Anti-mitochondrial antibody by pc10201

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									Anti-mitochondrial antibody
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are autoantibodies, consisting of immunoglobulins formed against mitochondria,[1]
primarily mitochondria in cells of the liver. The presence of AMAs in the blood or serum of a person is indicative of several
autoimmune diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) (a scarring of liver tissue, confined primarily to the bile duct
drainage system of the liver). It is present in about 95% of cases. [2]
Primary biliary cirrhosis is seen primarily in middle-aged women, and in those
afflicted with other autoimmune diseases. PBC is an autoimmune disorder, a
condition in which the human body's immune defense system mistakenly attacks
the body's own cells, or in this case parts of the cells.
Cause of AMAs is postulated that xenobiotic-induced and/or oxidative modification
of mitochondrial autoantigens is a critical step leading to loss of tolerance. In acute
liver failure AMA are found against all major liver antigens.[3]
      Pyruvate dehydrogenase, E2 subunits
      2-oxo-glutarate dehydrogenase
      Branched chain 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase
                                                                                                          Immunofluorescence staining pattern of
Anti-cardiolipin antibodies are another type of AMA, cardiolipin is found on the inner
                                                                                                       AMA shown on stomach (top left), liver (top
mitochondrial membrane.                                                                                 right), kidney (bottom left) and hep-20-10
                                                                                                                    cells (bottom right).
Correlation with non-mitochondrial antigens
Fifty seven percent of acute liver failure patients had elevated anti-transglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG), which correlate with
gluten-sensitive enteropathy (see coeliac disease, gluten-sensitive enteropathy associated conditions).[3] The inflammation
produced by gluten-sensitive cellular immunity may cause the oxidative stress resulting in the modification of mitochondrial
antigens and acute liver failure. Anti-gp210 antibodies are also found in 47% of PBC patients. [4][5]

See also
      Mitochondrion
      Antibodies

References
   1. ^ MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003529
   2. ^ Oertelt S, Rieger R, Selmi C, Invernizzi P, Ansari A, Coppel R, Podda M, Leung P, Gershwin M (2007). "A sensitive bead assay
      for antimitochondrial antibodies: Chipping away at AMA-negative primary biliary cirrhosis". Hepatology 45 (3): 659–65.
      doi:10.1002/hep.21583 . PMID 17326160 .
   3. ^ a b Leung PS, Rossaro L, Davis PA, et al. (2007). "Antimitochondrial antibodies in acute liver failure: Implications for primary
      biliary cirrhosis". Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 46 (5): 1436–42. doi:10.1002/hep.21828 . PMID 17657817 .
   4. ^ Nickowitz RE, Worman HJ (1993). "Autoantibodies from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis recognize a restricted region within
      the cytoplasmic tail of nuclear pore membrane glycoprotein Gp210" . J. Exp. Med. 178 (6): 2237–42.
      doi:10.1084/jem.178.6.2237 . PMC 2191303 . PMID 7504063 .
   5. ^ Bauer A, Habior A (2007). "Measurement of gp210 autoantibodies in sera of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis". J. Clin. Lab.
      Anal. 21 (4): 227–31. doi:10.1002/jcla.20170 . PMID 17621358 .

  V   · T· E·                                            Medical test: Antibodies: autoantibodies
                                   PBC: (Anti-gp210 · Anti-p62 · Anti-sp100 · ·
                                   ENA: (Anti-topoisomerase/Scl-70 · Anti-Jo1 · ENA4 (Anti-Sm · Anti-nRNP · Anti-Ro · Anti-La · · ·
           Anti-nuclear antibody
                                   Anti-centromere ·
                                   Anti-dsDNA ·
  Anti-mitochondrial antibody   Anti-cardiolipin ·

     Anti-cytoplasm antibody    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic (C-ANCA · P-ANCA · · Anti-smooth muscle (Anti-actin · · Anti-TPO/Antimicrosomal ·

              Cell membrane     Anti-ganglioside · Anti-GBM ·

                                Anti-thrombin · Lupus anticoagulant ·
                Extracellular   Gluten sensitivity: (Anti-transglutaminase (Anti-gliadin not autoantibody · · ·
                                RA (Rheumatoid factor/anti-IgG · Anti-citrullinated peptide · ·
           Multiple locations   Anti-phospholipid · Anti-apolipoprotein ·

                  Ungrouped     Anti-glutamate receptor antibodies ·

           M: LMC                    cell/phys/auag/auab/comp, igrc                  imdf/ipig/hyps/tumr             proc, drug(L3/4)



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