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THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE RUSSIAN

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THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE RUSSIAN Powered By Docstoc
					   THE CAUSES AND
CONSEQUENCES OF THE
 RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
   THE CAUSES INCLUDED:
1- Japan’s defeat of Russia in the war of
     1905

2-Peasants that did not own land and hated
    those that did

3-Tzar Nicholas II was not a good ruler

4-Causualties for Russia in WWI were great
     THE RISE OF COMMUNISM
   Bolshevik Revolution and civil war

   Vladimir Lenin became powerful in
    Russia

   Introduced his New Economic Policy

   Joseph Stalin, another communist,
    replaced Lenin after his death
              1905 to 1917
   Russia was
    humiliated as well as
    physically devastated
    during the Russo-
    Japanese War and
    WWI

   Eventually signed a
    treaty to end their
    participation in WWI.
A Very Unpopular Man
             Tsar Nicholas
              – not a good leader,
                politically or militarily


             He did not respond
              well to needs of the
              people

             Relied too heavily on
              spiritual healer
              – Rasputin
                           Rasputin
   Spiritual advisor to Czarina
    Alexandria and son Alexei
    (suffered from hemophilia)
   While Tsar Nicholas II was
    away at the front, Rasputin's
    influence over her increased.
   Became her personal adviser,
    and also convinced her to fill
    some governmental offices
    with his own handpicked
    candidates.
   According to opinion, he was
    either “nuts” or a great
    spiritual man
   He played a huge role in the fall
    of the Romanov dynasty
     1917 Russia Reached a
        Breaking Point
- Many food supplies
  and means of
  transportation were
  taken over by the
  military

- The Russian
  population - tired,
  hungry, and angry at
  government policies
               March 1917
 Duma (legislature) formed a provisional
  government on March 12th
 Nicholas left St. Petersburg and shortly, abdicate
  his throne
 Radical revolutionaries previously exiled,
  returned to Russia
   – Formed soviets (councils of workers, soldiers,
     intellectuals)
   – Claimed the right to run factories and issue
     their own orders to soldiers in the army
   – Very influential in cities
    The November Revolution

 Events of November 6,
  1917
 All private property of
  wealthy was abolished
  and divided among the
  peasantry
 Largest industrial
  enterprises
  nationalized
Vacuum of Leadership in
       Russia
             Petrograd Soviet
              (council) dominated by
              Mensheviks
             Provisional Government
              failures
             Workers refused to work-
              soldiers refused to fight
             Peasants taking the land
              outright
             Power literally lying in the
              streets of Petrograd (with
              the people)
       Rivals to Temporary
           Government
 Two political groups compete for the
  rights to govern Russia
 Most revolutionaries influenced by
  Marxist socialism
 Emulated western socialism
 Two Factions
    -- “Mensheviks”
    -- “Bolsheviks”
    What they both wanted………
   Both wanted an immediate
    withdrawal of troops from the WWI

   Believed land and power should be
    given to peasants and workers

    Beyond that……….. they didn’t agree on anything else
   What they believed……
    Mensheviks              Bolsheviks
1. A socialist         1. They were radical
revolution would
work when the          2. Believed that
people were ready to    socialism should be
revolt                  introduced by force

2. They had no real    3. It was the duty of a
plans to take over       small group of
the Provisional          revolutionaries to do
Government               this
Founder of Bolshevism:
    Vladimir Lenin
             His Early Years
               – Exiled to Siberia in
                 1897
             He was very popular
              with the people
             He wanted to end
              Russia’s participation in
              World War I
             Committed to Class
              Struggle and Revolution
    Lenin Steps into This Vacuum
   Amnesty granted to all political
    prisoners in March of 1917 (March
    Rebellion)

   A tremendously charismatic
    personality

   Bolshevik party membership exploded
World War I: “The Last Straw”
                  War revealed the
                   ineptitude and
                   arrogance of the
                   aristocratic elite
                  Corrupt military
                   leadership and
                   contempt for ordinary
                   Russian people
                  Average peasant has
                   very little invested in
                   the War
World War I cont…………….
 Poorly supplied
  troops
 Result:
    – Chaos
    – disintegration of the
      Russian Army
   Spreading discontent
    among many
    Russians/military
Russia’s Withdrawal from WWI
   March 1918, Lenin signs Treaty of Brest-
    Litovsk (treaty, later dissolved)

   Gave the Ukraine and Poland to Germany

   Losses for Russia in WWI were high
    – 1.7 million soldiers dead
    – 4.9 million wounded
    – Extremely high civilian casualties
                Civil War in 1918
   Bolsheviks challenged by their opponents
     – Red Army vs. White Army

   Bolsheviks now called Communists or Red’s

   Red Army led by Leon Trotsky

   White army defeated in 1921 after 3 years of bloody civil war

   After civil war, communism spreads through Russia

   Lenin establishes the Cheka, or secret police
      Lenin’s Economic Plan
   Introduced in 1921

   Major manufacturing controlled by
    the government

   Some businesses remain privately
    owned
        Lenin Dies at Age 54
   Two men compete
    for control of the
    Russian
    government:
    – Leon Trotsky (a
      friend of Lenin from
      exiled years in
      London)

    – Joseph Stalin
    Who won control of Russia?
   Trotsky was successful in leading the military as
    well as during the Bolshevik Revolution

   He was liked by the people and well-known by
    political leaders

   Joseph Stalin was a good administrator

   He worked his way up in the ranks of government
                 Control……….
   Stalin wins complete
    control
   He used cunning to
    become Russia’s leader.
   He banished Trotsky to
    Siberia and eventually, out
    of the Soviet Union
    entirely.
   Stalin now the leader of
    the Union of Soviet
    Socialist Republics (USSR)

       The Revolution was
            complete!

				
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