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II. Best Pedagogical Practices for Online Learning Curt Bonk, Indiana University President, CourseShare.com email@example.com http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk http://CourseShare.com Who are some of the key players… Online Strategies (Karen Lazenby, University of Pretoria, Nov., 2001) • Limit lecturing online—promote self- directed learning • Set clear rules for posting and interaction • Explain tasks and overlooked info. • Let learners synthesize key points. • Publish best work of students (with permission) • Involve participation from outside experts Online Teaching Skills The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) • Technical: email, chat, Web development • Facilitation: engaging, questioning, listening, feedback, providing support, managing discussion, team building, relationship building, motivating, positive attitude, innovative, risk taking • Managerial: planning, reviewing, monitoring, time management ======================================== – From provider to content to designer of learning experiences. – From oracle to guide and resource provider – From solitary teacher to member of team Key Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3) The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) • Ability to provide effective online fdbk (2.86) • Ability to engage the learner (2.84) • Ability to provide direction and support (2.82) • Skills in online listening (2.76) • Ability to use email effectively (2.70) • Ability to motivate online learners (2.66) • Positive attitude to online teaching (2.66) • Skills in effective online questioning (2.65) Let’s brainstorm comments (words or short phrases) that reflect your overall attitudes and feelings towards online teaching… Feelings Toward Online Teaching The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001) (Note: 94 practitioners surveyed.) • Exciting (30) • Challenging (24) • Time consuming (22) • Demanding (18) • Technical issue (16); Flexibility (16) • Potential (15) • Better options (14); Frustrating (14) • Collab (11); Communication (11); Fun (11) E-Moderating E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online, (Gilly Salmon, (1999) Kogan Page) 1. Know when to stay silent for a few days. 2. Close off unused or unproductive conferences. 3. Provide a variety of relevant conference topics. 4. Deal promptly with dominance, harassment, etc. 5. Weave, summarize, and archive often. 6. Be an equal participant in the conference. 7. Provide sparks or interesting comments. 8. Avoid directives and right answers. 9. Acknowledge all contributions. 10. Support others for e-moderator role. Pedagogical Recommendations (Berge, 1995, The role of the online instructor/facilitator) • Draw attention to conflicting views • Don’t expect too much/thread • Do not lecture (Long, coherent sequence of comments yields silence) • Request responses within set time • Maintain non-authoritarian style • Promote private conversations Research on Nine Online Courses (Vanessa Dennen, San Diego State Univ) • 9 case studies of online classes using asynchronous discussion • Topics: sociology, history, communications, writing, library science, technology, counseling • Range of class size: 15 - 106 • Level: survey, upper undergraduate, and graduate • Tools: custom and commercial • Private, semi-public, and public discussion areas Poor Instructors Good Instructors • Little or no feedback • Provided regular given qual/quant feedback • Always authoritative • Participated as peer • Kept narrow focus of • Allowed perspective what was relevant sharing • Created tangential • Tied discussion to discussions, fact grades, other tasks. questions • Used incremental • Only used “ultimate” deadlines deadlines Collaborative and Constructivist Web Tasks (McLoughlin & Oliver, 1999; Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999)) 1. Apprenticeship: Q&A; Ask an Expert (chats & async). 2. Case-Based and Simulated Learning: exchange remote views; enact events online. 3. Active Learning: Design Web pages and project databases. 4. Reflective/Metacognitive Learning: Reflect in online journals, bulletin boards 5. Experiential Learning: Post (articulate ideas) to discussion groups 6. Authentic Learning: PBL, search current databases Framework for Pedagogical CMC Techniques (Paulsen, 1995, The Online Report on Pedagogical Techniques for Computer-Mediated Communication) 1. One-alone Techniques: Online journals, online databases, interviews, online interest groups. 2. One-to-one Techniques: Learning contracts, internships, apprenticeships. 3. One-to-many Techniques: Lectures, symposiums, skits. 4. Many-to-many Techniques: Debates, simulations, games, case studies, discussion groups, brainstorming, Delphi techniques, nominal group process, forums, group projects. Ideal Environment of Synchronous Trainer Jennifer Hoffman, Online Learning Conference (2001, Oct.) A private, soundproof room. High-speed connection; telephone; powerful computer; additional computer; tech support phone # Studio microphone and speakers A “Do Not Disturb” sign Near restroom; pitcher of water Considerations: The Event Jennifer Hoffman, ASTD, Learning Circuits, (2001, March) • Log on early; students come 15 minutes early. • Do tech checks of microphones (sound check). • Check to see if students brought needed items • Perhaps call or send notes to missing students • Vary your instructional strategies; maximize interactivity • Make it visual—color, sound, animation • Design 10-minute breaks every 90 minutes Pedagogical Tips (Bonk 1998; Indiana University) • Build peer interactivity • Utilize multiple forms of assessment • Provide feedback cues (dots) • Embed choices (avatars, tasks, etc.) • Simplify (everything!!!) • Offer early feedback • Scheduling something due early Just a Lot of Bonk • Variety: tasks, topics, participants, accomplishments, etc. • Interaction extends beyond class • Learners are also teachers • Multiple ways to succeed • Personalization and choice • Clarity and easy to navigate course • Find tech mentor, be student b4 teacher But how to determine the pedagogical quality of courses and course materials you develop? Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for Success in Internet-Based Distance Ed (Blackboard & NEA, 2000) Teaching/Learning Process • Student interaction with faculty is facilitated through a variety of ways. • Feedback to student assignments and questions is provided in a timely manner. • Each module requires students to engage themselves in analysis, synthesis, and evaluation as part of their course assignments. • Course materials promote collaboration among students. – http://www.ihep.com/Pubs/PDF/Quality.pdf Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for Success in Internet-Based Distance Ed (Blackboard & NEA, 2000) Other Benchmark Categories: • Institutional Support: incentive, rewards, plans • Course Development: processes, guidelines, teams, structures, standards, learning styles • Course Structure: expectations, resources • Student Support: training, assistance, info • Faculty Support: mentoring, tech support • Evaluation and Assessment: review process, multiple methods, specific standards The Sharp Edge of the Cube: Pedagogically Driven Instructional Design for Online Education Syllabus Magazine, Dec, 2001, Nishikant Sonwalkar • five functional learning styles— apprenticeship, incidental, inductive, deductive, discovery. • http://www.syllabus.com/syllabusmagazine/article.asp?id=5858 New Methodology for Evaluation: The Pedagogical Rating of Online Courses Syllabus Magazine, Jan, 2002, Nishikant Sonwalkar The Pedagogical Effectiveness Index: (1) Learning Styles: (see previous page) (2) Media Elements: text, graphics, audio, video, animation, simulation (3) Interaction Elements: feedback, revision, e-mail, discussion, bulletin http://www.syllabus.com/syllabusmagazine/article.asp?i d=5914 For more info, e-mail: Nish@mit.edu New Methodology for Evaluation: The Pedagogical Rating of Online Courses Syllabus Magazine, Jan, 2002, Nishikant Sonwalkar Summative evaluation instrument for rating online courses: (1) Content Factors: quality, media, authentic (2) Learning Factors: interactivity, testing & feedback, collaboration, ped styles (3) Delivery Support Factors: accessible, reporting, user management, content (4) Usability Factors: clarity, chunk size, layout (5) Technological Factors: bandwidth, database connectivity, server capacity,browser What do we need??? FRAMEWORKS! The Web Integration Continuum (Bonk et al., 2000) Level 1: Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web Level 2: Web Resource for Student Exploration Level 3: Publish Student-Gen Web Resources Level 4: Course Resources on the Web Level 5: Repurpose Web Resources for Others ======================================= Level 6: Web Component is Substantive & Graded Level 7: Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class Level 8: Entire Web Course for Resident Students Level 9: Entire Web Course for Offsite Students Level 10: Course within Programmatic Initiative Four Key Hats of Instructors: – Technical—do students have basics? Does their equipment work? Passwords work? – Managerial—Do students understand the assignments and course structure? – Pedagogical—How are students interacting, summarizing, debating, thinking? – Social—What is the general tone? Is there a human side to this course? Joking allowed? – Other: firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor, conductor, host, mediator, filter, editor, facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge, marketer, assistant, etc. Personal Learning Trainer • Learners need a personal trainer to lead them through materials and networks, identify relevant materials and advisors and ways to move forward (Mason, 1998; Salmon, 2000). E-Police • While one hopes you will not call yourself this nor find the need to make laws and enforce them, you will need some Code of Practice or set procedures, and protocols for e-moderators (Gilly Salmon, 2000). Still More Hats Assistant Gardener Devil’s advocate Helper Editor Lecturer Expert Marketer Filter Mediator Firefighter Priest Facilitator Promoter Sure…but Cat Herder??? Activity: Pick a Online Instruction Metaphor from 40 Options Reality: Ideal World: ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ 2. Questioning: What is the name of this concept...?," "Another reason for this might be...?," "An example of this is...," "In contrast to this might be...,“, "Who can tell me....?,“ "What is the real problem here...?," "How is this related to...?,“, "Can you justify this?" 8. Push to Explore: "You might want to write to Dr. ‘XYZ’ for...," "You might want to do an ERIC search on this topic...," "Perhaps there is a URL on the Web that addresses this topic..." What About Student Roles??? Role 5: Idea Squelcher/Biased/Preconceiver • Squelches good and bad ideas of others and submits your own prejudiced or biased ideas during online discussions and other situations. Forces others to think. Is that person you really hate to work with. Role 8: Idea Generator Creative Energy/Inventor • Brings endless energy to online conversations and generates lots of fresh ideas and new perspectives to the conference when addressing issues and problems. Who do you think invented the Internet??? Alt Role: Connector/Relator/Linker/Synthesizer Funny thing is that Al thinks he invented e-learning as well!!! INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (June 26, 2002) *AL GORE IS TEACHING a distance-education course on the role of families in discussions about community development. Videotapes of the two-semester course, made this past year, are available for other institutions to use. SEE http://chronicle.com/free/2002/06/2002062601t.htm Role 11: Controller/Executive Director/CEO/Leader • In this role, the student oversees the process, reports overall findings and opinions, and attempts to control the flow of information, findings, suggestions, and general problem solving. Role 12: Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer Dude • In this role, the student does little or nothing to help him/herself or his/her peers learn. Here, one can only sit back quietly and listen, make others do all the work for you, and generally have a laid back attitude (i.e., go to the beach) when addressing this problem. What are your best practices???
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