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Absolutism_ Enlightenment_ Revolutions CONDENSED


  • pg 1
									Unit 5

          Scientific Revolution
         Democratic Revolutions
Absolute Monarchs
   Ruled by “divine right” – power from
   Pros - Increased country’s power;
    economic growth; efficient, quick
   Cons – Costly wars; disregard for the
    people, taxes, social inequality,
   France – Bourbon; Louis XIV – “The Sun King”; L’etat c’est
    moi (I am the state); palace at Versailles
   Spain – Phillip II – most Catholic king; lost Spanish Armada
    to England in 1588
   Russia – Romanovs; Peter the Great – westernized Russia;
    “windows” (ports); men shaved beards; Catherine the
   Prussia – Hohenzollerns; Frederick the Great; expanded
   Austria – Hapsburgs – Maria Theresa, Joseph II; expanded
    Austria, fought Protestants
   England – Tudors – Henry VIII, Elizabeth I
     Absolutism - Summary
   Achievements – weakened the nobles, provided
    strong central government, wealth and power to
    nations, generally furthered growth of nation
   Weaknesses – nation’s welfare depended on one
    person, sacrificed national well-being for personal
    or family interests, led nations into costly wars,
    disregarded the rights of the common people
   Enlightenment ideas will challenge absolutism
    and lead to revolutions
English Revolution (Civil War)
   Stuart family follow popular Tudors
   James I and Charles I
       Divine right, ruled without Parliament
       Parliament issues Petition of Right
            No taxes w/out Parliament
            Can’t imprison without charge – habeas corpus
            No quartering of troops
   Oliver Cromwell (Puritan) leads Parliament
    (Roundheads) to victory over Stuarts (Cavaliers);
    Charles beheaded!
   Cromwell rules as a dictator – hated by many
England cont.
   Cromwell dies; Stuarts return (Restoration)
   Charles II and James II
   Reforms – pledges to observe Magna Carta;
    Petition of Right; Habeas Corpus Act
   James II antagonizes Parliament
   Glorious Revolution - William and Mary
    become king and queen; bloodless revolution;
    Bill of Rights
English Civil War Summary
   James I
   Charles I
       War - Cromwell (Parliament) rules
   Charles II
   James II
   A “James” sandwich 
Scientific & Intellectual Rev.
   Renaissance spirit
       Questioning leads to scientific achievements
       Use of reason and logic (not medieval superstition)
       Scientific method and experimentation
   Copernicus – earth revolves around sun (heliocentric)
   Ptolemy's (geocentric) theory that planets revolve
    around the earth is disproved
   Kepler – laws of planetary motion; elliptical orbit
   Galileo – telescope; confirmed Copernicus
   Newton – laws of motion and gravity
   Boyle – chemistry; gases
   Leeuwenhoek – microscope; discovered
    previously invisible world of bacteria,
   Vesalius – dissections; science of
   Harvey – blood circulation
   Bacon – scientific method
Enlightenment (Intellectual
   Based in the Scientific Rev. and Renaissance
   Focus on reason, questioned governments
   Could apply scientific method to real life
   The Philosophes:
   John Locke – (Two Treatises of Government)
       Natural rights – life, liberty, property
       Government should protect these rights
       If they fail, people can replace government
Enlightenment cont.
   Montesquieu – (The Spirit of the Laws)
       Separation of powers
       3 Branches - legislative, executive, judicial
       Checks and balances
   Foundation of U.S. system (Constitution)
   Rousseau – (The Social Contract)
       Society agreed to be governed
       Individuals must abide by majority
Enlightenment cont.
   Adam Smith – (The Wealth of Nations)
       Natural law should apply to the economy
       People should pursue economic interests
       Government should protect people but
        leave the economy alone
   Laissez faire – “hands off”
   Foundation of capitalism
   Voltaire
       Free speech
       Religious equality
   Foundation of U.S. Bill of Rights
       Speech, press, religion, bear arms, jury,
        attorney, etc.
   Mary Wollstonecraft – feminist;
    criticized men in government; women
    should be educated
   If using “reason” then women should
    have equal rights to men
   Salons – elegant rooms where
    philosophes met, discussed, etc.
    American Revolution
   Democratic reforms long part of English history (thus
    the colonists)
   Mercantilism – trade with GB for 150 years; mutually
    beneficial – resources for products
   Salutary Neglect – ignored colonists, allowed self
   Many disconnected from England
   1607 – Jamestown; 1733 - Georgia
   French & Indian War – GB gains new territory; begins
    to tax and control colonies
   No taxation without representation
American Revolution cont.
   Boston Tea Party, Boston Massacre
   Enlightenment Ideas
   Declaration of Independence (1776) –
    Thomas Jefferson
   George Washington in command of
    Continental Army
   Victory in 1781 – new country & new
American Revolution cont.
   Constitution creates framework for
   Based on
       Separation of Powers – 3 branches
       Checks and Balances – Each branch limits
        the other
       Federalism – We live under federal and
        state govt.
       Bill of Rights – Added to protect rights
American Revolution cont.
   Speech, religion, press, assembly,
    petition, bear arms, warrant, speedy
    trial, confront witnesses, no self
    incrimination, attorney (counsel), jury,
    no double jeopardy, no cruel or unusual
French Revolution - 1789
                               1st – Clergy 1%
                               2nd – Nobles 2%


                     3rd - 97%
                 Doctors, Lawyers,
                  Everyone Else!
French Revolution - Causes
   Estates System
       1 – Clergy
       2 – Nobles
       3 – Everyone else (97%)
            Included bourgeoisie (middle class), educated, wealthy;
             NOT JUST PEASANTS
   Weak, incompetent king – Louis XVI
   Excessive spending on Versailles, American
    Revolution; extravagant lifestyle (Marie too)
French Revolution
   People had no voice in government
   Estates General not used in 175 years
   Inflation
   1st and 2nd Estates exempt from taxes, military
    service, etc.
   Unemployment
   Poor harvests
   Starvation
   3rd Estate bore tax burden
   Louis XVI calls Estates General –
    needed $
   3rd Estate declared themselves National
   Tennis Court Oath – won’t disband until
    a constitution is created (Am. Rev.)
   Bastille is destroyed
   Revolution begins
   Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
   Reign of Terror (radical phase)
   Robespierre executes thousands of
    “enemies of the Revolution”
   Guillotine
   Napoleon Bonaparte – coup d’etat
   Economic reforms; education; Napoleonic
    Code (legal rights); public works; makes
    peace with Church (Concordat)
   At war constantly - neighboring monarchs
    feared revolution
   Invaded Russia – big mistake (“scorched
   Defeated at Waterloo
   Revolutions in Haiti, Latin America –
    many nations revolt against Spain
   Overall leads to new nations,
    democratic governments, constitutions,
    defeat of monarchs, spirit of
The Congress of Vienna
   Meetings to restore peace and stability
   Russia, Prussia, Austria, GB, France
   Dominated by Klemens von Metternich (Austria)
   Create a balance of power so no one was a
   Restore royal families to the throne
      Legitimacy – restore “legit” monarchs

   Limit the power of France
   Stop the spread of revolutions
Congress of Vienna
   Concert of Europe – each pledged to help one
    another if revolutions broke out
   Conservatives happy – return to the old ways
   Liberals (wanted democratic change,
    revolution, etc.) – not happy
   Leads to nationalism where countries will
    demand independence, revolution
   Latin America – successful
   Europe - unsuccessful

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