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Tab 3 Adult Learner


									The Adult
Principles of
Adult Learning
             Session Objectives
 Upon Successful completion of this
  module, participants will be able to:
  – Incorporate effective planning and delivery
    techniques into their 10 and 30 hour
    Outreach Training Program.
Principles of Adult Learning

1. Adults may feel anxious if participating
   in a group makes them look weak,
   either professionally or personally.
2. Adults can bring a great deal of
   experience and knowledge to any
   learning situation.
3. Adults are often decision-makers and
   self-directed learners.
Principles of Adult Learning

4. Adults can be motivated by information
   or tasks that they find meaningful.

5. Adults may have many responsibilities
   and can be impatient when their time is
The Adult Learner
Learning Objectives

By the end of this session, participants will be
 able to:
  – Explain how experience influences adult
  – Identify basic styles of learning;
  – Describe typical learning styles; and,
  – Identify basic principles of adult learning and
    apply them to the training of adults.
            Training Sessions

 My best training experience was:

 My worst training experience was:

1. Learn differently from children and require
   different training approaches
2. Adults have different learning styles that
   must be respected
     1. Different speeds
     2. Different methods
3. Learn best in environments where they
   feel respected and confident
               Adults (cont.)

1. Bring experience and knowledge to the
   learning environment
2. Are self-motivated and self-directed.
3. Must be able to apply what they learn
4. Are busy people who expect their time
   during training to be used carefully

  Leadership
  Experience
  Appeal
  Respect
  Novel Styles
    Children VS. Adult Learning

        Children                 Adults
Rely on others to       Decide for themselves
decide what is          what is important to be
important to be learned learned.
Accept the information Need to validate the
being presented at face information based on
value.                   their beliefs and
Expect what they are     Expect what they are
learning to be useful in learning to be
their long-term future. immediately useful.
     Children VS. Adult Learning

         Children                     Adults

Have little or no            Have substantial
experience upon which        experience upon which
to draw, are relatively      to draw. May have
“blank slates.”              fixed viewpoints.

Little ability to serve as   Significant ability to
a knowledgeable              serve as a
resource to teacher or       knowledgeable
fellow classmates.           resource to the trainer
                             and fellow learners.
Training, Presenting, Facilitating

 What is the difference?

 • Training

 • Presenting

 • Facilitating
 Strengths
  – presents factual material in direct,
    logical manner
  – contains experience which inspires
  – stimulates thinking to open discussion
  – useful for large groups
 Preparation
  - needs clear introduction and summary
  - needs time and content limit to be

 Limitations
  – experts are not always good teachers
  – audience is passive
  – learning is difficult to gauge
  – communication in one way
              Panel of Experts

 Strengths
  – Allows experts to present different opinions
  – Can provoke better discussion than 1 person
  – Frequent change of speaker keeps attention
 Limitations
  – May not be good speakers
  – Personalities may overshadow content
 Preparation
  – Brief panels

 Strengths
   – Allows creative thinking
   – Encourages full participation
   – Draws on knowledge and experience
   – One idea can spark off others
 Limitations
   – Can be unfocused
   – Criticism and evaluation may occur
 Preparation
   – Select issue
   – Must have ideas that will stimulate group

 Strengths
  – Entertaining
  – Looks professional
  – Stimulates Discussion
 Limitations
  – Can raise too many issues
  – Discussion may not have full participation
  – Only as effective as following discussion
 Preparation
  – Equipment set-up
              Class Discussion

 Strengths
  – Pool ideas and experience
  – Effective after a presentation or film
  – Allows everyone to participate
 Limitations
  – No practical for more than 20 people
  – Few can dominate
  – Time consuming
 Preparation
  – Question outline
       Small Group Discussion

 Strengths
  – Allows participation of everyone
  – People are comfortable in smaller groups
  – Can reach group consensus
 Limitations
  – Groups can get sidetracked
 Preparation
  – Needs specific tasks or questions
                   Case Studies

 Strengths
  – Develops analytic and problem solving skills
  – Allows for exploration of solutions
  – Allows student to apply knowledge and experience
 Limitations
  – People may not see relevance to own situation
  – Insufficient information can lead to inappropriate
 Preparation
  – Case must be clearly defined
  – Student must be prepared.
                Role Playing

 Strengths
  – Introduces problem situation
  – Allows exploration of situations
  – Opportunity to practice skills
 Limitations
  – Self-Conscious people
  – Not for large groups
 Preparation
  – Define problem situation
  – Clear instructions
           Report-Back Sessions

 Strengths
  – Allows for large group discussion of role play,
    case studies and small group exercise
  – Reflect on experience
 Limitations
  – Can be repetitive if small groups say the
 Preparation
  – None
            Guest Speaker

 Strengths
  – Personalized topic
 Limitations
  – May not be a good speaker
 Preparation
  – Contact speaker
  – Introduce speaker appropriately
  What other training activities have you

          GAMES         BRAINSTORMING

  Adults feel anxious if participating in a
      group makes them look weak
 Design training workshops, educational
  exercises, and discussion sessions that help
  people feel:
  – Safe to ask questions.
  – Confident that they will be respected.
 Provide opportunities and allow time for people to
  establish themselves in a group.
  Adults bring a great deal of experience and
     knowledge to any learning situation

 It is important to show respect for participants’
  experiences by asking them to share ideas,
  opinions, and knowledge.

