the first indicators of incipient infestations.              There are several pesticides from which to choose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  depending upon the site you are treating. Consult
    The first 100 to pre-register will receive a FREE Fall Day tee shirt, sponsored by a grant from the Department of Agriculture.                                Eggs hatch in a few days, and the young larvae be-              the UGA Pest Management Handbook or your local
                                            Tee shirts will be given out at the registration desk.                                                                gin to feed on leaf tissue. Damage from small larvae            Extension Agentfor recommendations. See the links
                                                                                                                                                                  may at first look like skeletonizing, but as the worms          below for contact information. Read and follow all
                                 Complete Brochure and ON LINE REGISTRATION AT:                                                                     grow, the entire leaf is consumed. Small larvae at              label directions when using pesticides.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------   this time are easier to control and have inflicted less
                                                                                                                                                                  damage than full grown (35-50 mm long) larvae. Full             Armyworms are most active late in the day and at
                                                  Fall Field Day 2011 Registration Form                                                                           grown larvae will soon pupate in upper soil/thatch              night, so pesticide applications should be made as
                             Deadline to Register September 22, 2011 • No refunds after September 24, 2011                                                        layer and will not be susceptible to insecticides at            late as practical for best results. It is not necessary
                                                                                                                                                                  this point.                                                     to water after application but an application rate
Company__________________________________________                                     To pay by credit card:           MC      Visa     Am Exp                                                                                    of 20 - 25 gallons of solution per acre as a minimum
Address___________________________________________                                    Exp date___________________                                                 Armyworm larvae are most active early and late in               will ensure good coverage. Cutting the grass prior
                                                                                                                                                                  the day, spending the hotter hours down near the                to application may improve control, but do not cut
City______________________________________________                                    card number______________________________________                           soil in the shade. Larvae feed for 2 to 3 weeks before          grass for 1 –3 days after application.
State_________          Zip_______________________________                            name on card_____________________________________                           pupating in the soil. Moths emerge 10 - 14 days later.
                                                                                                                                                                  The entire life cycle from egg to adult moth takes              In addition to the birds and paper wasps mentioned
phone_____________________________________________                                    signature_________________________________________                          about 28 days in the warm weather of August and                 above, a number of other insects feed on army-
Name(s) of attendees_________________________________                                             Please make your check payable to:                              September.                                                      worms, including tiger beetles and other ground
__________________________________________________                                                   SC Nursery & Landscape Assn                                                                                                  beetles. Fall armyworms, like many other turf in-
                                                                                                                                                                  If there is any doubt about whether worms are pres-             festing caterpillars can also be heavily parasitized
__________________________________________________                                                          Mail to:                                              ent, pouring soapy water on the grass (1/2 oz. dish-            by tiny wasps that kill the caterpillars and cause no
                                                                                         SCNLA • 4661 Crystal Drive • Columbia, SC 29206                          washing soap/gallon water) will bring them up very              harm to humans or pets. These natural enemies can
                                                                                        For more information, 803-743-4284 or 803-787-0996                        quickly. Heavily infested turf will also have visible           be conserved by spot rather than blanket spraying
__________________________________________________                                                                                                                greenish-black fecal pellets on the soil surface. Oth-          and properly timing control efforts.
                                                                                                         Fax 803-787-2919
@ $45 per person = $____________ (includes Lunch)                                                Register on line at
                                                                                                                                                                           Photo credits: Large Armyworm and small armyworms on leaves – Kris Braman, UGA Entomologist
                                                                                                                                                                          Paper wasp feeding on caterpillar – Cheri Abraham, PhD Candidate, UGA Entomology Department

