What is Instructional Design?
. . . A process used primarily to develop a wide range
of instructional materials, printed, computer-
assisted, and/or television.
Dick and Carey (1989)
. . . The systematic process of transplanting
principles of learning and instruction into plans for
instructional materials and activities.
Smith and Ragan (1993)
Design as a:
• Process: The analysis of learning needs and
goals and the development of a delivery system
to meet those needs.
• Discipline: That branch of knowledge
concerned with research and theory about
instructional strategies and the process for
developing and implementing those strategies.
Conceptual Models of
• Time-focused—opportunity oriented providing
ample room for student perseverance
• Task-focused—Emphasizes the processes that
facilitate learning, prescriptive and generalized
• Learner-focused—make recommendations for
instructions based on differences in the learner,
Identifying the specific things we want
our students to learn during a lesson or
unit. When used before the actual
instruction, objectives help us identify
Origin of Objectives
• National Disciplinary Standards
– Social Studies
– Computer Proficiency
• Research Taxonomies
Essential Parts of an
1. Action verb that describes the learning
required—the specific performance
2. Level of Acheivement “How well”
3. Learning outcome or learned capability
4. Conditions of performance
An Example . . .
Given a diagram of steam engine
(situation/ condition) the student will be
able to label (performance/learned
capability) in writing (action) at least 4
of the 5 parts shown (criteria).
An Example . . .
With 100% accuracy, students will
identify in writing the parts of speech
used in a sentence from the text of
Romeo and Juliet.
Ideas for Writing
• Vary the complexity and sophistication
• Focus on student learning, not teacher
• Describe the expected outcomes of
• Identify both short and long-term outcomes
• Give students a chance to determine their
• Being “exposed” to the content, verbally,
textually, etc in its “final” form.
• Organization, visual aides, pacing, signals, and
summaries facilitate students learning from
• Criticism: Puts students in passive roles as
America is an
nation Darci Love
Huron, 8th Grade Proclomation
Organizing the Study
of 8th grade history
Samuel Effects Causes Tax on Tea
Revolution Declaration of
Charles People Battles
Thomas and Concord
Rogers Clark Henry
Lorna Hofer, Tech Facilitator
Watertown School District
Kathy Engst, Huron HS
Family and Consumer Sciences
“My Discovering Foods
students have difficulty
understanding why they need
to get accurate measurements
for baked products. This map
should help the students see
what purpose each ingredient
• Student interaction with the physical or social
environment (manipulatives, discussion groups,
• Criticisms: Incorrect constructions of content may
occur; Requires a considerable time investment
• Provide structure to activities and help students
relate their learning to key concepts and principles
to maximize the effect of discovery learning.
• Ensuring each student masters the content
before moving to more complex ideas.
• Criticisms: Assumes all students can
comprehend ideas on an equal level; requires
frequent adjustment in instructional pacing
• Benefits: Research shows better student
achievement on standardized tests, more
confidence, enjoyment, and interest in subjects
are a result of Mastery Learning.
• Teacher led process of review, presentation, rehearsal,
practice and assessment with small bits of content.
• Most suitable for material requiring step-by-step
• Recognizable because of it’s high degree of teacher-
• Limitations: not generally suitable for whole class
instruction, more successful in small group work.
• Programmed Instruction: Active responding, shaping,
• Computer-assisted instruction: sequencing optioned
on learners responses—branching.
• Hypertext/Hypermedia: Computer-based instruction
that allows student to progress through material at
their own pace and direction—auto-instructional.
• Limitations: Given the breadth of information
available through CBI, some students may not be
able to identify relevant learning content.
Effectiveness of Computer-
• Computer-supported instruction has proved able to
help students: solve problems, construct knowledge
and produce products, communicate ideas better and
encode factual information.
• Secondary issues of computer-supported instruction
include increased student attendance, increased time
on task, less behavioral problems, and more
• Caveat: Technology itself is not a school-reform