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What is Stereoscopy?

Stereoscopy (also called stereoscopic or 3-D imaging) refers to a technique for creating or
enhancing the illusion of depth in an image by presenting two offset images separately to the
left and right eye of the viewer. Both of these 2-D offset images are then combined in the
brain to give the perception of 3-D depth. Three strategies have been used to accomplish this:
have the viewer wear eyeglasses to combine separate images from two offset sources, have
the viewer wear eyeglasses to filter offset images from a single source separated to each eye,
or have the light source split the images directionally into the viewer's eyes (no glasses
required; known as Autostereoscopy).

In simple words we can say that the 3D which we are talking about is not the real 3D as
nothing actually comes out from screen. It can be considered as Virtual.

The Principle behind 3D Stereoscopy

Finger-Face experiment!!!!!!!!

Hold your finger 12inch far from your eye and watch it with left eye keeping right eye closed
then with Right eye keeping left eye closed.


Surprised to find your finger getting displaced from its location?????

Why this happens?

It happens because we have 2 eyes which have 2 different views from 2 different angles and
this is why we are seeing 2 different images of our finger which are displaced by a small

Why then we see a single finger when we keep both our eyes open?????
It’s the human Brain which combines 2 images which are almost similar but displaced a bit,
into a single image causing us to see only 1 finger from 2 eyes.

The same Principle works behind 3d

If we see 2 different 2D images which are almost similar but slightly displaced from each
other from 2 of our eyes, our brain will create an Illusion of depth or The 3rd Dimension

3D Camera

The camera may be Video or Still but it must have 2 lens which are at a distance, our 2 eyes
are. This is to record the same image from 2 different angles. These 2 different images will be
later combined to make the 3D illusion

An ESA-developed camera transmitted live-streaming 3D images for the first time in the
history of space travel. On 6 August, NASA astronaut Ron Garan operated the Erasmus
Recording Binocular (ERB-2) camera in Europe's Columbus laboratory, showing the
International Space Station as never before in high-definition quality . While talking about
the work on board the Station, he enhances the sense of depth and presence by playing with
an inflatable Earth globe. Visit to wattch this video.

Each of the 2 videos is made from a collection of frames. While Combining the 2 videos in 1
file. 1-1 frame is take from each of the videos. This is similar to shuffling of playing cards

While viewing a 3D video, we normally require special type of glasses on our eyes, which
help in filtering the video by allowing the image of left frame to enter left eye and image of
right frame to enter right eye.

What is 3D FULL HD?

A Device which is capable of showing a 3D video in High Definition i.e. 1920*1080
resolution. For a video it means a video that is in 3D and shot in HD.

Types of presentation of 3D

Side by Side or SBS 3D

The final video produced is something like the one shown in image.

The frames of 2 cameras are kept side by side giving an actual resolution of (1920/2)
960*1080, due to horizontal stretch.

Top Down 3D

The final video produced is something like the one shown in image.

The frames of 2 cameras are kept one below the other giving an actual resolution of
1920*540(1080/2), due to vertical stretch.
How to present 3D FULL HD?

3D Full HD needs both the left and right videos to be in a resolution of 1920*1080. This
consumes very High Space and can be stored in a dual layer Blu ray 3D disk of 50GB.

Blu ray 3D movies cost around Rs1500-Rs 1800 in India.

3D Viewers at Home


Liquid crystal shutter glasses or LC shutter glasses are

Glasses containing liquid crystal that block or pass light through in synchronization with the
images on the computer display, using the concept of alternate-frame sequencing. Display
device communicates with glasses using infrared or wire. The glasses need electric charge to


Linearly polarized glasses

To present a stereoscopic motion picture, two images are projected superimposed onto the
same screen through orthogonal polarizing filters. It is best to use a silver screen so that
polarization is preserved. The projectors can receive their outputs from a computer with a
dual-head graphics card. The viewer wears low-cost eyeglasses which also contain a pair of
orthogonal polarizing filters. As each filter only passes light which is similarly polarized and
blocks the orthogonally polarized light, each eye only sees one of the images, and the effect is
achieved. Linearly polarized glasses require the viewer to keep his head level, as tilting of the
viewing filters will cause the images of the left and right channels to bleed over to the
opposite channel—along with misaligning the vision fields with those of the viewer's eyes.
Therefore, viewers learn very quickly not to tilt their heads. As the motion picture provides
the same stereoscopic image to all, and no head tracking is involved, several people can view
the movie at the same time from a limited breadth of angles.