                                                                              30                                                                                                                                             31
              WHAT’S NEW at SCHI 2012?                                                                                                                                             The NEW Face of SNA
                              Three New Programs are scheduled for SCHI 2012 –
           While the complete program and brochure will be ready in early December, we thought                                                                     The Southern Nursery Association (SNA) is undergoing an extreme makeover. There’s no
          you might like to know about these new events, so you can work them in to your schedule.                                                          radical surgery involved, but it’s certainly more than a fresh coat of paint or a new logo. This will
                     SC, NC and GA Pesticide Applicators’ Licenses re-certification credits                                                                 never be a tv reality show, but it’s a story worth telling.
                           have been applied for the presentations that may qualify.                                                                               After several years of economic pressure, industry change and consolidation, the 112-
                 You will be able to register on line and on the usual SCHI form in December.                                                               year old association found itself in a downward spiral. But a dedicated board of directors and
                                                                                                                                                            a core group of past presidents and members decided the association was worth saving.
Get Prepared for Spring – Spring BOOT CAMP                                       nematode sampling, and irrigation water testing as an integral part               It’s no more business as usual for SNA. The future focus will be on issues that cross state
                                                                                 of your management plan. We will discuss when you should use               lines and impact the region. Vital industry services, current news and relevant information will
Not just for Garden Center employees!                                            specific tests, how to properly take and submit samples, and how to
Friday, February 3, 2012 9:00 am – 1:15 pm Room 101                              interpret your lab results. Using these basic services and following       be delivered online through a new website scheduled to go live very soon. This new website will
Registration Fee $40 before 1/22/12 $50 after 1/22/12                            their recommendations will lead to healthier plants - saving you time,     feature a virtual marketplace, more than 10,000 pages of horticultural research, industry forums,
Pre-registration suggested – space limited                                       money, and headaches.                                                      blogs, email alerts, and more.
9:00 am - 10:00 am The Best and Brightest new Annual and
                                                                                                                                                                   At a recent board meeting, several committees were designated and will be functioning
                                                                                 12:15 pm - 1:15 pm Make Your Cash Registers Ring with Color                soon. These new committees will assist with efforts to provide communication, education,
Perennials – Results from the University of Georgia Trial Gardens                Felicity Henderson, Felicity’s Flowers                                     information and marketing opportunities throughout the region. In addition, the annual business
10:00 am - 11:00 Top 10 LEAST WANTED Pests in the Garden,                        Why sell a 4-pack of annuals when you can sell so much more.
                                                                                 Ideas for add on sales – some of the best combinations to make your        meeting and research conference have been scheduled and will be held in conjunction with
Meg William, Clemson University                                                                                                                             the GSHE in Mobile, AL in January of 2012.
A preview of the pests to look out for in spring gardens: How to                 cash register ring.
                                                                                                                                                                   You can expect to see many changes and lots of activity in the coming months as the
identify and control these pests in the home flower and vegetable
gardens. Preventive procedures will also be discussed.                           Round Tables Issues and Lunch                                              new website is launched, committees developed, member surveys conducted, regional news
                                                                                 Registration Fee $ 25 before 1/22/12 $30 after 1/22/12                     and information disseminated once again, and industry leaders recognized through the SNA
11:00 am - 11:15 am Break                                                        Lunch is included                                                          awards program. The end result of this makeover is sure to leave everyone smiling as SNA moves
                                                                                 Thursday, February 2, 2012 • 12:15 pm - 1:30 pm • Room 203                 forward with a new face!
11:15 am - 12:15 pm How to Take Useful Samples                                   Pre-Registration strongly Recommended! Space is limited to 40
Cory Tanner, Clemson University                                                  Pick a topic and pull up a chair. Discuss Industry Issues with your
Keeping plants healthy is the key to avoiding insect pests, diseases, and                                                                                                            For more information on the SNA, go to
                                                                                 peers, share ideas, and enjoy lunch.
other stress-related problems, and managing plants to avoid stress is
dependent on an overall understanding of the environmental conditions            Topics of Discussion:
in which they are being grown. This session will explain how you can
incorporate analytical services like soil testing, plant tissue analysis,        Employee Motivation and Retention
                                                                                 Discussion Leader, Derek Wade
                                                                                 Production Software/GPS/Technology/Job Tracking
                                                                                 Discussion Leader, Missy Mosny
                                                                                 Smart Technology
                                                                                 Discussion Leader, Sarah White
                                                                                 Immigration/ I-9’ s
                                                                                 Discussion Leader, TBA / Representative from SC- LLR
                                                                                 Surviving Shrinking Margins
                                                                                 Discussion Leader, Marge Rudisill
                                                                                                                                                                              New Adcock Ad to go here
                                                                                 Breakfast with Ambrosia Beetles AKA
                                                                                 Solutions for Scale Insects and Borers -
                                                                                 More Than Just Two Bricks
                                                                                 Registration Fee $ 35 before 1/22/12 $45 after 1/22/12                              Printer will scan and place this time
                                                                                 Breakfast Included       Room 203
                                                                                 Saturday, February 4 6:45 am – 9:00 am
                                                                                 Pre-Registration Recommended!
                                                                                 Pete Schultz, Virginia Tech
                                                                                 Chris Ranger, USDA
                                                                                 Juang-Horng “JC” Chong, Clemson Univeristy
                                                                                 Scale insects and various wood boring insects are two of the most
                                                                                 damaging pest groups of ornamental and shade trees grown in nursery
                                                                                 and landscape. Effective integrated management of these pests is
                                                                                 possible with an understanding of their life history, monitoring methods
                                                                                 and available management tools. This presentation will provide the
                                                                                 audience with information on the life history of scale insects and wood
                                                                                 boring insects (ambrosia beetles, clearwing moths and flathead borers),
                                                                                 the methods in detecting and monitoring their activity, and effective
                                                                                 management tools (e.g. pesticides and cultural control).

                                                                            32                                                                                                                               33
                   CITRUS for South Carolina
                                               by Darren Sheriff

Citrus are subtropical or warm temperature plants           them around the tree and then place a plastic
adapted to growing in sandy soils along floodplains.        sheet over it. This will give a few extra degrees of
To a degree, many parts of South Carolina greatly           protection, which is sometimes all that is needed. A
resemble Southeast Asia, the native habitats of             spotlight placed at the bottom of the tree, pointed
citrus. Rainfall patterns are also very similar.            up will also work. Just remember to have it removed
                                                            at sunrise or you risk the chance of burning the tree
Like many plants, citrus prefer well drained, loamy         or having it break dormancy. A southern or western
soil. Citrus can succeed in heavier clays as long           exposure will also give the 8-10 hours of sunlight that
as they are well drained. No citrus can stand               citrus enjoy most of the year.
wet feet and will rapidly decline under persistently
wet conditions. That being said, citrus need to be          There are many, many varieties of Citrus. Books upon
well watered at all times. They can be somewhat             books have been written about the cross breeding
drought tolerant depending upon variety, but all will       of the different varieties, both of natural crosses and
do better if given sufficient moisture. Remember,           man made. While you may not be able to grow the
Winter is the drier season and special attention            sweetest of Oranges in the upstate, there are some
will need to be given to citrus during this time.           cultivars that will work. Ambersweet, Hamlin and
                                                            Parson Brown are just a few. Grapefruits are also a
When planting citrus it is always a good idea to have       good choice to try. There is a Ruby Red Grapefruit
the soil tested. Citrus appear to be more sensitive         being grown in Columbia that produces some of the
to deficiencies and when they enter a new flush             most delicious fruit I have ever tasted. No protection,
of growth. New growth will immediately show the             no special treatment, just the perfect micro-climate.
deficiencies. Correcting them is a challenge after          Kumquats and their hybrids are also possible. Lemons
that! Slow release fertilizers with a ratio of 8-8-8 are    and Limes need to be avoided in the upstate areas,
excellent, especially if it also contains micronutrients    they are the most frost sensitive. There are a few
such as iron, magnesium and manganese. A foliar             decent Lemons and Limes that the rest of the state
feed (spraying the plants so the leaves absorb              can try (Meyer and Harvey Lemons- Persian and
the food) with fish emulsion is also a good idea.           Kaffir Limes). Tangerines or Satsumas (Kimbrough,
One of the very best fertilizers on the market is           Owari and Early St. Anne) are more good possibilities
put out by Espoma…..It is called Citrus-Tone. If            to try. This is just a tiny fraction of what is out there, a
Citrus-Tone is not available, the water soluable            little digging will uncover many more.
fertilizer used on Acid Loving plants is the next best
thing. You will want to start feeding the trees in          Purchasing Citrus trees can be somewhat of a
late February. Feed them about every 3 months,              challenge due to many quarantines that have
stopping by Labor Day. This will give the tree time         been put in place however. Charleston County and
to harden off the new growth before it gets cold.           Beaufort County are under quarantine for Citrus
                                                            Greening Disease. No citrus leaves, stems, twigs,
When it comes to where in the yard you should               plants or any other part of the plant can be moved
plant a citrus, there are a few factors that can            from these two counties. There are quarantines in
come into play. South Carolina does occasionally            place in many other parts of the country also, and
have some really cold snaps, below 28 degrees. A            PLEASE, under NO CIRCUMSTANCES should you bring
southern or western exposure is the best. If you can        any Citrus trees out of Florida, this is a major violation
plant it close to the house or a brick wall, this will      of the law.
give it some extra protection. The building or wall will
absorb heat during the day and give it back to the          McKenzie Farms up in Olanta (http://mckenzie-
tree at night. A mature citrus tree will handle down and Woodlanders in Aiken (http://
to 28 degrees or lower for a brief period of time. All are two places that you can
of this is subject to how long the freeze is and how        purchase cold hardy Citrus trees. They do not fall in
much time the tree has had to go dormant prior to           the quarantine areas.
the freeze event. Younger trees should have some            I am always willing to help out with your Citrus
additional protection. One of the most festive ways         questions, be it pest problems, where the
is to get some C-7 or C-9 Christmas lights the old          quarantines are, or cultivars to try, I can be reached
ones, the new ones don‘t produce any heat. Wrap             at

