Dirty tricks the Department of Psychology at Illinois State University

Document Sample
Dirty tricks the Department of Psychology at Illinois State University Powered By Docstoc
					Finishing up APA &
             Ethics
  Psych 231: Research
  Methods in Psychology
   Exam 1: Coming up soon (Monday, Sept 19;
    that’s 1 week from today!)
   CITI ethics assignment is posted (see link on
    syllabus)
       Not due until week 7, but since ethics is covered on Exam 1, I
        recommend checking it out sooner rather than later




Announcements
    The ultimate resource for APA style is the
     APA Publication manual
                New 6th ed.




    Chapter 8 of your textbook is good too.
    Also websites to help too.


Writing resources
   Writing the paper is the routine part of the research
    process
       Forces you to commit to your evidence and conclusions
   Just the facts
       The facts are just part of the argument that the author is
        making
   What you say is all that is important, how you say it
    isn’t important
       Good writing leads to higher chance of accomplishing your
        goals




Misconceptions about Scientific writing
   Psychological writing tends to differ from
    other academic writings
       • Not a creative writing exercise
          • Presenting an argument based on data and logical
            reasoning
       • Try to avoid using direct quotes, restate things
         in your own words.
       • Avoid digression
          • Footnotes are rare, they’re used to elaborate/clarify
            a point. Try to do so in the text.
          • If long digressions, use the appendix




Writing style
   To ease communication of what was done
       Forces a minimal amount of information
       Provides a logical framework (for argument)
       Provides consistent format within a discipline
         • People know what to expect
         • Where to find the information in the article
       Allows readers to cross-reference your sources
        easily




Why a structured format?
    Communicate with clarity




Major goal: Clarity
    Communicate with clarity




Major goal: Clarity
    Communicate with clarity
        Write for the reader
          • Think about your audience, what do they already know,
            what don’t they know
        Avoid overstatements
          • Be conservative in your claims
        Emphasize the positive
          • Focus on how the data supports a theory not just on
            how it refutes another theory




Major goal: Clarity
    Communicate with clarity
        Avoid
          • Jargon when possible
          • Slang and colloquialisms
          • Sexist and biased language
        Try to be concise
          • Don’t use a whole paragraph when two sentences will
            do
          • Longer papers don’t mean better papers
          • Eliminate unnecessary redundancy
          • Use simple words (sentences) rather than complicated
            words (sentences)




Major goal: Clarity
    Communicate with clarity
        Use concrete words and examples
        Check your work!
          • Read it over, make sure that you say what you mean to
            say
        Use a consistent format (APA style)
          • It helps your reader understand your arguments and
            the sources they’re built on.
          • It also helps you keep track of your sources as you
            build arguments




Major goal: Clarity
                                                     Adolescent Depression 1 2

 • Title Page
                                                      Adolescent Depression


                         We explored attachment in a DEPRESSION
                       Running Head: ADOLESCENTfamily context


 •   Abstract            by applying family systems principles to the
                         investigation of multiple attachment relationships
                         within families. This study focused on maternal
                         adult attachment with respect to family of origin Adolescent Depression 29


 •
                         experiences. We examined associations between
     Body                                                           References
                         maternal adult attachment and three levels of
                               Adolescent Depression individual maternal
                         family functioning including and Attachment
                                                   Barnett, P. A., & Gotlib,
                         depression symptoms, dyadic marital satisfaction I. H. (1988). Psychosocial
                                   Ima G. Student and Soyam Eye attachment
                                              functioning found that
                         and family unit functioning. Weand depression: Distinguishing among

 •   References                               antecedents, concomitants, was
                         security with respect to particular relationships and consequences.
                         differentially associatedUniversity Bulletin, 104.
                                          Purdue with different levels of
                         family functioning.
                                              Psychological
                                                   Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression Inventory.


 •
                                              San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
     Authors Notes                                 Benoit, D., Vidovic, D., & Roman, J. (1991, April).
                                              Transmission of attachment across three generations.
                                              Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society

 •   Footnotes                                for Research in Child Development.
                                                   Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., & Barton, M. L. (1989).
                                              Maternal attachment disturbances in failure to thrive.


 •
                                              Infant Mental Health Journal, 3, 185-202.
     Tables                                        Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., Boucher, C., & Minde, K.
                                              (1989). Sleep disorders in early childhood: Association
                                              with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of the

 •   Figure Captions                          American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,
                                              31, 86-93.



