Modern U.S. History
• Westward expansion promised new
opportunities for the American dream, yet
success was often elusive.
• The promises of American life were not
available to Native Americans.
• Farmers began to call for reform
Buffalo Skulls at the Michigan
Carbon Works, 1895
1. What was Chief Joseph’s background?
2. What did he think of Lewis & Clark? What did
he think of subsequent American settlers?
Why did he make this contrast?
3. Why did he surrender to General Howard and
agree to settle on a reservation?
4. What was his assessment of the U.S.
5. What did he want from Americans in the
Chester Arthur and Indian Policy
1. When and where did President Arthur give this
2. According to Arthur, why had Indian policy
failed up to that point?
3. What specific measures did he propose to
remedy this failure?
4. What was Arthur’s overall assessment of
Native American culture? Given this view, why
was Arthur considered a reformer in his day?