        For all my gardening friends, please check out:

                                                           34                                                              35
                    GREEN GONE BAD
                  Green Gone Bad
Featured Ornamental Plant – ELAEAGNUS PUNGENS (Thorny Olive, Silverthorn)
  Featured Ornamental Plant: Elaeagnus pungens (Thorny Olive, Silverthorn)

      Some exotic ornamental plants behave badly when they escape from the place they
      are planted. Infestations of these plants have negative impacts on nature. One of
      these plants is Elaeagnus pungens; common name: Thorny Olive or Silverthorn.

                                       Elaeagnus pungens is a dense evergreen shrub in the family
                                       Elaeagnaceae (not a true olive). The native range of Elaeagnus
                                       pungens is Eastern Asia. It was introduced in the U.S. as an
                                       ornamental plant in 1830. It has been frequently planted in
                                       hedgerows and on highway right-of-ways and is also used for
                                       landscaping. It has escaped ornamental plantings and begun to
                                       spread into natural areas in the midlands and coastal plains of
                                       South Carolina. An example of a severe infestation can be seen
                                       at The Audubon Society Wannamaker Preserve on the north side
                                       of Hwy.6, five miles east of Saint Matthews, S.C. A project to
  control this infestation is ongoing by members of the Columbia Audubon Society in order to improve
  habitats for native birds and restore the native plant community.

  Elaeagnus pungens shrubs typically have multiple stems and very dense
  branches with long shoots extending from the top. Twigs are brown with
  brown scales and hairy when young. The leaves are alternate, oval to
  elliptical, with irregular wavy margins and silvery surfaces especially
  underneath, 2-4 inches in length and thick. Axillary clusters of small,
  sweet-smelling, white to brown flowers develop in the fall. Fruit are
  small, red, dotted with small brown scales and develop in the spring.
  Thorny Olive resembles two other exotic olives, autumn olive and
  Russian olive which also have silvery foliage. It also can take the form of a climbing plant, growing
  over and shading out other plants. The name Silverthorn, comes from the thorns on its branches.

                                    Elaeagnus pungens often becomes a problem when it escapes from
                                    planted landscapes into natural areas. Because Thorny Olive is a
                                    fast-growing, weedy ornamental, it can grow and thrive in a variety
                                    of conditions, and can tolerant shade, drought, and salt. Mammals
                                    and birds disperse seed, widening its area of distribution.
                                    Reproduction also occurs via stem sprouts. Silverthorn can spread
                                    and climb into trees, leading to the displacement of native
                                    vegetation. When established, an infestation reduces biodiversity,
                                    wildlife habitat quality, available forage, and native insect life.

  It may not be widely known among horticulturalists and
  landscapers that this plant can be harmful to natural habitats.
  Please consider removing this species from your inventory and
  gardens. There are several native shrubs that can be sold and
  planted in its place. These include the evergreens Morella
  cerifera (wax myrtle), Ilex vomitoria (yaupon holly), Ilex glabra
  (inkberry), Ilex opaca (American holly), Baccharis halimifolia
  (groundseltree), Osmanthus americanus (wild olive or
  devilwood), Kalmia latifolia (mountain laurel), or Leucothoe           Escaped plant
  fontanesiana (highland doghobble).

  Please visit for more information.                    

                                                     36                                                   37
                                                         Rain Garden Plant Selections
                                                     Plants Tolerant of Drought and Flooding
                                          By Sarah A. White, Clemson University Nursery Extension Specialist

                        Red Columbine | Canadian Columbine| Wild Columbine | Rock-lily
                                                                   Aquilegia canadensis

                                              Site Conditions                                 Growth Habit

                               Light: Light shade, tolerates full sun if        Height & Width: 1-2.5’ h x 1-1.5’ w
                               daylight temperatures not too hot.

                               Zones: 3 - 8                                     Spacing: 2’ – 3’

                               Origin: Eastern North America                    Type: Herbaceous perennial

                               Moisture: Dry to moderately moist soils          Habit: Mounded, clumping.

                               Growth rate: Rapid, freely self-sow,             Flower: Showy, nodding, blood red with
                               plants short-lived (3-5 years). Seedlings        yellow (dominant) flowers to pink with
                               rapidly colonize gardens                         yellow flowers from March through July,
                                                                                usually 6 week bloom period.