 •   Figures



APA style: Parts of a research report
    The basic parts of a research article:
        Title and authors - gives you a general idea of
         the topic and specifically who did it
        Abstract - short summary of the article




The anatomy of a research article
Running head – will go on each
  page of published article,
                                   Running Head: ADOLESCENT DEPRESSION                 1
 no more than 50 characters

   Title should be maximally
    informative while short
  (10 to 12 words recommended)


                                                Adolescent Depression and Attachment
Order of Authorship sometimes
                                                   Ima G. Student and Soyam Eye
       carries meaning
                                                        Topnotch University


 Affiliation – where the bulk of
     the research was done
                                    Published title pages will look a bit
                                     different, but you’ll find these pieces
                                     of information. Typically the body of
      Title Page                     the article will begin as well.
   Abstract: Short summary of entire paper
         •   150-250 words
         •   The problem/issue
         •   The method
         •   The results
         •   The major conclusions
       Recommendation: write this after you’ve
        finished the rest of the paper
       Good first contact, but remember that it is short
        on detail
          Shows up in PsycInfo
          Gets skimmed before reading the article



Abstract
    Hourglass shape


Start broad
     Background
     Literature Review




Body
    Hourglass shape



Narrow focus
     Statement of purpose
     Specific hypotheses
     (at least at conceptual
     level)




Body
    Hourglass shape




Most focused
      - Methods
      - Results




Body
    Hourglass shape




Broaden
       Discussion
       Conclusions
       Implications


Body
   Introduction - gives you the background that
    you need
     Issue and Background
       • What is it? Why is it interesting/important?
     Literature Review
       • What has been done? What theories are out there?
     Statement of purpose
       • What are you going to do and why?
     Specific hypotheses (at least at conceptual level)
       • What do you predict will happen in your research?




Body
   Introduction - gives you the background that
    you need

     Reading checklist
         1) What is the author's goal?
         2) What are the hypotheses?
         3) If you had designed the study, how would YOU have done it?


       Writing checklist
         • Be cohesive
            • Be relevant (why are the reviewed studies relevant?)
            • Work on the transitions (make the flow logical)




Body
   The basic parts of a research article :
       Method - tells the reader exactly what was done
          Enough detail that the reader could actually replicate the
           study.
          Subsections:
              Participants - who were the data collected from
                  How many, where they were selected from, any special
                   selection requirements, details about those who didn’t
                   complete the experiment
              Apparatus/ Materials - what was used to conduct the study
              Design
                  Suggested if you have a complex experimental design, often
                   combined with Materials section
              Procedure
                  What did each participant do? Other details, including the
                   operational levels of your IV(s) and DV(s), counterbalancing,
                   etc.


Body
   The basic parts of a research article :
       Method - tells the reader exactly what was done
          Reading checklist
            1 a) Is your method better than theirs?
              b) Does the authors method actually test the hypotheses?
              c) What are the independent, dependent, and control
              variables?
            2) Based on what the authors did, what results do YOU expect?
         • Writing checklist
            • Is it clear why the procedures were selected?
            • Are any assumptions explicit and defended?
            • Is the level of detail sufficient for replication?




Body
   Results (state the results but don’t interpret them
    here)
       Verbal statement of results
       Tables and figures
         • These get referred to in the text, but actually get put into their
           own sections at the end of the manuscript
       Statistical Outcomes
         • Means, standard deviations, t-tests, ANOVAs, correlations, etc.




Body
   Results (state the results but don’t interpret them
    here)
     Reading checklist
        1) Did the author get unexpected results?
        2 a) How does the author interpret the results?
          b) How would YOU interpret the results?
          c) What implications would YOU draw from these results?

    • Writing checklist
        • Is it clear how the hypotheses are tested by the analyses?
        • Would a graph or table help clarify the results?
        • What questions might the reader still have, and how could
          I answer them in this section?




Body
   Discussion (interpret the results)
       Relationship between purpose and results
       Theoretical (or methodological) contribution
       Implications
       Future directions (optional)
      Reading checklist
          1 a) Does YOUR interpretation or the authors' interpretation
            best represent the data?
            b) Do you or the author draw the most sensible implications
            and conclusions?
     • Writing checklist
          • Have you stated your most convincing argument?
          • Do the conclusions follow straightforwardly from the results?


