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The Adult Learner: Principles of Adult Learning Session Objectives Upon Successful completion of this module, participants will be able to: – Incorporate effective planning and delivery techniques into their 10 and 30 hour Outreach Training Program. Principles of Adult Learning 1. Adults may feel anxious if participating in a group makes them look weak, either professionally or personally. 2. Adults can bring a great deal of experience and knowledge to any learning situation. 3. Adults are often decision-makers and self-directed learners. Principles of Adult Learning 4. Adults can be motivated by information or tasks that they find meaningful. 5. Adults may have many responsibilities and can be impatient when their time is wasted. The Adult Learner Learning Objectives By the end of this session, participants will be able to: – Explain how experience influences adult learning; – Identify basic styles of learning; – Describe typical learning styles; and, – Identify basic principles of adult learning and apply them to the training of adults. Training Sessions My best training experience was: My worst training experience was: Adults 1. Learn differently from children and require different training approaches 2. Adults have different learning styles that must be respected 1. Different speeds 2. Different methods 3. Learn best in environments where they feel respected and confident Adults (cont.) 1. Bring experience and knowledge to the learning environment 2. Are self-motivated and self-directed. 3. Must be able to apply what they learn 4. Are busy people who expect their time during training to be used carefully INSTRUCTION BASED ON FIVE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ADULT LEARNING Leadership Experience Appeal Respect Novel Styles Children VS. Adult Learning Children Adults Rely on others to Decide for themselves decide what is what is important to be important to be learned learned. Accept the information Need to validate the being presented at face information based on value. their beliefs and values. Expect what they are Expect what they are learning to be useful in learning to be their long-term future. immediately useful. Children VS. Adult Learning Children Adults Have little or no Have substantial experience upon which experience upon which to draw, are relatively to draw. May have “blank slates.” fixed viewpoints. Little ability to serve as Significant ability to a knowledgeable serve as a resource to teacher or knowledgeable fellow classmates. resource to the trainer and fellow learners. Training, Presenting, Facilitating What is the difference? • Training • Presenting • Facilitating Lecture Strengths – presents factual material in direct, logical manner – contains experience which inspires – stimulates thinking to open discussion – useful for large groups Preparation - needs clear introduction and summary - needs time and content limit to be effective Lecture Limitations – experts are not always good teachers – audience is passive – learning is difficult to gauge – communication in one way Panel of Experts Strengths – Allows experts to present different opinions – Can provoke better discussion than 1 person – Frequent change of speaker keeps attention Limitations – May not be good speakers – Personalities may overshadow content Preparation – Brief panels Brainstorming Strengths – Allows creative thinking – Encourages full participation – Draws on knowledge and experience – One idea can spark off others Limitations – Can be unfocused – Criticism and evaluation may occur Preparation – Select issue – Must have ideas that will stimulate group Videotapes/DVD’s Strengths – Entertaining – Looks professional – Stimulates Discussion Limitations – Can raise too many issues – Discussion may not have full participation – Only as effective as following discussion Preparation – Equipment set-up Class Discussion Strengths – Pool ideas and experience – Effective after a presentation or film – Allows everyone to participate Limitations – No practical for more than 20 people – Few can dominate – Time consuming Preparation – Question outline Small Group Discussion Strengths – Allows participation of everyone – People are comfortable in smaller groups – Can reach group consensus Limitations – Groups can get sidetracked Preparation – Needs specific tasks or questions Case Studies Strengths – Develops analytic and problem solving skills – Allows for exploration of solutions – Allows student to apply knowledge and experience Limitations – People may not see relevance to own situation – Insufficient information can lead to inappropriate results Preparation – Case must be clearly defined – Student must be prepared. Role Playing Strengths – Introduces problem situation – Allows exploration of situations – Opportunity to practice skills Limitations – Self-Conscious people – Not for large groups Preparation – Define problem situation – Clear instructions Report-Back Sessions Strengths – Allows for large group discussion of role play, case studies and small group exercise – Reflect on experience Limitations – Can be repetitive if small groups say the same Preparation – None Guest Speaker Strengths – Personalized topic Limitations – May not be a good speaker Preparation – Contact speaker – Introduce speaker appropriately What other training activities have you experienced? GAMES BRAINSTORMING ICEBREAKERS ?????? Adults feel anxious if participating in a group makes them look weak Design training workshops, educational exercises, and discussion sessions that help people feel: – Safe to ask questions. – Confident that they will be respected. Provide opportunities and allow time for people to establish themselves in a group. Adults bring a great deal of experience and knowledge to any learning situation It is important to show respect for participants’ experiences by asking them to share ideas, opinions, and knowledge. An assessment of participants experiences and knowledge can tell you more about them. – Can be done before or on first day of training with a short questionnaire. – Or done orally during introductions. Adults are decision-makers and self-directed learners Do not seek to make people obey you; adults will do what they need to do. Be the “guide on the side” rather than the “intellectual on the stage”. Listen to what they want and need, and be flexible in your planning. – Change your approach if your agenda or methods are not working. – Seek feedback from the group. Adults are motivated by information or tasks that they find meaningful Conduct some type of needs assessment so that you are aware of: – What people want (and need) to learn. – How much they already know. – Needs related to learning styles. Adults have many