                               Soil: Well-drained, loose, slightly acid.        Foliage: Basal and alternating up stem.
                               Prefers sandy loam with organic matter,          Either biternate (two groups of three) or
                               but tolerates a range of soil types –            triternate (groups of three leaflets). Dies
                               even clay if adequate organic matter             back to ground in mid to late autumn
                               present.                                         or earlier under drought conditions.

                               ‘Corbett’: 8-10” tall with pale yellow flowers. Does not tolerate heat as well
                                           as other A. canadensis cultivars. Prefers cool night temperatures.
                                           Selected by Richard Simon of Bluemont Nursery in Monkton, MD.
                               ‘Little Lanterns’: 12” tall, dwarf form of the original species. Flower color is similar
                                           to original species. Foliage is vigorous. Very similar to ‘Canyon Vistas1.’

                               Geographical variants1, 2:
                               Aquilegia canadensis var. australis – Florida variety. Triternate basal leaves.
                               Aquilegia canadensis var. coccinea – Slightly larger than straight species, “stout”
                                         spurs (tubes) and oblong sepals.

Rain Garden
                               Aquilegia canadensis var. latiuscula – Triternate basal leaves and slender floral

                    History: The Aquilegia genus         on the flowers that are reminiscent       Cultivation of red columbine

 Plant Selections
                    consists of about 65 species,        of eagle talons (from Latin               began in Europe and America
                    20 of which are native to North      “aquila” for “eagle”) or from the         in the mid-1600s. Aquilegia
                    America. The Aquilegia genus         Latin word “aquilex” for “water           canadensis is now considered
                    was named either after the spurs     finder” as nectar is abundant in          an    “old-fashioned” garden
                                                         floral spurs2, 3.
                                                                                                                 Continued on page 40
        38                                                                 39
Continued from page 39
                                       organic material is present           with sun-tolerant perennials such
                                       in the soil. Red columbine is         as Asclepias tuberosa (Butterfly

                                                                                                                                                  South Carolina
                                       ideally suited for rain gardens,      Milkweed, summer blooms),
                                       naturalized or wildflower gardens,    Baptisia australis (Blue false indigo,
                                       cottage gardens, and woodland
                                       gardens. Plants perform best in
                                                                             spring blooming), Conoclinium
                                                                             coelestinum (Hardy ageratum,                               Nursery and Landscape Association
                                       light shade with a few hours of       summer – fall blooming), Iris
                                       direct sunlight, though they are      sibirica (Siberian iris, late spring

                                                                                                                                                        Annual Awards
                                       tolerant of full sun conditions if    blooms), Muhlenbergia capillaris
                                       adequate moisture is present.         (Muhly grass), and Veronica
                                                                             spicata      (Spiked      speedwell,
                                       Care:       Of the columbine
                                       species, A. canadensis is least
                                       susceptible to leaf miner, which
                                                                             mid- to late-summer blooms).
                                                                             It can also be combined with
                                                                             light shade, shrubby species
plant. Native Americans utilized       can significantly disfigure other     including      evergreen        shrubs
A. canadensis as an aphrodisiac        columbine species and hybrids.        Mahonia bealei (Leatherleaf
(perfume) and for various
medicinal         (ethnobotanic)
                                       Be careful not to overwater           mahonia, yellow flowers in late              The Louis P. Parsons Outstanding Contribution to the
purposes; crushed seeds and
                                       during summer, as crowns are
                                       relatively susceptible to rot when
                                                                             winter, textural contrast) and
                                                                             Ilex vomitoria (Yaupon holly),               Horticultural / Nursery Industry:
roots were use to treat ailments       environmental conditions are          or deciduous shrubs such as
including headaches, heart             hot. Cutting back spent seed-         Callicarpa americana (American               This award is for someone who has been active for a number of years in our industry, although not
trouble, sore throat, as a salve for
poison ivy, and fever.
                                       heads or flowers can encourage        beautyberry, vivid purple fruit in fall      limited to this. It’s for someone who has helped direct our industry in a positive way by being active,
                                       a tidier appearance and may           through early winter), Fothergilla
                                       also promote renewed flowering.       gardenii (Dwarf fothergilla, white           supportive, and giving of their time and/or resources for the good of our state’s horticultural industry.
Features: From early March                                                   flowers spring, red/orange fall              A person who, over the years, has worked in nursery production or management, horticultural educa-
through early summer, red              Design considerations:                color), Hamamelis vernalis or H.
columbine creates a spectacular                                                                                           tion and/or support, landscape installation and/or landscape management. Someone who, because of
                                       Red columbine look best when          virginiana (Ozark witch hazel or
floral display of light, nodding       planted in clumps of three or more.   witch hazel, red, yellow, or orange          his or her pro-active efforts, has helped shape our industry into what it is today. The nominees for this
red and yellow flowers.     Red
columbine is pollinated by long-
                                       Grouping columbine permits            flowers in later winter/early spring),       award can come from anyone who’s a member of our state industry.
                                       concentration of the flowers into     Itea virginica (Virginia sweetspire,
tongued nectar-feeders such as         a cloud of color. As columbine        white, fragrant flowers summer,
hummingbirds, butterflies, and
hawk moths. Flower morphology
                                       reseed prolifically, plan plant
                                       placement in the garden so that
                                                                             red fall color), and many other
                                                                             rain garden species.
                                                                                                                          Outstanding SCNLA Member:
(funnel-shaped spur) prevents          colonizing seedlings enhance or
small bees from accessing nectar.      contribute to the garden design                                                    An Award for an SCNLA Member who during the past year has gone above and beyond in at least of
                                                                             Plants selected from:
                                       goal. In South Carolina, the floral   Rain Gardens: A Rain Garden Manual           the following areas: time, talents and influence freely given to improve themselves and/or their busi-
Siting: Red columbine is the           show typically begins in early-mid    for South Carolina Author: Katie
only columbine native to eastern                                             Giacalone
                                                                                                                          ness, their employees, our industry, our environment, our political clout on the state and/or federal
                                       March and continues into late
North America and its range            April or early May. In southern       Rain Gardening in the South:                 level, and the public’s perception about our industry. Or to a person who has successfully overcome a
extends south from Nova Scotia                                               Ecologically Designed Gardens for
                                       climates, columbine foliage can       Drought, Deluge, and Everything in           specific obstacle in their business. Or through planning, design, installation, and environmental stew-
through Florida, where it is now       be semi-evergreen, appearing
considered endangered4.        Its     when average temperatures
                                                                             Between. Authors Helen Kraus and             ardship, been outstanding in their field or work. Or a Retail Garden Center, it’s owner, or employee of
                                                                             Anne Spafford
habitat encompasses a range of         increase to above 40 °F.              Rain Gardens: Managing water                 the garden center who has through display, new ideas, advertising, labeling, industry promotions, and
soil and moisture gradients. Red                                             sustainably in the garden and designed
columbine can be found along                                                 landscape. Authors: Nigel Dunnett and
                                                                                                                          a general overall neat, clean appearance been outstanding in their field. The recipient should be a
                                       Red columbine is the most
the edges/borders of hardwood          vigorous columbine species, and       Andy Clayden                                 company or individual whose professionalism, work ethic, and stability has supported and represented
and conifer forests, in rocky,         thus is a good plant choice for                                                    our state industry well. The nominees for this award can come from one’s self, an employee, or others
wooded hillsides, ledges, slopes,                                            References:
                                       a back of border plant or as a           Armitage, A.M. 2008. Herbaceous           who are members of our industry.
marshy areas, and open glades.         screen. As the red columbine              Perennial Plants. 3rd ed. Stipes
                                       floral show lasts only around             Publishing LLC. Chicago.
Red columbine is tolerant of a
                                                                                                                          Outstanding Horticultural Student:
                                       6-weeks, it is important to plan      2
                                                                               Nold, R. 2003. Columbines: Aquilegia,
wide range of soil and moisture        companion plantings to provide            Paraquilegia, and Semiaquilegia.
conditions as long as adequate         additional garden backbone                Timber Press. Portland, Oregon.
                                                                               Rook, E.J.S. 2002. Aquilegia canadensis,
                                                                                                                          An award presented to a student who is pursuing a degree in some aspect of the horticulture profes-
                                       when red columbine begin to               Wild Columbine. Accessed 2 August
                                       fade in late summer/early fall.           2011.          sion. A student who has excelled and stands out above and beyond others through grades, interest,
                                       Suggested companion plants                bwca/nature/herbs/aquilegiacan.
                                       range in adaptation to sun or             html                                     participation, enthusiastic, self motivation, willingness to learn, and over all attitude. The nominees for
                                                                                Wennerberg, S. and M. Skinner.            this award can be 2 year students as well as those striving for higher degrees. Nominations may come
                                       shade conditions, so when utilizing
                                       suggested plants analyze specific         2004. Plant guide Red Columbine
                                                                                 (Aquilegia canadensis L.) USDA-          from teachers, professors, department heads, or if employed their employer.
                                       site conditions and choose plants         Natural Resource Conservation
                                       best adapted to that site.                Service, National Plant Data Center,
                                       Red columbine can be paired               Baton Rouge, LA.

