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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An Antiking (German: Gegenkönig Latin: Contrarex) is a would-be king who, due to succession disputes or simple political
opposition, declares himself king in opposition to a reigning monarch. Antikings are more often found in elected monarchies
than in hereditary monarchies like those of England and France; such figures in hereditary monarchies are more frequently
referred to as pretenders or claimants. They are most commonly referred to in the politics of the Holy Roman Empire down to
the beginning of the 15th century. The term is comparable to Antipope, a rival would-be Pope, and indeed the two
phenomena are related; just as German kings and emperors sometimes raised up antipopes to politically weaken Popes with
whom they were in conflict, so too Popes sometimes sponsored antikings as political rivals to emperors with whom they
Several antikings succeeded in vindicating their claims to power, and were recognized as rightful kings: for example, the
Emperors Conrad III, Frederick II, and Charles IV (see table below). The status of others as antikings is still disputed to this
day: e.g., Henry II, Duke of Bavaria and Egbert II, Margrave of Meissen.
Other nations that produced antikings included Bohemia and Hungary.

Notable German antikings
               Name                       Dates            In opposition to:
Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria                 919-921     Henry the Fowler
Rudolf of Rheinfelden                   1077–1080
                                                    Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Hermann of Salm                         1081–1088
Conrad III of Germany                   1127–1135 Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor 1212–1215 Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry Raspe                             1246–1247
                                                    Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Count William II of Holland
                                        1250–1254 Conrad IV of Germany
Alfonso X of Castile                    1257–1273 Richard, 1st Earl of Cornwall
Frederick I of Austria                  1314–1325
                                                    Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor 1346–1347
Günther of Schwarzburg                  1349        Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick of Brunswick-Lüneburg 1400                Wenceslaus, King of the Romans

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