Exploring Migration Conference by evamoar


									                 Exploring Migration: A Graduate Student Conference

                   Sussex Centre for Migration Research (SCMR), University of Sussex

                                                         Day 1
Thursday 21 June                                                                      Fulton Building FUL 103
09:00 – 09:30           Registration & Morning Coffee
09:15                   Opening Remark
09:30 – 11:15                      1st Panel ‘Vulnerable Migrant Communities in Asia’
                        Chair: Sajida Ally
        09:30 – 09:45   Waji Hamid
                        ‘Exclusion and fear amidst the ‘scale-makers’ of Singapore’s Little India’
        09:45 – 10:00   Danesh Jayatilaka
                         ‘Resettlement in post-war Sri Lanka: a mixed method analyzing the recovery of IDPs’
        10:00 – 10:15   Raja Adnan Razzaq
                        ‘Cargo of Miseries: Host-Stranger Conflicts and the State’s response to refugee influx in the
        10:15 – 10:30   Uke Kshipra
                        ‘Hindu Nationalism, identity and marginalisation in Indian Diasporic Literature in the US’
        10:30 – 11:15   Q&A
11:15 – 11:30           Break
11:30 – 13:00                  2nd Panel ‘Subjective Constructions of Migrant Realities’
                        Chair: Gunjan Sondhi
        11:30 – 11:45   Claire Bennett
                        ‘Seeking asylum in the UK: the Perspectives of lesbian asylum seekers’
        11:45 – 12:00   Jean Pierre Gauci
                        ‘So Much for My Happy Ending: Persecution of Trafficked Persons’
        12:00 – 12:15   Aderajew Teshome
                        ‘The ambivalence of ‘consent’ in conceptualising trafficking in person’
        12:15 – 13:00   Q&A
13:00 – 14:00           Lunch
14:00 – 15:45                              3rd Panel ‘Governance on Migration’
                        Chair: Vanessa Iaria
        14:00 – 14:15   Bani Gill
                        ‘In the name of Security: Violations at the Barmer border’
        14:15 – 14:30   Satoko Horii
                        ‘EU Border Management and the Role of Frontex: the Case of the Border Guard Training’
        14:30 – 14:45   Cosmas Ukachukwu Ikegwuruka
                        ‘Immigration Control in the United Kingdom and the Liberal democratic paradox’
        14:45 – 15:00   Gioia Caminada
                        ‘How do stakeholders influence migration policy? An analysis of Poverty Reduction
                        Strategies in the Commonwealth of Independent States’
        15:00 – 15:45   Q&A
15:45                   Concluding Remark
SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                                    21-22 June 2012
                                                                                  Fulton Build. University of Sussex

                                                         Day 2

Friday 22 June                                                                            Fulton Building FUL 101
09:00 – 09:15           Morning Coffee
09:15 – 10:45                          1st Panel ‘Mixed and Textual Methodologies’
                        Chair: Satoko Horii
        09:15 – 09:30   Fran Meissner
                        ‘Disentangling complexity through networks: Urban super-diversity and the clustering of homophily’
        09:30 – 09:45   Alisa Van Kleef
                        ‘Friend or Foe: The Migrant Laborer in Weimar Germany’
        09:45 – 10:00   Tommaso Caiazza
                        ‘Italians in San Francisco: an extra-ordinary experience? ’
        10:00 – 10:45   Q&A
10:45 – 11:00           Break
11:00 – 12:45                   2nd Panel ‘Crossing Borders, Boundaries and Networks’
                        Chair: Fran Meissner
        11:00 – 11:15   Romaine Farquet
                         ‘Homeland Politics and Emotions: Transnational Engagement among Albanian-speaking
                        Migrants from Yugoslavia to Switzerland’
        11:15 – 11:30   Michelle Majeed
                         ‘“It’s All About Who You Know: Guyanese migrant networks and their role in the health of
                        those in the country of origin”’
        11:30 – 11:45   Lorenzo Piccoli
                        ‘Immigration and national minorities: redrawing identity boundaries, projecting integration
                        policies A comparative study of Québec and South Tyrol’
        11:45 – 12:00   Natasha King
                        ‘Practising a no border perspective in the city: Radical migrant solidarity and the 300 hunger
        12:00 – 12:45   Q&A
12:45 – 13:45           Lunch
13:45 – 15:30                             3rd Panel ‘Forced Migration and Return’
                        Chair: Danesh Jayatilaka
        13:45 – 14:00   Sonja Fransen
                        ‘Return Migration and Social Cohesion in Burundi: The Mediating Role of Land Scarcity’
        14:00 – 14:15   Vanessa Iaria
                        ‘Iraqi refugees’ return and transnational livelihoods in the Middle East’
        14:15 – 14:30   Ine Lietaert
                        ‘Returnees’ perspectives on their return processes to the South Caucasian Republics Georgia
                        or Armenia’
        14:30 – 14:45   Bogumil Terminski
                        ‘Mining- Induced Displacement and Resettlement. Theoretical Frameworks and Current
        14:45 – 15:30   Q&A
15:30                   Concluding Remark
Day 1 Panel 1: ‘Vulnerable Migrant Communities in Asia’

