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									II. Best Pedagogical Practices
      for Online Learning

    Curt Bonk, Indiana University
    President, CourseShare.com
Who are some of the key
          Online Strategies
      (Karen Lazenby, University of Pretoria, Nov., 2001)

• Limit lecturing online—promote self-
  directed learning
• Set clear rules for posting and interaction
• Explain tasks and overlooked info.
• Let learners synthesize key points.
• Publish best work of students (with
• Involve participation from outside experts
      Online Teaching Skills
       The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)

• Technical: email, chat, Web development
• Facilitation: engaging, questioning, listening,
  feedback, providing support, managing
  discussion, team building, relationship building,
  motivating, positive attitude, innovative, risk
• Managerial: planning, reviewing, monitoring,
  time management
   – From provider to content to designer of learning experiences.
   – From oracle to guide and resource provider
   – From solitary teacher to member of team
Key Skills or Attributes (scale 0-3)
         The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)

•   Ability to provide effective online fdbk (2.86)
•   Ability to engage the learner (2.84)
•   Ability to provide direction and support (2.82)
•   Skills in online listening (2.76)
•   Ability to use email effectively (2.70)
•   Ability to motivate online learners (2.66)
•   Positive attitude to online teaching (2.66)
•   Skills in effective online questioning (2.65)
    Let’s brainstorm comments
   (words or short phrases) that
 reflect your overall attitudes and
feelings towards online teaching…
    Feelings Toward Online Teaching
         The Online Teacher, TAFE, Guy Kemshal-Bell (April, 2001)
                     (Note: 94 practitioners surveyed.)

•   Exciting (30)
•   Challenging (24)
•   Time consuming (22)
•   Demanding (18)
•   Technical issue (16); Flexibility (16)
•   Potential (15)
•   Better options (14); Frustrating (14)
•   Collab (11); Communication (11); Fun (11)
        E-Moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online,
             (Gilly Salmon, (1999) Kogan Page)

1.    Know when to stay silent for a few days.
2.    Close off unused or unproductive conferences.
3.    Provide a variety of relevant conference topics.
4.    Deal promptly with dominance, harassment, etc.
5.    Weave, summarize, and archive often.
6.    Be an equal participant in the conference.
7.    Provide sparks or interesting comments.
8.    Avoid directives and right answers.
9.    Acknowledge all contributions.
10.   Support others for e-moderator role.
 Pedagogical Recommendations
     (Berge, 1995, The role of the online instructor/facilitator)

• Draw attention to conflicting views
• Don’t expect too much/thread
• Do not lecture (Long, coherent sequence
  of comments yields silence)
• Request responses within set time
• Maintain non-authoritarian style
• Promote private conversations
 Research on Nine Online Courses
  (Vanessa Dennen, San Diego State Univ)

• 9 case studies of online classes using
  asynchronous discussion
• Topics: sociology, history, communications,
  writing, library science, technology, counseling
• Range of class size: 15 - 106
• Level: survey, upper undergraduate, and graduate
• Tools: custom and commercial
• Private, semi-public, and public discussion areas
      Poor Instructors      Good Instructors

• Little or no feedback   • Provided regular
  given                     qual/quant feedback
• Always authoritative    • Participated as peer
• Kept narrow focus of    • Allowed perspective
  what was relevant         sharing
• Created tangential      • Tied discussion to
  discussions, fact         grades, other tasks.
  questions               • Used incremental
• Only used “ultimate”      deadlines
 Collaborative and Constructivist
           Web Tasks
(McLoughlin & Oliver, 1999; Oliver & McLoughlin, 1999))

1. Apprenticeship: Q&A; Ask an Expert (chats & async).
2. Case-Based and Simulated Learning: exchange
   remote views; enact events online.
3. Active Learning: Design Web pages and project
4. Reflective/Metacognitive Learning: Reflect in online
   journals, bulletin boards
5. Experiential Learning: Post (articulate ideas) to
   discussion groups
6. Authentic Learning: PBL, search current databases
 Framework for Pedagogical CMC Techniques
   (Paulsen, 1995, The Online Report on Pedagogical Techniques for
                 Computer-Mediated Communication)