 An assessment of participants experiences
  and knowledge can tell you more about them.
  – Can be done before or on first day of training with
    a short questionnaire.
  – Or done orally during introductions.
  Adults are decision-makers and self-directed

 Do not seek to make people obey you;
  adults will do what they need to do.
 Be the “guide on the side” rather than the
  “intellectual on the stage”.
 Listen to what they want and need, and be
  flexible in your planning.
  – Change your approach if your agenda or
    methods are not working.
  – Seek feedback from the group.
 Adults are motivated by information or tasks
           that they find meaningful

 Conduct some type of needs assessment
  so that you are aware of:
  – What people want (and need) to learn.
  – How much they already know.
  – Needs related to learning styles.
 Adults have many responsibilities and can be
     impatient when their time is wasted.

 Be thoughtful and kind.

 Begin and end your session on time.

 Understand who is in the audience and why
  they are participating.

 Learn what questions they have about the
Adults have many responsibilities and can be
    impatient when their time is wasted.

 You may cover material they already know,
  therefore use it as a review.

 Recognize that your subject is only one of
  many that participants may be interested in
  learning about.
       Planning and Implementing

Planning Tips and Suggestions
   Brainstorm possible learning objectives
   Refine learning objectives
   Develop motivational strategies
   Develop handouts
   Develop visual aids
   Develop introduction
   Develop conclusion
Chinese Proverb

 I Hear Something, I Forget

 I See Something, I Remember

 I Do Something, I Understand

How does this proverb apply to training?
                  Learning Styles

Like to be actively involved in learning process, want to
   know how they will apply learning in real world, like
   information presented clearly and concisely

 Training Methods
   – Practice
   – Apply Concepts
   – Simulations.
                  Learning Styles

People-oriented, expressive, focus on feelings and
  emotions, thrive in open, unstructured learning

 Training Techniques
   – Personal Experience
   – Role Play
   – Group Exercises
                   Learning Styles


Rely on logic and reason, like to share ideas and concepts,
  analyze and evaluate, enjoy independent work.

 Training Methods
   – Reading
   – Questioning
   – Independent Activities
                Learning Styles


 Like to watch and listen, tend to be reserved, will
  take their time before participating, thrive on
  learning through discovery.

 Training Methods
   – Lectures
   – Discussion
   – Problem Solving
Key Point about Learning Styles

 Goal is not to focus on only one style of
  learning but to use a blend of methods to
  reach the greatest number of adult

 No one style or role is “good” or “bad”; all
  styles and roles are useful and needed.
Key Points on Learning Styles

    Using a blend of learning styles in
     developing training helps ensure you
     will reach the needs of the greatest
     number of participants.

    Understanding how you tend to learn
     best helps you understand and adapt to
     others’ styles.
The Adult
Strategies and
   Create a Supportive Environment

 Convey Respect for Individuals

 Techniques
  – Call each trainee by name
  – Listen to each person’s questions and view
  – Never belittle
  – Mistakes are part of the learning process
  – Ensure physical space is comfortable
      Emphasize Personal Benefit

 How does the course relate to their
  immediate work and will help reach
  personal and professional goals?

 Techniques
  – Have each participant develop own personal
    goals for the training
  – Encourage participants to write down specific
    actions they will take in response to the
                Training Methods –
                Active Participation

 Enhances retention of new concepts

 Techniques
  – Limit lecturing
  – Share experiences
  – Use questions technique
  – Use exercises that require a practice skill or
    apply knowledge.
Methods for Increasing Participation

 Open discussion
 Small-group discussion
 Partners
 “Go arounds”
 Games
 Calling on the next speaker
 Panels
 Fishbowls
The Adult
Learner: Difficult

   At the end of this session you will:

    Understand how difficult students can
     cause conflict
    Be able to identify at least 6 types of
     difficult people
    Understand why people have difficult
    Learn techniques for dealing with difficult
   What is a “Difficult Person”?

Someone who consistently makes it hard to
 accomplish a task, or is hard to interact
 with. For example, someone whose
 behavior is:
    • Argumentative or belligerent
    • Negative or pessimistic
    • Quiet or unreceptive
    • Overly agreeable but doesn’t deliver
    • Opinionated and defensive
Difficult People

                   The Bulldozer
   Know it all
   Often use threats, sarcasm, and intimidation

   Dealing with Dozers
    –   Prepare yourself
    –   Use questions to raise issues.
    –   Focus on Solution
    –   Do not confront them
    –   Listen carefully and paraphrase the main points.
Difficult People
                The Whiner
 Avoids taking responsibility.

 Wants sympathy.

 Has negative view of the world.