        Exclusion and fear amidst the ‘scale-makers’ of Singapore’s Little India
        Wajihah Hamid
        School of Global Studies, Migration Studies
        University of Sussex

        This presentation looks at a highly contested urban transnational space - Singapore’s Little India as an
        intersection to explore the positionality of South Asian male migrant workers in contemporary
        Singapore society and their dislocation within the physical and metaphorical space. It will explore how
        Little India becomes a space of exclusion for the workers vis-à-vis the other multiple users. Reports
        from the state’s newspaper is used as a case study to illustrate the reinforcement of the marginal position
        occupied by these workers within Little India itself and the Singapore society at large. This presentation
        will contend that while the state rhetoric has made these workers transient, these workers do at times
        have transnational sensibilities and their own agency as they thread this contested space and the larger
        Singaporean society. Consequently, these male migrant workers should be viewed as ‘scale-makers’
        rather than the ‘othered’ marginal labour migrants. Scholars need to recognise the role of these labour
        migrants beyond remittance, while the state should accord these workers some due recognition.

        Resettlement in post-war Sri Lanka: a mixed method analyzing the recovery of IDPs
        Danesh Jayatilaka
        School of Global Studies, Migration Studies
        University of Sussex

        With the war ending in the east and north of Sri Lanka in 2006 and 2009 the government set in motion
        a large programme to return and resettle the hundreds of thousands displaced due to the conflict. The
        first initiative was launched in the east where large ‘owner driven’ housing construction projects were
        conducted in combination with livelihoods support activities. The eastern projects concluded in 2009,
        with the activities premised on the assumption that former IDPs would regain economic normalcy
        because of the aid. The outcomes on the ground however have not wholly been according to
        expectations. Differences among the housing and livelihoods packages had meant beneficiaries
        recovered in distorted patterns for reasons that are not always clear. Assessments had shown while some
        people had regained their previous economic setting, or became better off, others had fallen into vicious

        This presentation looks at my ongoing doctoral research to find the answer to how people make most
        use of the aid provided to them. My research question goes as ‘What is the impact of housing and
        livelihoods assistance on economic recovery of former internally displaced persons who had been
        resettled?’ With the fieldwork concluded in 2011 I wish to share my experiences in relation to the
        research design and the methods that were employed, and the initial findings. Focusing on a former war
        torn village in the east, for a period of six months, I conducted a multidisciplinary quantitative and
        qualitative approach using household surveys, in-depth interviews, focus groups, key informant
        interviews, and ethnography to assemble information. These data are presently being analyzed using
        SPSS and qualitative coding methods, whereas I am drawing out a picture to meet the objective of my
        study, which is ‘why some former IDPs recover while others don’t, when everyone receives assistance’.

        Cargo of Miseries: Host-Stranger Conflicts and the State’s response to refugee influx in the
        Raja Adnan Razzaq
        Quaid-i-Azam University

SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                               21-22 June 2012
                                                                             Fulton Build. University of Sussex

       With the partition of India in 1947 the world saw the greatest human migration in the twentieth century.
       Approximately fourteen million people crossed the newly created boarders of India and Pakistan. The
       communal frenzy resulted in an estimated death of one million people. The migrants experienced
       intense trauma arising from the loss of property, family members and as a result of being forcibly
       wrenched from their ancestral homes. At least 75,000 women were abducted and raped by men of
       religions different from their own.

       These communal riots and barbaric killings forced the people to leave their ancestral homes and head
       towards an unknown land in order to save their lives, properties and honor. Refugees started pouring in
       to India and Pakistan every day in large numbers. Both the governments were trying their best to
       rehabilitate and resettle the refugees who were crossing the boarders in large numbers. Having no
       precedent in the past, the authorities on both sides had no clue as how to cope with that kind of
       emergency situation. At first the migrants were greeted warmly by the local communities on both sides
       of the borders but this honey-moon did not last for long and conflicts started to arise on petty issues
       which later on severely affected the assimilation process especially in Pakistan where despite of being
       assimilated physically the migrants had to maintain their separate identity as Muhajirs (refugees/migrants).
       The power struggle between the host community and the ‘strangers’ even today plays a vital role in the
       formation of governments in Pakistan and peace and stability in Sindh.
       This paper would highlight the communal frenzy that prevailed at the time of partition when in order to
       escape the communal hatred, hundreds of thousands of people suddenly made up their minds to
       abandon their homes forever without even hope of crossing the border, let alone the certainty of
       rehabilitation later. The paper will analyze the irregularities in the rehabilitation process which eventually
       resulted in the root causes of the prevailing conflicts between the muhajirs (also known as the Urdu-
       Speaking community) and the locals.