                                                       40                                                                                                                     41
             Awards Program Nomination Form
                 Deadline for Entry: November 30, 2011
    Mail to: Nominating Committee / SCNLA • 4661 Crystal Drive • Columbia, SC 29206                                                                     All Natural Potting Mix - Who cares if it’s a
                                                                                                                                                        blended, PH balanced, Bark Media! Dirt is Dirt

                                                                                                                                                        isn’t it?
                                                                                                                                                        Humates and Specially Blended Slow Release
                                                                                                                                                        Fertilizers - Who cares about root building,

Name of Nominee: _______________________________________________                                                                                        healthier and hardier plants! Fertilizer is Fertilizer
                                                                                                                                                        isn’t it?
Nominees Firm/School: ___________________________________________                                                                                       Spin Out - Who cares if the roots circle in the

Nominees Address: ______________________________________________
                                                                                                                                                        container! A pot is a pot isn’t it?
                                                                                                                                                        Staking - Who cares if the trunks aren’t straight!

phone and fax numbers: __________________________________________                                                                                       Crooked trunks have more character don’t they?
                                                                                                                                                        Pruning - Who cares about uniformity and con-

Category: (please check one)
                                                                                                We’ve Been Accused                                      sistency! Unpruned plants fill in better and have
                                                                                                                                                        better shape don’t they?

( ) Outstanding Contribution to the Horticulture/Nursery Industry                                   of Paying Too                                                   Who Cares?
( ) Outstanding SCNLA Member                                                                                                                                         We Do!!
( ) Outstanding Horticulture Student                                                              Much Attention                                               “Growers of 15-30 gallon quality

                                                                                                   to our Plants...                                              containerized plant material”

Based on the Awards Descriptions, please write a narrative description of why this person
is being nominated. Any pertinent information, newspaper articles, other awards, stories,
contributions, photos and/or plans may be attached and included.                                                  1-800-255-0928





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                                          42                                                                                             43
                                                                                                                                       to accept the budget with the proposed changes. It was

                                                                                                                                       seconded and all approved.

