The Progressive Era - Download as PowerPoint by wuyunyi

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									              1901 – 1918
Students will identify major efforts
  to reform American society and
   politics in the Progressive Era


         Chronological Timeline
 Progressivism- reform movement with a goal
  of improving life in the Industrial Age
 Method of change – make political change
  and social improvement through government
  action
 Catalyst - Sparked by election of Theodore
  Roosevelt in 1901
 Participants - wide range of groups and
  individuals
 Ending – US entry into WWI in 1917
 Middle-class   Americans were alarmed by:
    Rising power of big business
    Increasing gap between rich and poor
    Violent conflicts between labor and capital
    Corrupt political machines
 African-Americans     were alarmed by:
    Jim Crow laws - 2nd class citizen status
   Participants – diverse group of individuals and groups
     Groups
       African Americans

       Feminists, crusaders for women’s suffrage

       Protestant church leaders (The Social Gospel)

       Union leaders

     Individuals
       Urban middle-class

        Doctors, lawyers, ministers, storekeepers
        White collar workers
        Middle managers
     Politicians
       Theodore Roosevelt (Republican)

       Robert La Follette (Republican)

       William Jennings Bryan (Democrat)

       Woodrow Wilson (Democrat)
 These  groups took their civic responsibilities
  seriously.
 Belief that changes were needed and
  government was the proper way to make
  changes
 ProtestantChristians response to the
  problem of urban poverty
 Applied Christian principles to solve social
  issues
 Honest  government and just laws could
  improve the human condition
 Pragmatism – “practical approach to morals,
  ideas and laws”. Put laws in action and test
  them until something works to create a
  better society.
 Scientific Management – Frederick Taylor,
  Organize people efficiently – strategy may
  help government become efficient.
   Muckraking -investigating and exposing societal issues
    through publications (ex. slums, corruption, crime)
   Significant stories exposed
     Ida Tarbell – “History of the Standard Oil Company”
     Upton Sinclair – The Jungle (Stockyards and Meatpacking
      industry conditions)
     Ida B. Wells- “A Red Record” on the statistics of lynching
     Publications competed fiercely to outdo rivals
   Decline of muckraking
     Difficult to top the last story
     Publishers received pressure from banks and advertisers to
      tone it down
     Corporations hired public relations to protect their images
   Benefits of Muckraking:
     Exposed inequities
     Educated the public about corruption
     Prepared the way for corrective action

                                                                    Ida Tarbell
 The  Jungle – exposed horrible
  details about the conditions
  in the Chicago stockyard and
  meatpacking industry
 Results – Congress enacted
   Pure Food and Drug Act – no sale
    of mislabeled food and drugs
   Meat Inspection Act - Inspectors
    visit plants to ensure standards
  Progressive ideology – faith in democracy, belief that most
  people would elect honest rather than corrupt officials
                GOAL: Increase voter participation

           Problem                       Progressive Solution
Manipulating and intimidating       Secret ballot– Vote secretly behind a
voters                              curtain
Candidates nominated by party       Direct primary –
bosses                              Nominating process in the hands of voters
                                    *Problem – limited and used to exclude
                                    African American voters

Senate became millionaires club     17th Amendment
dominated by big business           Senators elected by popular vote

Politicians refused to accept the   Initiative – voters compel the legislature
will of the people                  to consider a bill
                                    Referendum – citizens vote on proposed
                                    laws on ballots
                                    Recall – Remove corrupt or unsatisfactory
                                    politician by majority vote
Goal: Address corrupt city leaders and alliances with local
business

            Action                           Result
Public Utilities                  Many cities came to own and
Break city leaders power and      operate gas lines, electric
take utilities out the hands of   power plants and urban
private companies                 transportation systems