       Mining-Induced Displacement and Resettlement: Theoretical Frameworks and Current
       Bogumil Terminski,
       University of Warsaw, University of Geneva

       The mining industry is frequently associated with decisions that have enormous social consequences.
       One of the most negative effects of mining today is the forcing of thousands of people to abandon their
       current places of residence. Gold mines in Tarkwa, open-cast copper mines in Papua New Guinea or
       Jarkhand (India), lignite mines in Germany, and diamond mines in Zimbabwe are just a few examples of
       activities leading to the displacement of large numbers of people worldwide. Today, mining-induced
       displacement constitutes a major social problem and a challenge for human rights. This particular issue
       affects at least a dozen people around the world. It is therefore of great importance to conduct its
       profound analysis as well as inspire broad public debate. According to specialists from the Oxford
       Refugee Centre (published in 2000), the extraction of mineral resources is the cause of about ten percent
       of the development-induced displacement that takes place in the world each year. Contemporary
       literature on developmentinduced displacement (Cernea, De Wet, Penz, etc.) focuses mostly on the
       consequences of dam construction, irrigation projects, and artificial reservoirs. The literature of Mining-
       Induced Displacement and Resettlement (MIDR) is rather small and limited to the well-known cases of
       contemporary India and a few African states. My speech will cast more light on the following themes:
       1. Part one theoretically conceptualizes and encompasses mining-induced displacement and resettlement
       as a specific category of development-induced displacement and resettlement (DIDR). MIDR is a fairly
       obvious cause of DIDR and a part of its global context, yet there are some crucial differences that ought
       to be indicated in order to show that it is a very diverse issue indeed.
       2. Part two depicts mining-induced displacement and resettlement in terms of a global social problem
       occurring in many countries around the world.
       3. Part three presents the most well-known examples of displacement caused by mining.
       4. Part four emphasizes the social dimension of mining expansion and the importance of MIDR as a
       human rights issue.

SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                                 21-22 June 2012
                                                                               Fulton Build. University of Sussex

         Hindu Nationalism, identity and marginalisation in Indian Diasporic Literature in the US
         Uke Kshipra
         Center for American Studies,
         School of International Studies
         Jawaharlal Nehru University

         Migration of Asian Indian Hindus to the US in the later part of the twentieth century has created a
         strong religious and cultural identity in the multicultural society of America. These Hindu Indian
         Americans define India as a Hindu society and are strong supporters of the Hindu nationalist movement
         in India. The Hindu diaspora in US, as generally understood and propagated, is not a monolithic whole
         and the overlapping multiple identities within are blanketed under the term- Hindu identity with the
         intension of creating a Hindu Nation. This assertion of Hindu identity is not just a process of intolerance
         towards other religions like Christianity and Islam but also an attempt to marginalize various internal
         socio-cultural and linguistic groups within Hindus who view India as a multi-religious and multicultural
         society and are striving to safeguard its secular fabric. Throughout the past few decades, much blood
         has been split in the name of this so-called Hindu nationalism; all for the purpose of uniting a land
         that—in truth—has never been united and it is believed that “the rise of Hindu nationalist politics has
         been funded and supported by Hindu diaspora groups.
         The speciality of Indian diaspora is that it has waves and every wave has produced rich literature
         representing that particular era. While the earlier diasporic literature dealt sympathetically and fairly with
         the lower-caste and class, non-English-speaking segments of Indian society, the works produced by
         Indian writers in the US in recent times reveal a clear bias in favor of ‘classical’, Brahminic, and
         therefore exclusionary, intended to produce an effect of a pure "Indianness" with little attention to its
         caste and class-based, social, communal, and regional inequalities.
         The study is an attempt to look at the cognitive and affective elements of a specific sub-population to
         flesh out our collective understanding of the internal conflicting forces within a particular religious
         identity and the politics behind depiction of a homogenized Hindu identity in the contemporary
         literature in the US.

Day 1 Panel 2: ‘Subjective Constructions of Migrant Realities’

         Seeking asylum in the UK: the Perspectives of lesbian asylum seekers
         Claire Bennett
         Social Work and Social Care Student
         University of Sussex

         Lesbian asylum seekers face significant issues when applying for asylum in the UK as both gender and
         sexuality are not covered in the 1951 Refugee Convention. Consequently, asylum claims based
         'persecution around same sex experiences' have to be argued for under the ‘particular social group’
         category. This is the most controversial and arbitrary of all five Refugee Convention grounds.

         Like many refugee women, lesbians may have been subject to sexual and physical violence as part of the
         persecution and the stigma they experience in their country of origin. As part of the asylum process,
         women have to disclose and discuss their experiences of rape, sexual and physical violence
         to a range of individuals in great detail. In addition, claims based on same sex experiences also require
         individuals to ‘evidence their sexuality’ in order to convince the UK Border Agency personnel and
         immigration judges of their sexual orientation.

         This presentation will discuss the methods and findings of my DPhil research which involved
         interviewing eleven lesbian asylum seekers and refugees (three times) who had all experienced physical
         and sexual violence in their country of origin and sought protection in the UK. The presentation will
         outline the difficulties associated with navigating the UK asylum process and how this influences
         women’s stability, sense of self and sexual subjectivity.

SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                                   21-22 June 2012
                                                                                 Fulton Build. University of Sussex

        So Much for My Happy Ending: Persecution of Trafficked Persons
        Jean-Pierre Gauci
        School of Law
        King’s College London

        This paper discusses the protection of trafficked persons through refugee law. After a brief overview of
        the relevance of asylum as a channel for long term protection the paper will critically appraise the notion
        of persecution as it applies to trafficked persons. The discussion will start with an overview of
        definitions of persecution as developed through hard and soft law instruments, case law and the
        literature. From this discussion the paper elaborates a working definition of persecution to be applied
        throughout the rest of the presentation.

        It then moves on to apply the definition to trafficked persons arguing that a number of the risks facing
        trafficked persons upon return (including re-trafficking, retribution by traffickers and societal
        ostracisation) can amount to persecution. The paper will build on case law from the UK, USA, Canada,
        New Zealand, Ireland, Italy, France and Spain. Soft law and other guidance will also be considered. The
        discussion will include issues such as degree of harm, timing of the harm (past and/or future
        persecution), place of the harm (country of origin, country where asylum is sought, third country),
        agents of persecution (traffickers, family, society, gangs, government) and absence of state protection
        (including what that protection should entail and when it can be considered to be absent).

        The ambivalence of ‘consent’ in conceptualising trafficking in person
        Aderajew Teshome
        Faculty of Law
        Monash University

        Trafficking in person is identified as one of the major challenges of our times. It is a pervasive
        phenomenon that affects virtually every part of the globe. Further, trafficking is ranked as the third
        most, but the fastest growing lucrative illicit criminal activity- preceded only by drugs and arms
        trafficking. Defining trafficking was identified to be the most litigious part of the drafting of the
        Trafficking Protocol. Yet, arguably, the controversies surrounding the definition still linger. While evidence
        attests that ‘trafficking in persons’ can affect everyone regardless of gender and age, and it takes a wide
        range of modus oprandi, it is often associated and blurred with other discourses such as prostitution and
        smuggling, inter alia. In particular, as reflected in the Trafficking Protocol’s definition, the liberal feminists’
        polarized view on prostitution has significantly contributed towards the twisting of the idea of
        trafficking to be narrowly[sic] conceptualised as an issue of forced labour per se.

        In this conference, I will argue that because the intention to exploit element is already conceptualised as
        ‘resulting in serious injury and contrary to human dignity’,# a further addition of the means element is a
        deviation from other relevant legal instruments and counterproductive. To this end, I will demonstrate
        that in some circumstances (such as forced labour and slavery) the intention to exploit element poses
        too high standard that ‘public interest policy’ requires that liability should be absolute. Accordingly, I
        will suggest that, like the latter category of practices, the proscription of ‘trafficking in persons’ should
        have been regardless of the victim’s consent. Selected cases studies (Australia, Canadian, UK and
        Malaysia) will be presented to show the legislative trend in this regard.

Day 1 Panel 3: ‘Governance on Migration

        In the name of Security: Violations at the Barmer border
        Bani Gill
        Erasmus Mundus master in Migration and Intercultural Relations

SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                             21-22 June 2012
                                                                           Fulton Build. University of Sussex

       This paper focuses on the Barmer stretch of the border between Rajasthan and Sindh, to understand the
       implications of the statist project of border making on an erstwhile integrated socio-economic milieu.
       The dates that loom large in the memory of the Indian nation state-1947, 1965, 1971, 1999, 2001, 2008-
       represent a chronology of militarization and violence that has shrouded the lives of borderlanders. What
       has been the impact of this militarized notion of state security on people’s security, and on the larger
       political economy of the border region? This paper seeks to deconstruct the very notion of ‘security’, by
       highlighting the lives in transit of borderlanders, as communities that are ‘insiders’ within the
       geographical periphery of the state but ‘outsiders’ in terms of their daily interaction with the nation. It
       examines the Barmer region, and the multiple borders within borders that have been created in the
       name of ‘security’ and/or ‘development’. Concurrently, it looks at the political category of the ‘refugee’
       produced and constantly reconfigured within this border region, and the gendered repercussions thereof
       on local communities. The paper thus highlights how prioritisation of the state-sponsored discourse of
       securitisation not only undermines and contests the very notions of citizenship and belonging, inclusion
       and exclusion, but also engenders insights into the ‘value’ the state accords to the citizenry of its
       peripheral borderscapes in the first place.

