The Renaissance

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					The Renaissance
    1485-1660
           The Renaissance
    Beginning in the late 1400’s, the English
Renaissance marked changes in people’s
values, beliefs, and behaviors.
    The word renaissance means “re-birth”. It
refers particularly to renewed interest in
classical learning: Greek language, reading, art.
There was also a renewal of the human spirit –
curiosity and creativity. Today we still use the
term “Renaissance person” for an energetic and
productive human being who is interested in
science, literature, history, art, and other
academic subjects.
                     Italy
I.   Italy
       A. The Renaissance began in Italy in the 14th
       Century and lasted until the 16th Century
       B. Most people were wealthy from banking
       and trading with the East
       C. Important people:
           1. Leonardo da Vinci – artist
           2. Michelangelo – artist
           3. Christopher Columbus – explorer
           4. Galileo - scientist
               Italy
D. Religion –
    1. Catholic
    2. Catholic church was rich and powerful,
    even in political affairs
    3. Many popes were lavish patrons of
    artists, architects, and scholars.
    4. Pope Julius II – hired Michelangelo to
    paint scenes from the Bible on the ceiling
    of the Sistine Chapel: the creation, the
    fall, the flood, etc.
               Humanism
II. Humanism – An intellectual movement
     dealing with academics.
     A. The people continue reading and found
     answers to age old questions through
     Latin, Greek, and Christianity.
     B. They tried to harmonize the Bible and
     the classics.
     C. The Humanists learned the aim of life
     was to attain virtue, not success, money,
     or fame.
           Humanist
D. Desiderius Erasmus – Dutch monk who
lived outside the monastery and loved to
travel. He taught Greek at Cambridge,
where he met Thomas More.
E. Thomas More – Wrote Latin poems,
pamphlets, biographies, and Utopia. He
held many important offices, and was
knighted as Lord Chancellor, one of the
king’s prime ministers.
*Both these men helped shape European
thought and history.
              Technology
IV. The printing press
      A. Transformed the way information was
     exchanged – Johannes Gutenberg
     B. Few books had been available because
     they had previously been written by hand
     C. Latin Bible printed in 1455
     D. By 1500 inexpensive books were
     available throughout western Europe
             Reformation
V. The Church
     A. People rejected the authority of the
    pope and the Italian churchmen
    B. By the 1530’s, an open break from the
    church could not be avoided
    C. Patriotism and national identity made
    the English people resent the financial
    burdens imposed on them by the Vatican,
    pope.
         Reformation
D. New religious ideas were coming into
England from the continent, especially
Germany
     1. Martin Luther had founded
     a new kind of Christianity
     2. It was not founded on what the
     pope said, but what the Bible said
            King Versus Pope
VI. King and the Pope don’t agree
     A. Henry VIII wanted to get rid of his wife of
     24 years, but divorce was not allowed
     B. Henry tried to persuade Clement VII to
     agree because Catherine of Aragon had been
     married to his brother Arthur, which had
     been against the law in the first place
          King Versus Pope
C. Henry had two reasons for wanting a
    divorce:
          1. Catherine was too old to have
          children and had only had a girl
          2. He was in love with Anne Boleyn,
          Henry’s favorite; Henry had earlier
          seduced her sister
D. The pope could not grant the divorce
    because he was controlled by Catherine’s
    nephew, the emperor of Spain
           King Versus Pope
E. Upon the refusal of the pope, Henry VIII
    simply declared himself head of the
    church in 1533
F. He appointed a new archbishop of
    Canterbury who gratefully declared his
    marriage invalid, although Catherine
    would not agree
G. Henry closed all of England’s monasteries
    and sold the building and land
          King Versus Pope
H. Sir Thomas More, now Lord Chancellor of
     England, could not agree with his friend,
     Henry, being head of the church. So,
     Henry had him beheaded
I. This began Protestantism in England and the
     beginning of the Protestant Reformation
          England’s Lineage
The Tudor lineage
      A. Henry VII (1457-1509) – He was a shrewd,