                                                                                                                                       Upcoming Events: Foster reported the joint program
                                                                                                                                       with the SC Landscape and Turf Grass Association on
                                                                                                                                       business management for Landscape Contractors
                                                                                                                                       is scheduled for August 2. Foster has been including
                                                                                                                                       brochures in dues notices and will do a broadcast fax
                                  South Carolina Nursery & Landscape Association                                                       in late June. Registration for the event is already on the
                                              Board Meeting Minutes                                                                    website. The Fall Field Day is scheduled for September 28.
                                                    June 16, 2011                                                                      Included in the grant requests were funds for a marketing
                                                                                                                                       seminar to be held in February. Foster asked if the Board
                                 Palmetto Agri-Business Council Conference Room, SC                                                    wanted her to plan a nursery tour for 2012. They said yes
                                                                                                                                       and made suggestions for possible locations. Foster will
Present: Kirk Young, Kari Whitely, Tom Young, Don                       motion was made for Foster to contact Helms-Briscoe            follow up.
Brookshire, David Rickenbaker, Carson Aull and Mandi                    about our 2015 contract in Myrtle Beach. Forster reported
Cothran                                                                 that the ANLA sponsored Webinar on I-9 audits offered to       Research Endowment Fund:
                                                                        several southern states had 94 participants but none of        Foster asked the Board to start thinking of possible fund
Also Present: Jackie Moore, Donna Foster, Sarah White,                  them were from SC. It was sad that no one from SCNLA           raising ideas for the REF.
and Gary Spires                                                         participated when others felt it was worthwhile.
                                                                                                                                       Specialty Crop Grants: Foster reported that the
President Kirk Young called the meeting to order at 9:35                Specialty Crop Grants:                                         SC Department of Agriculture Specialty Crops Grant
am. He introduced Kari Whitley who was unable to attend                 Foster reported that the SC Department of Agriculture          reimbursement of $8,600 for 2010-11 had been received.
the first meeting of the year. He said he hoped everyone                Specialty Crops Grant reimbursement of $8,600 for 2010-        She had written a grant proposal for 2011-12 for $24,000.
was having a good spring or at least better than last year.             11 had been received. She had written a grant proposal         The funds would be used for 6 programs – some existing,
He said the Charleston area was in a drought situation.                 for 2011-12 for $24,000. The funds would be used for 6         some new. We should hear in a few weeks if the proposal
He said that his company and other landscapers in the                   programs – some existing, some new.                            was approved.
Charleston area had been audited by The SC Department
of Labor, Licensing and Regulation. From the news reports               SCHI 2012:                                                     Research Endowment Fund Update: Foster asked the
it looked like “E-verify” would become mandatory and                    Sponsorship – Foster suggested that there be a sponsorship     group to start thinking of fund raising projects for the REF.
that Spires would give a full report in his legislative update.         committee for SCHI. Other groups are very successful at        The REF’s year end is June 30. The financial files will go to
This brought up a discussion on the shortage of labor for               raising sponsorship funds. Young appointed McAbee as           the CPA along with the SCNLA files later in July.
agriculture. The new Immigration legislation in Alabama                 sponsorship chairman. Several board members started
has growers there very concerned with labor shortages                   lists of their suppliers that might be sponsors. Foster will   Clemson Update: White reported that she was heading
and a preview of what could happen in SC. It was                        order “sponsor” ribbons to place in their booths and           up a grant to collect information on production nursery
suggested that students in FFA might be a good source                   sponsors will be announced during the show. We will            water run-off. And depending in the results, may be able
for summer help and internships and future employees.                   again hold the silent auction and Marge Rudisill will be the   to get a grant to develop better ways to control water run
Foster will follow up with contacts to FFA leaders.                     chair. There was a discussion adding a new social event        off. The CU Horticulture
                                                                        to SCHI but no final decision was made.
Executive Director’s Report:                                                                                                           SC Department of Agriculture Update: Moore reported
Foster discussed The Risk Management Agency’s possible                  There was a discussion about hotel contacts for 2012. We       that the SCDA has a new program that sends text
changes to the crop insurance program. The grower                       already have the 2012 contract with the Sheraton Myrtle        messages to participants with the latest farmers market
members of the Board reviewed the information and                       Beach but The Breakers contact is done from year to            events and crop approvals. She also passed out a
said it didn’t look like it would be much help for nursery              year. It was decided to not have a contract for rooms          brochure on the new Columbia Farmers Market.
stock growers. Foster reported that Scott Gear, with the                with The Breakers in 2012 since we were obligated to fill
US Department of Labor, wage and Hour division, had                     ours room block at the Sheraton (since the Sheraton and        Legislative Update: Spires reported that the SC General
retired. Gear had been good to work with in the past and                the Convention Center are both owned by the City of            Assembly was back in session trying to finish up business
at the present time his replacement has not been named.                 Myrtle Beach, using the convention center is contingent        for this session. Topics include immigration, re-districting.
There was a discussion on the discount prescription                     on blocking rooms at the Sheraton).                            The current immigration legislation would make e-verify
cards that had been offered to the Association by Rx                                                                                   mandatory but the exemption for growers is still in place.
Cut. Foster had gone to the website and reviewed                        Budget:                                                        Other southern states are enacting their own immigration
participating pharmacies. Board members had heard of                    The Board reviewed the 2011-12 Budget prepared                 legislation but also dealing with elements that may not
similar programs but there was great concern on “what                   by Foster. The budget reflected a short fall. Possible         be constitutional. The SC Unemployment tax went up
the catch” was and a hesitance to give them to members                  adjustments discussed were raising dues which have not         dramatically for many of the brackets this past year but
without more information. SCNLA had exhibited at “ A SC                 been raised since 2003, getting sponsors for SCHI, stop        new adjustments have been added to help ease this.
Taste” in May. This event promotes SC commodities to the                the CLT program, publish the membership directory on a         The budget for SC was not as bad as anticipated. There
SC General Assembly and their staff on the State House                  cd, stop printing the magazine and post it on line. After      seems to be a compromise on changes in the Pesticide
grounds. Foster said it was a good event but since we                   a long discussion it was decided to raise active member        Applicator’s licensing question that a few legislators
didn’t really have food to give out we could use our time               dues to $125, which is still in line with surrounding state    questioned. Spires reminded everyone that the Intrastate
and resources better at other events. The PABC legislative              nursery associations and much less than other industries.      DOT number is required by November 1, 2011.
breakfast had gone well. The turn out was good for the                  There was a motion to raise active member dues to $125
first year. The Legislators really like the gerbera daisies that        per year and to raise bronze club member dues to $200,         Old Business: There was no old business.
we gave out. Foster asked the board if SCNLA should                     silver will remain $300 and Gold $500 to effective August 1,
use the meeting procurement company Helms-Briscoe                       2011. The motion was seconded and all approved. Foster         New Business: There was no new business.
to negotiate our future hotel contracts. She had spoken                 will survey advertisers about having the magazine on line
with representatives of these companies. We would not                   only and report their comments back to the board. Other        There was a motion to adjourn. It was seconded, all
pay any fees for their use. There was a discussion and                  changes: the CLT test will be dropped. There was a motion      approved. The meeting was adjourned at 1:40 pm

                                                                   44                                                                                                                                  45
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Figure 1. A swarm of Bradford pear seedlings

                                 Bradford (Callery) Pear:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              developing in a stand of native grasses.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     They arose from the clump of landscape trees in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the background. Photo courtesy of author.