       *This paper is supported by research conducted by SAFHR, in collaboration with local partner ,Society
       for Upliftment of Rural Economy (SURE), Barmer, in 2011, as part of the ‘Cross Border Dialogues’

       EU Border Management and the Role of Frontex: the Case of the Border Guard Training
       Satoko Horii
       University of Sussex
       School of Law, Politics and Sociology
       Sussex Centre for Migration Research

       EU Member States have been increasing the focus on the regional approach in EU external border
       management. A number of joint border operations have been conducted, most of which such as
       operations in Greece and Italy have drawn much attention from media and academia.
       Turning our eyes from the highlighted dimension of border cooperation, this paper looks at the
       common border guard training, which has been developed by the EU border Agency Frontex. By
       exploring the development process, it seeks to identify the increased interaction between multiple actors
       involved in this field and the effects of training in the wider context of border management. The paper
       employs the analytical framework from new institutionalist literature, and the methods taken for this
       study include historiography and semi structured interviews with border guards of the Member States.
       An implication is that, the field of training is not a mere technical de-politicised field but has become a
       space for actors to maximise their interests. In this context, UNHCR and other international actors have
       found it effective to spread its protection mandate to Member States. In addition, the training has
       produced a space of socialisation, potentially taking national actors towards more integration-oriented.

       Immigration Control in the United Kingdom and the Liberal democratic paradox
       Cosmas Ukachukwu Ikegwuruka
       Newcastle University

       A liberal democracy such as the United Kingdom believes in certain values and actively promotes them.
       This paper will evaluate the salient features of those liberal values such as the rule of law in the
       amphitheatre of immigration control. It will use the United Kingdom’s practices in immigration control
       to measure its compliance to liberal democratic ideologies and thus explore the dilemma -if any- faced
       by the UK in what is referred as the ‘liberal democratic paradox’. The emerging question then is how
       will the UK respect these values and at the same time marry them with immigration control? If there are
       conflicts between these values, what will be the remedy?

SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                              21-22 June 2012
                                                                            Fulton Build. University of Sussex

        By way of analysis, this paper will conceptualize the rights of migrants in their precarious, irregular or
        stranded immigration status otherwise called ‘the precarious migrants dilemma’ and in doing so will
        address the issues as to whether the rights of these precarious migrants in the UK are merely theoretical
        and illusory or whether they are real and practical?

        By engaging in this investigation, the paper will draw a distinction between the enforcement of
        immigration control on the one hand and the protection of basic human rights of migrants on the other
        hand in the sense of ‘bifurcation or firewall argument’.

        The methodology is purely documentary analysis, as the study will draw immensely from existing
        literature, case laws, soft laws and the applicable international legal instruments.

        How do stakeholders influence migration policy? An analysis of Poverty Reduction
        Strategies in the Commonwealth of Independent States
        Gioia Caminada

        This paper explores the decision-making process behind migration policy, using Poverty Reduction
        Strategies (PRS) as a case study. Two questions guide the discussion: which political actors bring
        migration into the political agenda, and how do different stakeholders influence the treatment of
        migration in policy plans? The focus is on the PRS of the Commonwealth of Independent States,
        with an in-depth analysis of Moldova and Tajikistan. The research is based on qualitative interviews
        with stakeholders involved in PRS in these countries, and a longitudinal analysis of the treatment of
        migration in the policy documents. In the cases analysed, migration is brought to the policy papers
        mainly by the World Bank and international donors such as the International Organisation for
        Migration. As a result, the PRS treat migration mainly as a macroeconomic phenomenon, and largely
        ignore its local impact. Inequalities in the decision-making process are argued as being one of the
        main causes of the ineffectiveness of PRS by a great part of development literature. However, this
        study suggests that in the case of migration the stance of the actors involved are complimentary, and
        that enhanced cooperation between policy actors would lead to more effective migration policies. In
        fact, while the World Bank possesses expertise in macroeconomic analysis, local governments can
        monitor the national characteristics of migration, and civil society organisations possess direct
        knowledge of its local effects. Cooperation between policy actors would therefore lead to a process
        of mutual empowerment, rather than one actor prevailing over the others in the decision making
        process. Moreover, this paper argues that the effectiveness of migration policies does not depend on
        the mainstreaming of migration, but on migration policies being designed to meet the specific
        context to which they are being applied.

Day 2 Panel 1: ‘Mixed and Textural Methodologies’

        Disentangling complexity through networks: Urban super-diversity and the clustering of
        Fran Meissner
        Max Plank Institute for the study religious and ethnic diversity
        School of Global Studies
        University of Sussex

        Based on my PhD research in London and Toronto this paper focuses on the empirical analysis of the
        social networks of 55 Pacific Islanders and NZ Maori. The aim of the paper is to explore the role
        different aspects of super-diversity (see Vertovec, 2007) play in understanding the post-migration
        socialising of these migrants in the two cities. The paper first presents a cluster analysis of the
        homophily values which were measured between each respondent and her/his social contacts on a
        range of variables reflecting different aspects of super-diversity. Homophily scores indicate how much
        respondents are the same as their social contacts and are usually compared on only one variable most
        commonly either race, age or gender. A cluster analysis allows to identify clusters of respondents with

SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                               21-22 June 2012
                                                                             Fulton Build. University of Sussex

       similar homophily scores on multiple variables. The analysis suggests that ethnic background is not a
       primary explanatory variable but that other migration related variables are more divisive. The clusters of
       respondents identified are then analysed with reference to ego-centric network measures to establish in
       how far the clusters better explain post-migration socialising. Special focus will be on qualitative
       information about the respondents socialising habits and in how far the city specific context is relevant
       for these. As such the paper presents a possible avenue for better understanding migration related
       diversity as it is reflected in the social networks of individuals living in super-diverse cities. As an
       academic contribution the paper thus pepresents a non-ethnofocal analysis of how international
       migration into cities impacts on the social processes in these cities by combining both quantitative and
       qualitative data analysis as well as a two city comparative pespective.