1. One-alone Techniques: Online journals,
   online databases, interviews, online
   interest groups.
2. One-to-one Techniques: Learning
   contracts, internships, apprenticeships.
3. One-to-many Techniques: Lectures,
   symposiums, skits.
4. Many-to-many Techniques: Debates,
   simulations, games, case studies,
   discussion groups, brainstorming,
   Delphi techniques, nominal group
   process, forums, group projects.
      Ideal Environment of
      Synchronous Trainer
   Jennifer Hoffman, Online Learning Conference (2001, Oct.)

 A private, soundproof room.
 High-speed connection; telephone;
  powerful computer; additional computer;
  tech support phone #
 Studio microphone and speakers
 A “Do Not Disturb” sign
 Near restroom; pitcher of water
    Considerations: The Event
     Jennifer Hoffman, ASTD, Learning Circuits, (2001, March)

• Log on early; students come 15 minutes early.
• Do tech checks of microphones (sound check).
• Check to see if students brought needed items
• Perhaps call or send notes to missing students
• Vary your instructional strategies; maximize
• Make it visual—color, sound, animation
• Design 10-minute breaks every 90 minutes
      Pedagogical Tips
         (Bonk 1998; Indiana University)

• Build peer interactivity
• Utilize multiple forms of
• Provide feedback cues (dots)
• Embed choices (avatars, tasks,
• Simplify (everything!!!)
• Offer early feedback
• Scheduling something due early
      Just a Lot of Bonk
• Variety: tasks, topics, participants,
  accomplishments, etc.
• Interaction extends beyond class
• Learners are also teachers
• Multiple ways to succeed
• Personalization and choice
• Clarity and easy to navigate course
• Find tech mentor, be student b4 teacher
    But how to determine the
pedagogical quality of courses and
  course materials you develop?
 Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for
Success in Internet-Based Distance Ed
                          (Blackboard & NEA, 2000)

 Teaching/Learning Process
 • Student interaction with faculty is facilitated
   through a variety of ways.
 • Feedback to student assignments and questions
   is provided in a timely manner.
 • Each module requires students to engage
   themselves in analysis, synthesis, and
   evaluation as part of their course assignments.
 • Course materials promote collaboration among
    –   http://www.ihep.com/Pubs/PDF/Quality.pdf
 Quality on the Line: Benchmarks for
Success in Internet-Based Distance Ed
                 (Blackboard & NEA, 2000)

Other Benchmark Categories:
• Institutional Support: incentive, rewards, plans
• Course Development: processes, guidelines,
  teams, structures, standards, learning styles
• Course Structure: expectations, resources
• Student Support: training, assistance, info
• Faculty Support: mentoring, tech support
• Evaluation and Assessment: review process,
  multiple methods, specific standards
       The Sharp Edge of the Cube:
     Pedagogically Driven Instructional
       Design for Online Education
                   Syllabus Magazine, Dec, 2001, Nishikant Sonwalkar

• five functional learning styles—
  apprenticeship, incidental, inductive,
  deductive, discovery.
•   http://www.syllabus.com/syllabusmagazine/article.asp?id=5858
New Methodology for Evaluation: The
Pedagogical Rating of Online Courses
          Syllabus Magazine, Jan, 2002, Nishikant Sonwalkar

The Pedagogical Effectiveness Index:
(1) Learning Styles: (see previous page)
(2) Media Elements: text, graphics, audio,
    video, animation, simulation
(3) Interaction Elements: feedback,
    revision, e-mail, discussion, bulletin


   For more info, e-mail: Nish@mit.edu
    New Methodology for Evaluation: The
    Pedagogical Rating of Online Courses
              Syllabus Magazine, Jan, 2002, Nishikant Sonwalkar

Summative evaluation instrument for
  rating online courses:
(1) Content Factors: quality, media, authentic
(2) Learning Factors: interactivity, testing & feedback,
     collaboration, ped styles
(3) Delivery Support Factors: accessible, reporting, user
     management, content
(4) Usability Factors: clarity, chunk size, layout
(5) Technological Factors: bandwidth, database
     connectivity, server capacity,browser
What do we need???