Body
   References                                                       Adolescent Depression 29

        Author’s name                              References

        Year                      Barnett, P. A., & Gotlib, I. H. (1988). Psychosocial
                                      functioning and depression: Distinguishing among
        Title of work                antecedents, concomitants, and consequences.
                                      Psychological Bulletin, 104.
        Publication information   Beck, A. T. (1978). Beck Depression Inventory.
          • Journal                   San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
                                    Benoit, D., Vidovic, D., & Roman, J. (1991, April).
          • Issue                     Transmission of attachment across three generations.
                                       Paper presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society
          • Pages                      for Research in Child Development.
                                   Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., & Barton, M. L. (1989).
                                      Maternal attachment disturbances in failure to thrive.
                                      Infant Mental Health Journal, 3, 185-202.
                                   Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., Boucher, C., & Minde, K.
                                      (1989). Sleep disorders in early childhood: Association
                                      with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of the
                                      American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,
                                      31, 86-93.
    When something odd comes up, don’t
    guess. Look it up!

The rest
   References
   Authors Notes (new guidelines put these on
    title page)
   Footnotes
   Tables
   Figures and figure captions




The rest
   These are used to
    supplement the text.
   To make a point clearer for
    the reader.
   Typically used for:
       The design
       Examples of stimuli
       Patterns of results




Figures and tables
Ethics – people should be treated as ends not means


Ethics
   Two basic categories of ethical concerns:
       Need to consider the rights of our participants in our
        research
       Need to behave ethically as scientists and
        practitioners




Ethical Responsibilities in Research
   Consider ethics at each step
       What measurement techniques will be used?
       How are participants selected?
       What methods may be used on the participant population?
       What design is appropriate?
       How are the data analyzed?
       How are the results reported?




Ethical Responsibilities in Research
   For the most part the researcher has the power
                       • You know what is going to be
                         done to the participants
                       • Participants may feel like
                         they have to do it




Using humans in research
   Institutional Review Board
       IRB Criteria
         •   Minimize risk
         •   Benefits > Risks
         •   Equal opportunity sampling
         •   Informed consent
         •   Documentation of consent
         •   Data monitoring
         •   Privacy & Confidentiality




Monitoring of ethics
   Respect for persons
       Basic courtesy
       Informed consent
       Debriefing
       Avoid deception
   Beneficence
       Protection from harm
       Cost/Benefits analysis
       Confidentiality
   Justice
       Freedom from coercion

APA’s code of ethics
                 www.apa.org/ethics/code2002.html
   Information to allow a person to decide if they
    want to participate
       Basic purpose of the study
       Participation is voluntary
       Risks involved
       Benefits involved
       Rights to refuse or terminate participation

       Assent - guardians if participants are not competent
         • e.g., children, developmentally disabled people




Informed consent
   Passive deception
       Withholding information about the study
   Active deception
       Deliberately misleading participants




Using deception in research
   Avoid it when possible
       Alternatives to deception
         • Role-playing
   When not possible to avoid
       Make sure that you are up front with all possible risks
       Potential results must be worth it
       Must debrief participants as soon as possible (either
        right after participation or as soon as project is over)




Using deception in research
   Costs: all potential risks to the participants
       Physical harm
       Psychological harm
       Loss of confidentiality
   Benefits: the “good” outcomes
       Direct benefits to participants
       Benefits to knowledge base
       Benefits to world at large




Costs/Benefits analysis
   Fraud prevention
       Replication – repeat a research study to validate results
       Peer Review – critical analysis of research by peers in the
        same area
       Plagiarism – taking credit for another’s work or ideas
         • Avoided by citing the ideas or words of others




Scientific Integrity
                            Dirty tricks (this will get you thrown out)
Ethics in Science Quiz      Questionable tricks (these are a little
                             fuzzier, but be wary)
                            Neat tricks (accepted as okay, and
                             sometimes necessary)




Ethical responsibility to science
                                                     Dirty tricks
Ethics in Science Quiz                               Questionable
                                                      tricks
                                                     Neat tricks
DT    Fabrication of results
QT    Little or no attempt to minimize demand biases
NT    Reformulating your theory as you go
DT    Falsifying credentials
DT    Plagiarism
QT    Little or no attempt to minimize confounds
DT    Deliberately hiding (significant) errors in published work
QT    Little or no attempt to minimize demand characteristics



 Ethical responsibility to science
                                                      Dirty tricks
   Ethics in Science Quiz                             Questionable
                                                       tricks
                                                      Neat tricks
QT or      Throwing out data
DT           depends reason for throwing out

  NT       Reorganizing order of report of experiments
  QT       Violations of underlying statistical assumptions
  QT       Strategic graphing of the data
  DT       Duplicate publications (presented as new)
  QT       Selective reporting of the results
  NT       Leaving out some bad experiments (not bad results)


    Ethical responsibility to science

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:4
posted:9/22/2012
language:English
pages:43