Anaglyph 3D

Anaglyph images are used to provide a stereoscopic 3D effect, when viewed with glasses
where the two lenses are different (usually chromatically opposite) colors, such as red and
cyan. Images are made up of two color layers, superimposed, but offset with respect to each
other to produce a depth effect. Usually the main subject is in the center, while the
foreground and background are shifted laterally in opposite directions. The picture contains
two differently filtered colored images, one for each eye. When viewed through the "color
coded" "anaglyph glasses", they reveal an integrated stereoscopic image. The visual cortex of
the brain fuses this into perception of a three dimensional scene or composition

3D in Cinema theaters

It is a digital stereoscopic projection technology made and sold by RealD Inc. It is currently
the most widely used technology for watching 3-D films in theatres.
RealD 3D cinema technology uses circularly polarized light to produce stereoscopic image
projection. The advantage of circular polarization over linear polarization is that viewers are
able to tilt their head and look about the theater naturally without seeing double or darkened
images.[2] However, as with other systems, any significant head tilt will result in incorrect
parallax and prevent the brain from correctly fusing the stereoscopic images.

(formerly known as Dolby 3D Digital Cinema) is a marketing name for a system from Dolby
Laboratories, Inc. to show three-dimensional motion pictures in a digital cinema. Dolby 3D
uses a Dolby Digital Cinema projector that can show both 2D and 3D films. For 3D
presentations, an alternate color wheel is placed in the projector. This color wheel contains
one more set of red, green, and blue filters in addition to the red, green, and blue filters found
on a typical color wheel. The additional set of three filters are able to produce the same color
gamut as the original three filters, but transmit light at different wavelengths. Glasses with
complementary dichroic filters in the lenses are worn, which filter out either one or the other
set of three light wavelengths. In this way, one projector can display the left and right
stereoscopic images simultaneously. This method of stereoscopic projection is called
wavelength multiplex visualization. The dichroic filters in the Dolby 3D glasses are more
expensive and fragile than the glasses technology used in circular polarization systems like
RealD Cinema and are not considered disposable. However, an important benefit of Dolby
3D in comparison with RealD is that Dolby 3D works with conventional projection screens.

To create the illusion of depth, the IMAX 3D process uses separate camera lenses to
represent the left and right eyes. The two lenses are separated by an interocular distance of 64
mm (2.5 in), the average distance between a human's eyes. Each lens feeds a separate roll of
film. By projecting the two films simultaneously, viewers experience seeing a 3D image on a
2D screen. The IMAX 3D camera weighs over 113 kg (250 lb).


Autostereoscopy is any method of displaying stereoscopic (3D) images without the use of
special headgear or glasses on the part of the viewer. Because headgear is not required, it is
also called "glasses-free 3D". The technology includes two broad classes of displays: those
that use head-tracking to ensure that each of the viewer's two eyes sees a different image on
the screen, and those that display multiple views so that the display does not need to know
where the viewers' eyes are directed. Examples of autostereoscopic displays include parallax
barrier, lenticular, volumetric, electro-holographic, and light field displays.

2D to 3D Conversion

Movies can be converted from 2D to 3D but they don’t show much effect of things coming
out from the window this is because a movie planned to be shot in 3D is given special scenes
in which objects are brought closer to the camera. Such objects appear to come out of the
screen when viewed in 3D.

These effects can be seen in movies like Avatar, Resident Evil After Life, Final Destination 4
& 5.

Where as movies Like Ra.One which are converted to 3D after production don’t show much
of the 3D effects.
A "stereographer" is professional in the field of stereoscopy and visual effects using the art
and techniques of stereo photography, 3D photography, or stereoscopic 3D film to create a
visual perception of a 3-dimentional image from a flat surface.

3D Movies of 2012

   1.   Ghost Rider: Spirit of Vengeance.
   2.   Titanic 3D
   3.   Men In Black III
   4.   Step up 4Ever
   5.   Halloween 3D
   6.   The Adventures Of Tintin: Secret Of The Unicorn
   7.   Journey 2: The Mysterious Island

Concluding with 4D Movies

Nothing to do with the Time Dimension.

4D means 3D movie with physical effects


   1.   Smoke
   2.   Rain
   3.   Chair Vibration
   4.   Fragrance
   5.   Wind Blowing

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