Commissions and city managers     Improve efficiency and reduce
Voters elect heads of city        corruption
departments or hire expert
manager
State Reform                      “Wisconsin Idea” – measures
Robert La Follette became         that included a direct primary
Wisconsin governor                law, tax reform and regulation
                                  of railroad rates
                                                           Robert "Fighting Bob" La Follette
                                                           (1855-1925) in a classic pose
   Theodore Roosevelt
       Square Deal – did not favor business or labor, insisted
        on fairness for both
           1902 Coal Strike- Roosevelt arbitrates between both
            groups forces arbitration
     Trust-busting – interest in breaking up “bad-trusts”
      that harmed public and interfered with competition
      and regulating “good-trusts”. Standard Oil Broken
     Railroad Regulation – strengthened regulatory power
      of Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
           Elkins Act – authority to stop railroads from granting
            rebates to favored customers
           Hepburn Act – ICC can fix “just and reasonable” rates for
            railroads
       Conservation – Significant efforts to protect natural
        resources
 150 million acres of federal land as a
  national reserve that could not be sold to
  private interests
 Newlands Reclamation Act – provided money
  from the sale of public land for irrigation
  projects in western states
 National Conservation Commission
 William   H. Taft
    Twice as many antitrust (trust-busting) cases –
     US Steel
    Mann-Elkins Act – ICC given power to suspend
     new railroad rates and oversee telephone,
     telegraph and cable companies
    16th Amendment – Income taxes began
    Split Republican party – they were unimpressed
     with his achievements
    Payne-Aldrich Tariff –Raised the tariff on most
     imports (he promised to lower tariffs)
                                                       Postcard states "Here's
                                                       to the Man the New
                                                       Dixie Counts On"
 Platform   calls for more radical reforms than
  Progressives – public ownership of railroads,
  utilities, and major industries like oil and
  steel
 Progressives generally separated themselves
  from Socialists
 Accepted Socialist ideas – public ownership
  of utilities, 8 hour workday, pensions for
  employees
 Candidate/ Campaign                          Party

William Taft                     Re-nominated, Republican
Theodore Roosevelt/ New          Bull Moose Party, newly formed
Nationalism                      (Progressive Republicans)




Woodrow Wilson/ New Freedom      Democratic
(limit big business and big
government)
Eugene V. Debs                   Socialist Party            TR is "Dee-Lighted" to
                                                            throw his hat into the
                             Winner                         ring of the 1912
                                                            presidential election
                          Woodrow Wilson
 Tariff Reduction – 1st act was to lower tariffs
 Banking Reform – National Banking system,
  Federal Reserve Board, Dollar bills
 Major Legislation
     Clayton Antitrust Act – Strengthened the Sherman
      Antitrust Act. Goal breaking up monopolies.
      Companies can’t buy stock of other companies to
      form monopolies. Exempted unions from prosecution
      as trusts.
     Federal Trade Commission – Investigate and take
      action against “unfair trade practice” Watch Dog
     Federal Farm Loan Act – Banks to provide farm loans
      at low rates.
     Child Labor Act – No shipment of products made by
      children under 14.
 State    of the Union- begun under him for the
    1st time in U.S. history.
   Federal Reserve Act (System)- private banking
    system under federal control, in charge of rates,
    supply of money.
 Lobbied for better
  schools, juvenile
  courts, liberalized
  divorce laws, factory
  safety
 Fought for parole,
  separate juvenile
  reform, limits on
  death penalty

Key volunteer – Jane Addams
        (Hull House)
Help Others Help Themselves   Example of Chicago slums
         Education in America
   William Harris- “education is a means to lift all
    classes of people in civilized life”
         1. Public Schools- seen as a training ground
         for employment and citizenship
         2. High School- A means to learn advance
         technical and managerial skills- job skills

   Educating Immigrants- Education used to
    “Americanize” immigrants. Teach them English and to
    love the United States.
 Generally ignored by Progressive presidents and
  governors
 Progressives did nothing about segregation and
  lynching
   Shared in prejudice of the times
   Considered other reforms more important
 Approaches to Progressive Era
   Booker T. Washington vs. W.E.B. DuBois
           Booker T. Washington vs.
               W.E.B. Du Bois
   Booker T. Washington- believed that racism would end once blacks
    acquired useful labor skills and proved their value to society. Liberal
    arts are worthless until blacks developed basic skills to improve
    economically