      patient, and stingy man who restored peace
      and order to the kingdom
      B. Henry VIII (1509-1547) – He was ruthless.
      He had six wives, to all of whom he was
      unfaithful. Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard
      were beaheaded for suspicion of infidelity. He
      did, however, create the Royal Navy.
         England’s Lineage
C. Henry had three children:
    1. Mary, daughter of Catherine of Aragon
    2. Elizabeth, daughter of Anne Boleyn
    3. Edward, son of Jane Seymour
D. Edward became king at age nine. He died
    of tuberculosis.
E. Mary took over after Edward’s death. She
    was determined to get revenge for her
    mother’s death, so she restored the
    pope’s power and hunted down
    Protestants. She burned 300 of her
    subjects at the stake, which earned her
          England’s Lineage
F. Elizabeth came to power in 1558. She
     reestablished the Church of England and
     took power away from the pope. Elizabeth
     became known as “the virgin queen” after
     rejecting every marriage proposal
     throughout her life. Her intelligence and
     independence made her reign one of the
     most successful in English history.
      Historical Turning Point
A.   King Phillip of Spain, Mary’s widower,
     invaded England
B.   In 1588, the English Royal Navy defeated
     the Spanish Armada.
C.   This victory assured England's
     independence.
     Decline of the Renaissance
A.   James VI of Scotland, son of
     Elizabeth’s cousin Mary,
     became ruler after Elizabeth’s
     death.
B.   James wrote books in favor
     of the divine right of kings,
     against tobacco, he
     patronized Shakespeare,
     sponsored a new translation
     of the Bible, and a peaceful
     ruler.
    Decline of the Renaissance
C. Charles I, his son, was beheaded by his
     subjects.
D. For 11 years England was ruled by
     Parliament.
E. The last great write of the period was John
     Milton.
F. By this time, political and secular values
     were beginning to challenge religious
     doctrines.
Shakespeare’s Theater
      The Birth of the English
            Playhouse
In 1558, there were no
 playhouses in England.
The Puritan city council disagreed
 with the “play-acting,” claiming it
 was an act of idolatry.
In 1574, acting was banned from
 London.
The  actors bought land
 nearby and created their own
 acting company, building a
 playhouse.
           The Globe
 Builtin 1599, the Globe theater
  was home to Shakespeare; it was
  the “re-birth” of theater.
 Henry V was the first play to be
  performed at the theater.
 Scholars believe that the Globe
 was a circular structure, formed
 by three tiered, thatch roof
 galleries that served as seating
 for the audience.
      Lords and Groundlings
 Plays were usually performed in the
  afternoon before a diverse audience
  of about two thousand.
 Galleries: Members of the nobility
  and upper class.
 “Groundlings,” lower class, could
  stand and watch from the courtyard
  for only a penny.
 Groundlingsdid not hesitate to
 shout comments to the actors on
 stage, good or bad.
 Vendors sold snacks throughout
 the play as well.
    Theatrical Conventions
 Most  of Shakespeare’s characters
  speak in blank verse, unrhymed
  lines of iambic pentameter.
 Each line is divided into feet, with
  the stress falling on every second
  syllable.
  Acting was seen as to indelicate
  for women, so female roles were
  played by boys.
 Costumes were colorful and
  elaborate versions of regular
  Elizabethan dress.
 Scenery  was nonexistent.
 The beginning of the play was
  announced by a blaring trumpet,
  and the start of a new scene was
  signaled by the entrance of the
  appropriate character.
 Scholarsestimate that a typical
 performance of Shakespeare's
 lasted only about two hours.
   The Globe’s Comeback
 The original Globe Theater was
 destroyed in 1613, when a
 cannon set off to mark the
 entrance of the king during a
 performance of Henry VIII
 accidentally set the thatched roof
 on fire.
 1614,  the Globe was rebuilt and
  stood until 1644 when it was torn
  down to clear land for new housing.
 A replica of the theater stands on
  the bank of the Thames River; it
  opened in 1997, its first production:
  Henry V.
      Project: Due November 25
Create the Globe theater in 3-D:
   Popsicle sticks
   Wood
   Paper Mache


  Must include
   People (toy figures, created figures, etc.)
   Curtains and stage
   Tiers and thatched roof on part
   Exact replica (use notes and research)

				
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