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Anti-thyroid autoantibodies

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					Anti-thyroid autoantibodies
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anti-thyroid autoantibodies (or simply anti-thyroid antibodies) are autoantibodies targeted against one or more
components of the thyroid. The main types of anti-thyroid autoantibodies are anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (also
called anti-TPO antibodies) and stimulating autoantibodies that are associated with Grave's disease. Anti-microsomal
antibodies encompass all antibodies directed against constituents of the thyroid microsomes, most commonly anti-TPO
antibodies, but also including for example thyroglobulin antibodies.

            Contents
 1 Subtypes
     1.1 Anti-TPO antibodies
     1.2 TSH receptor antibodies
     1.3 Thyroglobulin antibodies
 2 Effect on human reproduction
 3 References


Subtypes

Anti-TPO antibodies
Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO antibodies) are most commonly associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thus, an
antibody titer can be used to assess disease activity in patients that have developed such antibodies.[1][2]

TSH receptor antibodies
TSH receptor antibodies come in two forms: an activating antibody (associated with hyperthyroidism) and a blocking antibody
(associated with thyroiditis).
TSH receptor activating antibodies (TSHRAb) are characteristic of Graves Disease (autoimmune hyperthyroidism). Thyroid
peroxidase (TPO) antibody is measured more easily than the TSH receptor antibody, and so is often used as a surrogate in
the diagnosis of Graves disease. TSH receptor antibodies, however, may be useful in the diagnosis of Graves
Ophthalmopathy.
TSH receptor blocking antibodies (also known as Thyrotropin Binding Inhibitory Immunoglobulins (TBII)) may be found in
thyroiditis. These competitively inhibit the binding of TSH to its receptor. TBII can be measured using a radio receptor assay

Thyroglobulin antibodies
Thyroglobulin antibodies are sometimes used in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and are commonly used to monitoring
thyroid cancer following removal of the organ (thyroidectomy).

Effect on human reproduction
The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies is associated with an increased risk of unexplained subfertility (odds ratio 1.5 and
95% confidence interval 1.1–2.0), miscarriage (odds ratio 3.73, 95% confidence interval 1.8–7.6), recurrent miscarriage (odds
ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.5–3.5), preterm birth (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1–3.5) and maternal
Postpartum thyroiditis (odds ratio 11.5, 95% confidence interval 5.6–24). [3]

References
   1. ^ McLachlan SM, Rapoport B (2000). "Autoimmune response to the thyroid in humans: thyroid peroxidase--the common
      autoantigenic denominator". Int. Rev. Immunol. 19 (6): 587–618. doi:10.3109/08830180009088514 . PMID 11129117 .
   2. ^ Chardès T, Chapal N, Bresson D, Bès C, Giudicelli V, Lefranc MP, Péraldi-Roux S (June 2002). "The human anti-thyroid
     peroxidase autoantibody repertoire in Graves' and Hashimoto's autoimmune thyroid diseases". Immunogenetics 54 (3): 141–57.
     doi:10.1007/s00251-002-0453-9 . PMID 12073143 .
  3. ^ Van Den Boogaard, E.; Vissenberg, R.; Land, J. A.; Van Wely, M.; Van Der Post, J. A. M.; Goddijn, M.; Bisschop, P. H. (2011).
     "Significance of (sub)clinical thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity before conception and in early pregnancy: A systematic
     review". Human Reproduction Update 17 (5): 605–619. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmr024 . PMID 21622978 . edit



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