          1. Tuskegee Institute-.vocational institute that was used to
          give job skills in farming, construction

   W.E.B. Du Bois- believed that blacks needed immediate equality with
    White America, blacks needed liberal arts education in order to have a
    well educated class of leaders to deal with White America

          1. Talented Tenth- Only the top 10% of black society
          should be educated with liberal arts in order to lead the
          other 90% and guide them to social equality.
          2. NAACP- founded by DuBois will other civil rights leaders
      African-Americans at the turn of
                the century
   Discrimination- At the turn of the century many states used several
    different methods to limit African-Americans ability to vote.
           1. Literacy Test- given to poor whites and blacks must be able
           to read, foreign language, harder questions for blacks
           2. Poll Tax- to both poor whites and blacks must be paid before
           they could vote
           3. Grandfather Clause- If you could not pass the literacy test
           or pay the poll tax, could vote if grandfather voted before
           January 1st , 1867

Plessy v. Ferguson- Plessy a light skinned black boards a train in Louisiana
   and enters the White only car, arrested for violating state segregation
   laws
          1. Supreme Court Ruling- As long as facilities are equal they can
          be separate. Separate but Equal established and lasts for 60
          years.

   Education- African-Americans were discouraged from attending schools
    by the white majority, high school and college are extremely hard to get
    into.
 Began 1910 – 1930
 Reasons for leaving the South
     Declining race relations
     Poor cotton crops
     Northern job opportunities available during WWI
 Northern  cities posed problems of racial
  tension and discrimination
 Millions of southern Blacks traveled North to
  seek jobs in the city
 Founded  due to increased racial discrimination
 National Association for the Advancement of
  Colored People (NAACP) – WEB DuBois
    Goal: abolish all forms of segregation and increase
     educational opportunities for African American
     children
         Urban League – to help those migrating
 National
 from the South to the North, motto “Not Alms
 But Opportunity”
 Women reformers target workplace, housing,
  education, food, drugs
 Susan B. Anthony- of National American Woman
  Suffrage Association (NAWSA) works for women’s
  suffrage, or right to vote
 National     Women’s Party –
       Headed by Alice Paul
       Goal: amendment to constitution for women’s
        suffrage (voting rights)
 19th   Amendment 1920– Women’s right to
    vote in all elections, influenced by women’s
    role during WWI
 16th – Income Taxes
 17th – Senators elected by popular vote
 18th – Prohibited manufacture, sale,
  transport of alcohol
 19th – Women’s right to vote
1. Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle exposed
a. the exploitation of women and children in the nation’s factories
b. corruption in the oil industry
c. unsanitary conditions in the nation’s meat-packing industry


2. The Constitutional Amendments adopted during the Progressive Era did all
   but one of the following. Select the EXCEPTION
a. prohibited the sale and manufacture of alcohol
b. authorized a federal income tax
c. extended the vote to women
d. outlawed child labor
e. provided for the direct election of Senators


3. Which of the following was NOT achieved during Woodrow Wilson’s
   presidency?
a. the tariff was reduced
b. a federal income tax was instituted
c. racial segregation was imposed in government offices<
d. an 8-hour workday was established
1. Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle exposed
a. the exploitation of women and children in the nation’s factories
b. corruption in the oil industry
c. unsanitary conditions in the nation’s meat-packing industry


2. The Constitutional Amendments adopted during the Progressive Era did all
   but one of the following. Select the EXCEPTION
a. prohibited the sale and manufacture of alcohol
b. authorized a federal income tax
c. extended the vote to women
d. outlawed child labor
e. provided for the direct election of Senators


3. Which of the following was NOT achieved during Woodrow Wilson’s
   presidency?
a. the tariff was reduced
b. a federal income tax was instituted
c. racial segregation was imposed in government offices<
d. an 8-hour workday was established

								
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