       Friend or Foe: The Migrant Laborer in Weimar Germany
       Alisa van Kleef
       Rice University

       The proposed paper will explore the significant impact of labor migration in the Rhineland on German
       society and economic development in the Weimar Republic. In the aftermath of defeat in the Great War,
       and exacerbated by the harsh provisions inflicted on German industry in the Rhineland by the Versailles
       Treaty, German state and society were forced to re-evaluate what they perceived was the proper role of
       the migrant in society, and, more specifically, if and how labor migrants could aid in the rebuilding of
       the devastated German economy.

       In the eyes of German state bureaucrats in the interwar years, migration constituted a “significant threat
       to the livelihood of the state” and threatened to undermine the sovereignty of the German nation state.
       The paper will consider how labor migration policy became a tool for the German state to re-claim its
       sovereignty and to strengthen feelings of national community in the volatile Rhineland frontier. State
       migration policy guided individual and collective opinion towards the migrant laborer, which necessarily
       shaped conceptions of identity and belonging. In particular, the paper will explore the impact and
       significance of Russian and Polish migration from the Rhineland to the Netherlands, Belgium and
       France in the aftermath of the Great War and their troubled attempts to re-migrate to the Rhineland,
       efforts by German business to persuade the government to allow Dutch and Austrian migrants to labor
       in the Rhineland, the appearance in official state documents of divergent attitudes and state policy
       toward “foreign” migrants from Eastern Europe versus those from culturally and linguistically alike
       Germanic territories, i.e. the Netherlands and Austria. The German state introduced racial parameters
       that sought to shape the composition of migrant labor in Germany. The national economy required
       significant levels of labor migrants in the 1920s, however, the state regulated what types of labor
       migrants were to be absorbed into society. Those migrants with culturally and linguistically similar
       heritage were preferred to those from Eastern and Southern Europe.

       The case of the Rhineland in the interwar years reveals that any analysis of the impact of migration on
       European societies must necessarily consider how migration influences processes of state formation and
       constructions of national identity.

       Italians in San Francisco: an extra-ordinary experience?
       Tommaso Caiazza
       Social History
       University of Venice Ca’Foscari

       California has been seen as providing Italian immigrants more opportunities as well as work suitable for
       their skills; this has led many scholars to conclude that their adjustment was less difficult than it was for
       Italians in other parts of the United States. Focusing on San Francisco, my research indicates that by
       overemphasizing the economic success achieved by Italian-Americans in California, historiography has
       marginalized other aspects of their experience.

SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                                21-22 June 2012
                                                                              Fulton Build. University of Sussex

        Drawing on newspapers, I first examine the origin of this California exceptionalism. I investigate the
        process by which the San Francisco Italian-American élite shaped the myth of the “model colony”,
        contrasting their experience to that of the Italian communities in the East Coast. I then analyze the
        contradictions in the process of Italian Americans' integration focusing on two key decades: the 1930s
        and 1940s. The first decade, following the Quota laws, represented a stabilization period for the Italian
        group, both demographically and socially; the second one, in contrast, was a great transition era, due to
        the several changes stimulated by World War II.

        In this research I pay attention on three indicators: politics, marriages and housing. I examine the Italian
        group’s involvement in politics by using the Municipal records (reviews, proceedings). Network analysis
        and prosopography allow for a micro-analytic study explaining the group’s interaction with power.
        A statistical survey based on the US 1930 Census and the Registers of the Italian Church SS. Peter and
        Paul allows for an analysis of the second generation’s exogamic trends providing some insight into their
        relation with other groups.

        Through the Census I also examine changes in the Italian neighborhoods. The exodus from Little Italy
        to the suburbs brought tensions with the surrounding Chinatown revealing the Italian group’s
        participation in the social and cultural modeling of San Francisco’s racial system.

Day 2 Panel 2: ‘Crossing Borders, Boundaries and Networks’

        Homeland Politics and Emotions: Transnational Engagement among Albanian-speaking
        Migrants from Yugoslavia in Switzerland
        Romaine Farquet
        University of Neuchâtel

        My PhD research explores homeland politics among Albanian-speaking migrants from Yugoslavia in
        Switzerland for the period 1981-1999. It seeks to identify the different practices followed in order to
        generate political transformations in the Yugoslav Province of Kosovo as well as the factors that
        influenced this mobilisation. Although it recognises that the usual explanations, based on the political
        conditions and opportunities as well as resources, are relevant, it also argues that cultural elements
        influenced this mobilisation. It thus wishes to draw particular attention to questions of meaning-making
        and emotions. Methodologically, my research is principally based on oral history interviews.

