Mexican Immigration to the USA

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					Mexican Immigration to the USA
         Lizbeth Jäger-Alemán
              May 2, 2006
Borders and Borderlands (1)

Definition of border:

“A border is a line that separates one
nation from another or, in the case of
internal entities, one province or locality
from another.”
                                    Martínez:1994
Borders and Borderlands (2)

Functions of a border:

“To keep people in their own space and to
prevent, control, or regulate interactions
among them.”


                                 Martínez: 1994
Mexican-U.S. borderlands
from 1853 to the present
Tijuana-San Diego
Tijuana




          Tepoztlán
        Borderlands interaction

•   Alienated borderlands
•   Coexistent borderlands
•   Integrated borderlands
•   Interdependent borderlands
            Conditions for
     interdependent borderlands

•   Stable international relations
•   The existence of a favourable economic
    climate
•   Policies concerning the national interests
    of the two countries.
       The Bracero Program
• The Bracero Railroad Program
  - 1942-1945


• The Bracero Agricultural Program
  - 1942-1964
  - Texas
  - Wetbacks
         The “Wetbacks”




Rio Grande         Two “wetbacks”
           Reactions against
        illegal immigration (1)

• Operation Wetback Texas
  (July 1954)
• Immigration Reform and
  Control Act, IRCA (1986)
• Operation Gate Keeper
  (1994)
• Real ID Act (2005)
          Reactions against
       illegal immigration (2)
Current proposal discussed at the Senate:

HR4437:
 The Border Protection, Antiterrorism, and
 Illegal Immigration Control Act, 2005
Reactions (1)
Reactions (2)
          Some useful links
http://www.nytimes.com/
http://www.latimes.com/
http://spiegel.de/politik/ausland/
http://www.ilrc.org/HR4437.php
http://www.nohr4437.org/
                           Sources
•   Martínez, Oscar J. (1994) Border People: Life and Society in the
    US-Mexico Borderlands. Tucson: Univ. of Arizona Press

•   Bracero Program:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bracero_Program

•   Operation Wetback:
    http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/OO/pqo1.html

•   Durand, Jorge: “Cien años de política migratoria mexicana”
    http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2003/11/23/mas-durand.html
Thank you!

				
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