                           An Invasive Plant Problem
                                                                         By Bill Stringer

                Like most of us, Bradford Pears have a dark side.......
Bradford Pear (Pyrus calleryana) has                     forbs, shrubs and native tree seedlings.                    produce seedlings with long, sturdy,
endured a long history of ambivalence.                   This will dramatically reduce the                           woody thorns (See figure 3). So the
Its huge show of white flowers in                        native plant diversity of the site. A                       trees that develop from the dense stand
early spring has made it a very popular                  site that might contain an attractive,                      of seedlings in Figure 1 will grow into
landscape tree in home, urban and                        interesting community of native                             a hostile thicket that will be dangerous
industrial site landscapes. But then,                    grasses, sunflowers, asters and native                      place to walk your pet, or for your
its weak stem and branch structure                       legumes is converted to an ecologically                     children to play in.
create huge splitting problems in our                    barren monoculture of Bradford pears.
occasional winter ice storms, when                       This loss of plant diversity has impacts                    So the invasive nature of Bradford
folks have to saw it up and haul it                      far beyond the plant world.                                 pear has the potential to radically
away. However, Pyrus calleryana                                                                                      change the natural landscape in your
has a third side which makes it a                        2) Bradfords are known to have few                          neighborhood. Diverse native plant
very poor choice for our landscapes.                     insect herbivores, so a dense thicket                       communities will be converted to a
It is proving to be highly invasive of                   of them produces very little biomass                        boring thicket of pear trees. The                                          Figure 3.
surrounding open land.                                   of native caterpillar and other insect                      loss of native species communities,                   Heavy thorns on Bradford pear
                                                                                                                                                                                       seedlings. Ouch!!
                                                         larvae. “Well, that’s wonderful”, you                       and their complex web of insect                            Photo courtesy of author.
Why invasive?        Most Bradfords                      might say, but you’d be wrong. A                            herbivores, will create an ecologically
produce copious crops of small (1/2                      strong connection has been established                      barren community of little value in
inch) hard pears. With the onset of                      between the amount of insect biomass                        the support of breeding populations of
cooler weather, these fruits soften up                   produced on a landscape and the                             songbirds and other wildlife. And the
a bit and become very popular with                       breeding success of songbirds on the                        pear forest will be a hostile, thorny,
birds. The seeds pass through the birds                  landscape. Caterpillars and other                           dangerous place, fit for neither man nor
and get deposited on the surrounding                     insect larvae are the staple food needed                    beast. All this from a home landscape
land. These seeds are very viable                        to grow songbirds to maturity. Adult                        tree that at best will last 15-20 years?
and germinate and establish in large                     songbirds have to work really hard to                       In my opinion, it doesn’t add up.
numbers. The result can be dense                         find enough food for their babies in
populations of young pear seedlings                      areas with low density of insect larvae.                    But there are some beautiful native
(see Figs. 1 and 2) which can quickly                    What kinds of plants produce insect                         tree species alternatives that are not
become a large thicket in areas that are                 biomass? The answer is: native trees,                       invasive, and that are compatible with
not mowed at least annually. If not                      shrubs, vines and herbaceous plants.                        songbirds and other wildlife. These
mowed, the fast growing seedlings will                   Introduced species like Bradfords have                      include:
become a dense “forest”.                                 low numbers of insect species that                          Various hawthorns, Crataegus L. *
                                                         can reproduce on them. Thus a dense                         Serviceberry, Amelanchier Medik.
“Well, what’s wrong with that?”                          planting of Bradford pears will be an                       Redbud, Cercis L.
you might ask. “Won’t that be a                          empty plate for breeding songbirds.                         Fringetree, Chionanthus L.
spectacular sight in early spring?”                      The diverse native plant community                          Red maple, Acer rubrum L.
Maybe, but there are actually several                    that was displaced by pears would                           Southern sugar maple, Acer
severe problems that arise from such a                   be a much better habitat for breeding                       barbatum Michx.
development:                                             songbirds
                                                                                                                     (*Latin names are hyperlinks to
1) The dense cover of pear trees                         3) Seeds from the thornless Bradford                        information pages on the USDA Plants
rapidly shades out native grasses,                       trees used in landscaping actually                          website)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Figure 2. Bradford seedlings at the base of a handy
   For more information on invasiveness of Bradford pears, go to: Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas at:                                              bird roosting site across the street from several
                                          For information on the links between native plants, native insects and songbirds read:                                                                                 landscape specimens. Photo courtesy of the author.
                                     Bringing Nature Home: How Native Plants Sustain Wildlife in Our Gardens, by Douglas Tallamy.