 The Web Integration Continuum
       (Bonk et al., 2000)
Level 1: Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web
Level 2: Web Resource for Student Exploration
Level 3: Publish Student-Gen Web Resources
Level 4: Course Resources on the Web
Level 5: Repurpose Web Resources for Others
Level 6: Web Component is Substantive & Graded
Level 7: Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class
Level 8: Entire Web Course for Resident Students
Level 9: Entire Web Course for Offsite Students
Level 10: Course within Programmatic Initiative
  Four Key Hats of Instructors:
– Technical—do students have basics?
  Does their equipment work? Passwords
– Managerial—Do students understand the
  assignments and course structure?
– Pedagogical—How are students
  interacting, summarizing, debating,
– Social—What is the general tone? Is
  there a human side to this course?
  Joking allowed?
– Other: firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor, conductor, host, mediator, filter,
  editor, facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge, marketer, assistant, etc.
Personal Learning Trainer
• Learners need a personal trainer
  to lead them through materials
  and networks, identify relevant
  materials and advisors and ways
  to move forward (Mason, 1998;
  Salmon, 2000).
• While one hopes you will not call
  yourself this nor find the need to
  make laws and enforce them,
  you will need some Code of
  Practice or set procedures, and
  protocols for e-moderators (Gilly
  Salmon, 2000).
      Still More Hats
Assistant          Gardener
Devil’s advocate   Helper
Editor             Lecturer
Expert             Marketer
Filter             Mediator
Firefighter        Priest
Facilitator        Promoter
Sure…but Cat Herder???
    Activity: Pick a Online Instruction
       Metaphor from 40 Options

Reality:             Ideal World:
   ___________         ___________
   ___________         ___________
   ___________         ___________
   ___________         ___________
   ___________         ___________
2. Questioning:
What is the name of this
concept...?," "Another reason
for this might be...?," "An
example of this is...," "In
contrast to this might be...,“,
"Who can tell me....?,“ "What
is the real problem here...?,"
"How is this related to...?,“,
"Can you justify this?"
8. Push to Explore:
"You might want to write
to Dr. ‘XYZ’ for...," "You
might want to do an
ERIC search on this
topic...," "Perhaps there
is a URL on the Web that
addresses this topic..."
   What About
Student Roles???
           Role 5: Idea
• Squelches good and bad ideas of
  others and submits your own
  prejudiced or biased ideas during
  online discussions and other
  situations. Forces others to think.
  Is that person you really hate to
  work with.
 Role 8: Idea Generator Creative
• Brings endless energy to
  online conversations and
  generates lots of fresh
  ideas and new
  perspectives to the
  conference when
  addressing issues and
    Who do you think invented the

Alt Role: Connector/Relator/Linker/Synthesizer
Funny thing is that Al thinks he
 invented e-learning as well!!!
(June 26, 2002) *AL GORE IS TEACHING a distance-education course
on the role of families in discussions about community
development. Videotapes of the two-semester course, made this past
year, are available for other institutions to use.
SEE http://chronicle.com/free/2002/06/2002062601t.htm
  Role 11: Controller/Executive
• In this role, the
  student oversees the
  process, reports
  overall findings and
  opinions, and
  attempts to control the
  flow of information,
  findings, suggestions,
  and general problem
  Role 12: Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer
• In this role, the student does
  little or nothing to help
  him/herself or his/her peers
  learn. Here, one can only sit
  back quietly and listen, make
  others do all the work for you,
  and generally have a laid back
  attitude (i.e., go to the beach)
  when addressing this problem.
What are your best

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