        In my presentation, I wish especially to concentrate on how emotions contribute toward shaping
        transnational political practices. I seek ways to incorporate emotions into the analysis of homeland
        politics by drawing on insights developed within the Social Movement approaches. Thus, on the one
        hand, I am interested in the strategic use of emotions as a resource for mobilising participants
        transnationally and gaining visibility as well as extracting concessions from target governments,
        organisations and the general public. On the other hand, I wish to scrutinise the power of emotions
        behind activists’ motivations, subjectivities and interpretations. I seek, for example, to scrutinise the role
        of feelings in various domains, from the determination of preferences and interests to the construction
        of a collective identity and solidarity. Ultimately, these issues contribute towards our understanding of
        the emergence of specific transnational practices and organisations as well as their particular orientations
        and sustainability.

        Finally, I wish to examine the applicability and limitations of my theoretical findings in relation to the
        particular case of homeland politics among Albanian‐speaking migrants from Yugoslavia in Switzerland.

        It’s All About Who You Know: Guyanese migrant networks and their role in the health of those
        in the country of origin
        Michelle Majeed
        Ethnic and Pluralism Studies Program

SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                              21-22 June 2012
                                                                            Fulton Build. University of Sussex

       Department of Geography
       University of Toronto

       With more of its people living outside of the country than within, Guyana, and its migrants provide a
       provocative case study of the role that transnational social networks can play in supporting the daily
       needs of those that remain. The purpose of this paper is to examine how transnational spaces are
       created and used to support understandings of health and well-being and to meet the health needs of
       Guyana’s population. This paper will explore how those that remain in Guyana supplement their health
       through their connections with friends and family living abroad.

       This research is based on thirty-six interviews conducted in Georgetown, Guyana and in a rural health
       clinic in the West Demerara region of the country and twenty-six interviews conducted in Canada and
       the US. This research found that there are three distinct ways that migrants support the health of those
       that remain; direct support of health in Guyana, indirect support of health in Guyana and health support
       outside of Guyana. Using case studies, this paper will illustrate each of these transnational pathways to
       health and how transnational migrant networks are utilized to support health. Overall, this paper will
       highlight key issues in the areas of global health and transnationalism. , Hons BA (Toronto)

       Immigration and national minorities: redrawing identity boundaries, projecting integration
       policies A comparative study of Québec and South Tyrol
       Lorenzo Piccoli
       School of International Studies, Trento

       Following the research agenda introduced by Will Kymlicka (1995), this qualitative study offers an
       interpretation of how the integration of immigrants is constructed by the national minorities of Québec
       and South Tyrol, two groups that are constantly undergoing a process of redefinition of their collective
       identities based on a differentiation from the Others who do not belong to the in-group. Immigrants
       today have become the most significant Others for these groups, as the sense of belonging that they are
       expected to join is inherently fragmented since they are not part to the original compromises that are
       specific of these sub-national polities. Therefore, the question this study aims to answer is how the
       national minorities redraw the boundaries of their identity in relation to the phenomenon of
       immigration, and how do they practically accommodate for this change. The hypotheses to be tested are
       whether the national minority groups of Québec and South Tyrol: H1. engage in a process of
       reconstruction of their identity by trying to construct a definition that allows newcomers to assimilate in
       their group; H2. adopt practical policy measures to assimilate newcomers in their group. The two
       hypotheses are tested respectively: H1. by conducting an analysis of the political narrative of the main
       parties, their electoral appeals and speeches; H2. by analysing the integration policies in the field of
       education, language, and social policy. The comparison between Québec and South Tyrol has the
       potential to provide a basic understanding of the impact of immigration in two sub-national polities that
       are very different, but still adopt similar political narratives and policy strategies with regard to the
       integration of newcomers.

       Practising a no border perspective in the city: Radical migrant solidarity and the 300 hunger
       strike in Athens
       Natasha King
       University of Nottingham
       School of Politics and International Relations

       Can our political ideologies be a barrier – as well as a route – to showing solidarity? What happens when
       one’s political ideology comes into conflict with the event unfolding in front of you? In the case of
       radical migrant solidarity, what if one’s ideology is anti-state, and yet the actions of migrants focus on a
       demand to the state?

SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                             21-22 June 2012
                                                                           Fulton Build. University of Sussex

        In this paper I tell the story of the solidarity movement that built up around the hunger strike of 300
        men from the Maghreb, that took place simultaneously in Athens and Thessaloniki in the winter of
        2011. For some, the strike represents one of the only victories of the radical left since the crisis of
        capital gripped Greece, and a successful demonstration of co-operation across political boundaries. For
        others, the response of the solidarity movement still leaves a bitter taste.

        The dilemmas played out in the solidarity movement around this campaign brought those showing
        solidarity into conflict with others of different political stripes, as well as those experiencing the
        oppression of mobility controls first hand. What does this tell us about the tension between our
        ideologies and how we act? What prospects are there for reconciling these tensions?

        The story is told in the context of 9 months activist fieldwork in Athens where the 300 became a
        recurring theme in conversations, debates and interviews, and where the boundaries between insider and
        outsider; academic and activist were at times starkly defined and at others comfortably blurred.