 It’s important for these people to get their
  opinions across. If you ignore them, they
  increase their protests.
Difficult People

                Dealing with a Whiner

 Don’t respond if they are blaming you

 Don’t sympathize if they are at fault.

 Make a list of all complaints from constant complainers
  before you discuss problem.

 Make sure the facts are correct.

 Make the Whiner propose solutions so they can fix the
Difficult People
 Loud and Hostile
 Abusive
 Overwhelm you

 Dealing with Bullies
  –   Let them run down
  –   Get their attention
  –   State your point non-aggressively
  –   Don’t allow interruptions
  –   Ask them to leave
Difficult People
                    Fire Hose
   Dampen Enthusiasm
   Everything will fail
   Negative statements
   Constantly complaining

 Dealing with Fire Hose
    – Don’t be dragged down
    – Don’t argue
    – Don’t agree or apologize
    – Switch to problem solving
Difficult People

        Reluctant to turn down requests
        Afraid or unable to manage
        Paralyzed by tough decisions
        Could be an overwhelmed “Yes-Person.”
        Could be a procrastinator.
        Has reservations about the project.
        Doesn’t organize or prioritize work.
Difficult People

        Dealing with Stallers/Wafflers

   Help resolve the problem
   Support decisions
   Keep control of situation
   Help document their goals and deadlines
   Listen for indirect words, hesitations
Difficult People
          Silent Types – The Clam

 Silent/unresponsive
 Answer with a nod
 Always look away when a question has
  been asked
 Timid, uncomfortable, and uncertain.
 Wants to avoid conflict or hurting anyone.
Difficult People
         Dealing with Silent Types

 Meet with individually

 Give time to open up

 Try to draw them out about topics that are

 Ask open-ended questions.
Difficult People (cont.)

         Dealing with Silent Types

 Wait for a response -- calmly.

 If you get no response, comment on what’s
  happening. End your comment with an
  open-ended question.
Difficult People

    •Super helpful
    •Postpone decisions
    •Beat around the bush

    Dealing with indecisiveness
    •Addresses fears with “what if” questions
    •Watch for anger or withdrawal
    •Help with problem solving
Difficult People

 Exclude Key People
 Withhold information
 Use hidden attacks and digs

 Dealing with Sniper
  – Bring resistance into the open
  – Seek group confirmation
Difficult People

                        Control Freak

   Get into everyone’s business
   Undermine and insult
   Lack confidence and trust
   Insufferable – render subordinates ineffective

                     Dealing with a Control Freak
                            •Build trust
                            •Keeps focused
                            •Don’t let yourself be verbally
Helpful Hints

      Avoid name calling
      Encourage listening
      Confront in private – praise in public
      Use your communication skills!!!!
      Model behavior you want
      Maintain eye contact
The Adult
Learner: Difficult
Examples of Difficult Behaviour

        Aggressive/abusive behaviour
        Disruptive behaviour
        Bored, apathetic and disinterested
        Strange/bizarre behaviour
        Non-attendance
        Non Compliance
        Scapegoating/victimisation
        Personality conflicts - Which aspects?
Potential Reasons for Difficult Behaviour

   Don’t want to be there
   Emotionally upset e.g. sad, angry,
   Inappropriate social skills, e.g. different
    culture, etc.
   Just having a bad day
Recognizing your own responses - The person
you have most control over is you!

Managing Yourself
 Know your buttons or triggers
 Recognize you’re agitated/upset
 Consciously calm and relax yourself
 Take time to choose your response
 Get another perspective and/or debrief
 Deal with your feelings
 Get over it!
     It’s All About ATTITUDE!

 You are not going to change THEM.
 You will have to work with THEM.
 You are the one who can make the
 Make it happen!
   A Summary Master Plan
• What specifically about the behavior is
  hard to manage?

• What do I think the reasons are for this

• Which of my ‘buttons’ do they push?

• What behaviors prevention strategies
  have I tried?
   A Summary Master Plan (cont.)

 How do I currently respond?

 What will I do differently next time?
 How do I care for myself during and
  after an interaction?
 Practice the Plan!
Group Presentation

   Each group will plan, organize, develop and present a
    45 - 50 minute Safety Training Topic

    outline and prepare your topic

   Use Training Techniques

   Self and Group Feedback

   Lead trainer will close the gap

 Plan preparation of an individual or
  group presentation

 Discuss resources needed

 Develop material for an individual or
  group presentation

 Practice the individual or group
      Topics to Choose for Individual or
             Group Presentation

   Recordkeeping
   Intro to OSHA
   Personal Protective Equipment
   Safety and Health Programs
   Hand and Power Tools
   Ladders and Stairways
   Fire Protection and Prevention
   Welding and Cutting
   Concrete and Masonry
  Training Breakdown Structure

                 Training Topic

           Purpose of Training Topic

Sub Topic          Sub Topic      Sub Topic

1. Point            1. Point      1. Point
2. Point            2. Point      2. Point
3. Point            3. Point      3. Point


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