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The Dislocation Theory of Addiction PPT


									    Dislocation Theory and the
    Globalization of Addiction

Today’s Agenda:

•House Keeping
•Lecture / Movie
The Dislocation Theory of Addiction:

         Setting the Tone

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                     Dislocation Theory
Bruce Alexander

Professor Emeritus of Psychology at

Addictions result from failure to achieve the level of social
acceptance, competence, self-confidence and personal
autonomy required of individuals in the society in which
they live.

• Addiction is an overwhelming involvement with any pursuit
   what so ever (including, but not limited to, drugs or alcohol)
   that is harmful to the addicted person, to society or both.

• We are still crying out for an explanation for addiction - and
   there yet remains no consensus.

• Our currents theories have not impacted the addiction
   problem... Thus the globalization of addiction “continues”
Psychosocial Integration

• We are disconnected from from inward
  and outward identity

• This lack of psychosocial integration is

• Also know as
  a “soul wound”

• Poverty of
Psychosocial Integration
• Interdependence
• Sense of Identity
• Oneness with nature
• Connection to the “divine” / “spirit”
• Wholeness
• Worldly Soul
The Free Market... or
Marketing our Doom?
  Psychosocial Integration
• In the past, psychosocial integration was achieved from
   within the community, giving life to an individuated self and
   sense of freedom, but a “community self” as well.

  •   For example, at one time we had nuclear families, connection to dead
      ancestors, connection to extended family, to villages of families.

  •   These subgroups all grew from relatively stable and internally consistent

• Today, our communities consist of “institutions”

Dislocation can endure for a time, but prolonged
dislocation eventually leads to despair, shame,
emotional anguish, boredom, bewilderment, it often
precipitates suicide and of course is responsible for...


             • Addiction
• Dislocation is not eradicated through food, shelter,
  nor through the attainment of wealth.
• But instead through a spiritual community to which
  one belongs.
• Dislocation can have many causes:

  1.     Natural disasters (destroys whole communities)

  2.     Wars

  3.     Child abuse

  4.     Ostracization

  5.     Destroying economic basis for a community

       6. Globalizing Free market society “hyper-capitalism”
      Globalizing free-market society
    undermines psychosocial integration

• Free market society: market where there is no
     economic intervention by the government

•    In free market economies, for example, people are expected to move to where jobs
     can be found, and to adjust their work lives and cultural tastes to the demands of a
     global market.

•    People who cannot achieve psychosocial integration develop “substitute”

•    Substitute lifestyles entail excessive habits including—but not restricted to
     drug use, and social relationships that are not sufficiently close, stable, or
     culturally acceptable.

•    People who can find no better way of achieving psychosocial integration
     cling to their substitute lifestyles with a tenacity that is properly called
Free Market Some History
         Globalising (cont.)
•   Although any person in any society can become dislocated,
    modern western societies dislocate all their members to a
    greater or lesser degree because all members must
    participate in “free markets”.

•   One in which controls labor, land, money and consumer

•   Thus we take the role of individual economic actors,
    unencumbered by family and friendship obligations, clan
    loyalties, community responsibilities, charitable feelings, the
    values or their religion, ethnic group, or nation.
You Were Born into Bondage!

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Free Market Society: How Far
  does the Rabbit Hole Go?
• Established “free” market
   societies require the
   continuing presence of
   powerful control systems.

• Carefully engineered
   management, advertising,
   taxation, and mass media
   techniques keep people
   buying, selling,working,
   borrowing, lending, and
   consuming at optimal
       Rabbit Hole (cont.)

• This deliberately undermines the countervailing
  influences of new social structures that
  spontaneously arise in modern families, offices,
  factories, etc.

• Thus, opportunities to reestablish new forms of
  psychosocial integration are suppressed.
      Addiction is Adaptive
•   People react to psychosocial disintegration because is it adaptive.

•   They attempt to at least have “some kind of life”

       •   Adaptation doesn’t mean desirable - it becomes a “lesser evil”...

•   Persons against “unbearable feelings” of dislocation

•   Fragmentation of identity

•   Acculturation / Assimilation Stress
Dislocation Theory
    Dislocation Theory: Insufficient to
             Cause Addiction

•   But a move in the right

•   Flatly contradicts
    conventional wisdom

•   Worn out theories - time for
    paradigm shift

•   Paradigm shifts occur when
    former theories don’t
    resolve old questions.. We
    must then begin to move
    onto new ones
      Dislocation Theory:
• Does not address why one person becomes addicted
  to one substance and not another

• Cannot account for why one dislocated person
  overcomes there handicaps while another does not

• But those who do become addicted in our free market
  society are only slightly different than each other
Dislocation Theory & Combatting Addiction:Where
                 Do We Begin?

  • Own the fact that current theories and etiological models of addiction are

  • Open political discussion...

      • A realistic discussion must recognize that addiction is mass-produced in
          a free market society, and that, therefore, society as well as individuals
          must change.

  •   Rather than endlessly competing for funds by overstating their own achievements, those
      who support each of the four pillars (i.e., prevention, treatment, harm reduction, and
      policing) should apprise society of the limited extent of their accomplishments, thereby
      showing that even the four pillars together cannot save the day.
Opening the Door

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    Where do we begin (cont.)

•   People need to belong within their society, not just trade in its markets.

•   Honest labour markets / laws

•   Abolishment of labor exploitation

•   Thus impose fair labor standards on a global level and prevent
    transnational corporations from inducing local governments to rescind
    local labor, health, safety, and environmental protections.
                Social Change
• Challenge futile policing practices

• Allocation and spends funds more appropriately

• Stop cuts in housing / Welfare / EI

• Teach and education and our youth to care for one
   another at deeper level

• Invest in social housing

• Public services need to be more nurturing

• Place full-time employment at the top of policy agendas

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