Day 2 Panel 3: ‘Forced Migration and Return’

        Return Migration and Social Cohesion in Burundi:
        The Mediating Role of Land Scarcity
        Sonja Fransen
        Maastricht Graduate School of Governance
        Maastricht University

        In conflict-affected societies the return of former refugees is often considered a threat to sustainable
        peace. Social relations between returnees and non-returnees have to be (re-) established and return flows
        may exacerbate existing problems of resource scarcity and poverty, leading to a decline in living
        standards and increased resource competition for all community members (see e.g. Fransen &
        Kuschminder, 2012; Hammond, 1999). In these contexts return does not only affect social relations
        between returnees and non-returnees, but community cohesion as well. The successful reintegration of
        former refugees is therefore considered an important prerequisite for sustainable peace (Black & Gent,
        2006; Kibreab, 2002; Macrae, 1999). However, studies on refugee reintegration are still relatively scarce
        and most studies focus on economic reintegration, whereas social relationships are often overlooked.
        Additionally, research often overlooks the effects of return on communities as a whole. Empirical
        evidence on the relationship between return migration and social cohesion in conflict-affected societies
        therefore remains unexplored.

        This paper analyzes the effect of return migration on community cohesion by using household and
        community data collected in Burundi, a small and densely populated country in the Central African
        Great Lakes region. Burundi witnessed the return of more than 500,000 former refugees over the past
        decade (UNHCR, 2011). Social cohesion is compared across communities that experienced different
        levels of return, while controlling for other contextual factors such as scarcity of land and conflict
        history. The results show that return migration only negatively affects social cohesion in areas of
        resource scarcity, which means that the return of former refugees to Burundi does not influence social
        cohesion per se. Instead, the impact of return is highly dependent on the context to which returnees
        come back; a finding that emphasizes the need for reintegration support by means of context-specific

        Iraqi refugees’ return and transnational livelihoods in the Middle East
        Vanessa Iaria
        Sussex Centre for Migration Research
        University of Sussex

        Since the end of the US-led war in Iraq, around 500,000 Iraqi refugees have ‘returned’ despite the
        insecurity and slow reconstruction process in Iraq. What are the causes and nature of ‘return migration’

SCMR Graduate Student Conference                                                               21-22 June 2012
                                                                             Fulton Build. University of Sussex

       in the context of the Iraqis displaced to Syria and Jordan after 2003? The article addresses this question
       and contributes to theoretical and empirical debates on forced migrant return and transnationalism, two
       phenomena that characterise the current Iraqi displacement in the Middle East.

       Based on qualitative field evidence gathered in Syria and Jordan between January 2010 and March 2011,
       the article suggests that Iraqis’ returns and transnational livelihoods constitute a reaction to the absence
       of official durable solutions to their predicament. In this context, return is rarely an end-state followed
       by permanent integration back ‘home’. It is a complex process that takes a long time and entails various
       degrees and modalities of transnational mobility and livelihoods connecting host and home societies.

       The international refugee regime discourages Iraqis’ movements to enhance the management of mobile
       refugee populations. Preventing post-return mobility, however, hampers the spontaneous transnational
       practices that the Iraqi people have developed as sustainable livelihoods and development opportunities
       in the absence of sedentary solutions.

       Key words: Iraqi refugees, return, remigration, transnational livelihoods, Syria, Jordan

       Returnees’ perspectives on their return processes to the South Caucasian Republics Georgia or
       Ine Lietaert
       University of Ghent

       Although return migration has received renewed attention in migration research, there is still insufficient
       insight into the complex social realities of returning/returned migrants, especially regarding their own
       perspectives on their return processes. Research on returnees who are still in the host country often
       looks at the return intentions of potential returnees, overall stating that potential migrants are ambivalent
       about returning or not. However, little is known regarding the perspectives of returnees who already
       decided to return and are awaiting this return. This study wants to study this perspective, including a
       population of two groups of adult migrants who want to return from Belgium to Georgia (n=39) and
       Armenia (n=51), hereby supported by a governmental voluntary return program. All participants are
       questioned about their migration background and process, current living circumstances, expectations
       about their return and general perceptions regarding their migration and return processes.

       In this paper, we will discuss the analyses of these 90 semi-structured interviews with returnees before
       their return to the home country. Half of the respondents are single man and more than half of them
       are rejected asylum seekers. Overall, our data show tensions between choice and constraint, questioning
       the concept of “voluntary” return: although many returnees state they made the final choice to return
       themselves, the living conditions in the host country often force them to make this decision. Moreover,
       because of their precarious residence status and living conditions in the host country, they experience
       greatly limited opportunities to participate, either socially or economically, in the host countries’ society.
       Related to a preliminary study with Nepalese return migrants (Lietaert, Derluyn & Broekaert, in press)
       and other findings on return migration (Cassarino, 2004), this also implies that they start from a
       disadvantageous ‘point of departure’ regarding their preparedness to return and their ‘reintegration’
       possibilities after being returned.


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