                                                                                   46                                                                                                                       47
                                                with move-in at the SCHI trade          7th place (out of 54) –                  of 804 students): Jaime Morin - 20th,
                                           1    show, the Rent-a-Student program        Truck and Trailer Operation: Jonathan    Jonathan Holmes – 43rd, Kyle Worthy
                                                (students moved furniture, designed     Holmes and Chris White.                  – 90th and Jonathan Smith – 96th.
          Student                               landscapes, spread mulch, eradicated
                                                ancient ivy and vinca plantings, and    8th place (out of 79) –
                                                                                                                                 Other team members contributing to
                                                                                                                                 the overall boosted performance were
           Career                               washed roots for research), a garden
                                                bench raffle, Bojangles’ nights, and
                                                                                        Business Management: Kyle Worthy,        Tim Knauer, Jackie Seles and Griffin

          Days 2011                             a plant sale held in conjunction with
                                                the SC Botanical Gardens spring sale
                                                                                        9th place (out of 48) –
                                                                                        Leadership Skills: Jaime Morin,          After the competition, we moved to
                                                (which generated $3000). All together                                            downtown Chicago for a night and
       Joliet Junior College,                   over $10,000 was donated and raised     13th place (out of 79) –                 enjoyed more Chicago pizza and the
                                                for the trip.                           Turf and Weeds: Kyle Worthy,             City sights (Millennium Park, the
              Joliet IL                                                                                                          Hancock Tower, Art Institute and
                                                Our goal for the competition is to      15th place (out of 49) –                 Field Museum). On our final day,
         Authors: Jeanne Briggs and Bob         always improve over the previous        Irrigation Assembly: Andrew Bullard      we visited the BallHort headquarters
                    Polomski                    year’s performance, and the students    and CR Jolly,                            in W. Chicago where we toured the
       School of Agricultural, Forestry, and    succeeded. Clemson University rose                                               new premiere seed lab facilities and
         Environmental Science, Clemson         in overall ranking to 15th place out    17th place (out of 54) –                 greenhouses, and then travelled to
                                                of 60 schools. (All of the higher-      Paver and Retaining Wall Installation:   Garfield Park Conservatory (the oldest
                                                ranking schools but one were            Mick Colacurcio and CR Jolly,            in the US), which was magnificent.
     Twelve Clemson students (11                comprised of teams much larger than
     horticulture majors and one                ours.) Individual competitive event     18th place (out of 40) –                 Congratulations to all of the students
     construction management major)             accomplishments include:                Wood Construction: Mick Colacurcio       on their outstanding performance!
     participated in the 35th Annual Student                                            and Kirk Holmes.                         Next year, Kansas State University
     Career Days competition in March.          4th place (out of 59) –                                                          will be hosting the event and we are
     This year Joliet Junior College,           Landscape Plant Installation: Kirk      Four students had total scores that      looking forward to another even more
     located just south of Chicago, hosted      Holmes, Jaime Morin and Kyle            earned rankings in the top 100 (out      successful competition.
     the event. Over 800 students from          Worthy,
     60 colleges and universities gathered
     to compete in 28 events that test
     knowledge and skills used in the
     landscape industry. Students also
     participate in training workshops
     conducted by industry leaders and
     attend the largest career fair for the
     landscape workforce.

     The Clemson University student team
     enrolls in a variable credit course,
     PLANET SCD Preparation (Hort
     400, Sec 1), which meets weekly for
     study sessions and also participates in
     extracurricular fund raising activities.
     Instructors are Jeanne Briggs and
     Bob Polomski. All expenses for
     the trip are covered by industry and
     association sponsorships and student
     generated revenues. This year our
     generous and most appreciated
     sponsors were Bartlett Tree Experts,
     CU Horticulture Club, Color
     Burst, Enviro AgSciences, Greater
     Columbia Landscape Association,
     HiCotton Greenhouses, Hunter
     Industries, Martin Nursery, SC
     Greenhouse Growers Association,
     SC Landscape and Turf Association,
     SC Nursery and Landscape
     Association, and WP Law. Student
     fund raising activities included helping

48                                                                                                        49
      Tree of Merit                                    National Brands, Homegrown Diversity
         Chinese Fringetree
        (Chionanthus retusus)
     One of the most enjoyable and reward-
     ing aspects of urban forestry is making the
     annual rounds to visit wholesale tree nurser-
     ies to select and tag trees for planting. Those
     foresters who order a specific list of trees by
     phone or through a broker are missing an
     opportunity to discover hidden treasures in
     the form of tree species or cultivars that are
     new or overlooked. One small species that is
     well worth the search is Chinese Fringetree,
     Chionanthus retusus. Originally introduced
     from Asia in 1845, the USDA Hardiness
     Zone for this tree ranges from 5 to 9B/10A

     While the native Fringetree, Chionanthus
     virginicus, may be better known, Chinese
     Fringetree has consistently provided supe-
     rior performance in Savannah, Georgia. The
     southern type of Chinese Fringetree can be
     grown as a standard in tree form, with a
     mature height and width range of 15 to 25
     feet. This superb tree has many desirable
     attributes. In the spring it is an absolute
     showstopper, displaying an explosion of cas-
     cading lacy white blooms on new terminal
     shoots as foliage emerges, whereas the native
     Fringetree flowers on older wood, prior to
     leaf emergence. During the growing season,
     rounded leaves are thick and leathery, with a
     lustrous dark green color which persists late
     into the year, slowly changing to yellow in
     December, occasionally even into January.

     Chinese Fringetree has proven to be more tol-                                   Licensed Grower of Encore Azalea®
     erant of a wider range of site conditions than
     traditional ornamentals. It grows well in full
     sun to partial shade, can handle occasional
     drought or wet feet, has few pest problems,
     and can thrive in the heat. One potential
     criticism from a management standpoint is
     that once established, annual terminal shoot
     growth in an optimal location can approach
     two feet or more. This can lead to an imbal-
     anced crown if uncorrected. Periodic pruning
     is necessary to maintain shape and form of
     specimen trees; however, the effort is well
     worth the reward.

     Individual seedling grown Chinese
     Fringetrees have a unique character which
     makes them a fine choice for use as a speci-
     men ornamental. Chionanthus retusus ‘Tokyo
     Tower’ is a new introduction from Japan with
     a narrow, upright growth habit (15-20’ height
     x 5-7’ width) that offers a great option for
     those smaller planting spaces that don’t quite
     accommodate a larger tree.
                                              • 1.800.942.1648 • FAX 919.773.0904 •
South Carolina Nursery & Landscape Association
4661 Crystal Drive
Columbia SC 29206


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