responsibilities and can be impatient when their time is wasted. Be thoughtful and kind. Begin and end your session on time. Understand who is in the audience and why they are participating. Learn what questions they have about the subject. Adults have many responsibilities and can be impatient when their time is wasted. You may cover material they already know, therefore use it as a review. Recognize that your subject is only one of many that participants may be interested in learning about. Planning and Implementing Planning Tips and Suggestions Brainstorm possible learning objectives Refine learning objectives Develop motivational strategies Develop handouts Develop visual aids Develop introduction Develop conclusion Chinese Proverb I Hear Something, I Forget I See Something, I Remember I Do Something, I Understand How does this proverb apply to training? Learning Styles Doer Like to be actively involved in learning process, want to know how they will apply learning in real world, like information presented clearly and concisely Training Methods – Practice – Apply Concepts – Simulations. Learning Styles Feeler People-oriented, expressive, focus on feelings and emotions, thrive in open, unstructured learning environment Training Techniques – Personal Experience – Role Play – Group Exercises Learning Styles Thinker Rely on logic and reason, like to share ideas and concepts, analyze and evaluate, enjoy independent work. Training Methods – Reading – Questioning – Independent Activities Learning Styles Observer Like to watch and listen, tend to be reserved, will take their time before participating, thrive on learning through discovery. Training Methods – Lectures – Discussion – Problem Solving Key Point about Learning Styles Goal is not to focus on only one style of learning but to use a blend of methods to reach the greatest number of adult learners. No one style or role is “good” or “bad”; all styles and roles are useful and needed. Key Points on Learning Styles Using a blend of learning styles in developing training helps ensure you will reach the needs of the greatest number of participants. Understanding how you tend to learn best helps you understand and adapt to others’ styles. The Adult Learner: Strategies and Techniques Create a Supportive Environment Convey Respect for Individuals Techniques – Call each trainee by name – Listen to each person’s questions and view – Never belittle – Mistakes are part of the learning process – Ensure physical space is comfortable Emphasize Personal Benefit How does the course relate to their immediate work and will help reach personal and professional goals? Techniques – Have each participant develop own personal goals for the training – Encourage participants to write down specific actions they will take in response to the training. Training Methods – Active Participation Enhances retention of new concepts Techniques – Limit lecturing – Share experiences – Use questions technique – Use exercises that require a practice skill or apply knowledge. Methods for Increasing Participation Open discussion Small-group discussion Partners “Go arounds” Games Calling on the next speaker Panels Fishbowls The Adult Learner: Difficult Personalities Objectives At the end of this session you will: Understand how difficult students can cause conflict Be able to identify at least 6 types of difficult people Understand why people have difficult behaviors Learn techniques for dealing with difficult people What is a “Difficult Person”? Someone who consistently makes it hard to accomplish a task, or is hard to interact with. For example, someone whose behavior is: • Argumentative or belligerent • Negative or pessimistic • Quiet or unreceptive • Overly agreeable but doesn’t deliver • Opinionated and defensive Difficult People The Bulldozer Know it all Often use threats, sarcasm, and intimidation Dealing with Dozers – Prepare yourself – Use questions to raise issues. – Focus on Solution – Do not confront them – Listen carefully and paraphrase the main points. Difficult People The Whiner Avoids taking responsibility. Wants sympathy. Has negative view of the world. It’s important for these people to get their opinions across. If you ignore them, they increase their protests. Difficult People Dealing with a Whiner Don’t respond if they are blaming you Don’t sympathize if they are at fault. Make a list of all complaints from constant complainers before you discuss problem. Make sure the facts are correct. Make the Whiner propose solutions so they can fix the problem. Difficult People Bullies Loud and Hostile Abusive Overwhelm you Dealing with Bullies – Let them run down – Get their attention – State your point non-aggressively – Don’t allow interruptions – Ask them to leave Difficult People Fire Hose Dampen Enthusiasm Everything will fail Negative statements Constantly complaining Dealing with Fire Hose – Don’t be dragged down – Don’t argue – Don’t agree or apologize – Switch to problem solving Difficult People Stallers/Wafflers Reluctant to turn down requests Afraid or unable to manage Paralyzed by tough decisions Could be an overwhelmed “Yes-Person.” Could be a procrastinator. Has reservations about the project. Doesn’t organize or prioritize work. Difficult People Dealing with Stallers/Wafflers Help resolve the problem Support decisions Keep control of situation Help document their goals and deadlines Listen for indirect words, hesitations Difficult People Silent Types – The Clam Silent/unresponsive Answer with a nod Always look away when a question has been asked Timid, uncomfortable, and uncertain. Wants to avoid conflict or hurting anyone. Difficult People Dealing with Silent Types Meet with individually Give time to open up Try to draw them out about topics that are non-threatening. Ask open-ended questions. Difficult People (cont.) Dealing with Silent Types Wait for a response -- calmly. If you get no response, comment on what’s happening. End your comment with an open-ended question. Difficult People Indecisive •Super helpful •Postpone decisions •Beat around the bush Dealing with indecisiveness •Addresses fears with “what if” questions •Watch for anger or withdrawal •Help with problem solving Difficult People Sniper Exclude Key People Withhold information Use hidden attacks and digs Dealing with Sniper – Bring resistance into the open – Seek group confirmation Difficult People Control Freak Get into everyone’s business Undermine and insult Lack confidence and trust Insufferable – render subordinates ineffective Dealing with a Control Freak •Build trust •Keeps focused •Don’t let yourself be verbally abused Helpful Hints Avoid name calling Encourage listening Confront in private – praise in public Use your communication skills!!!! Model behavior you want Maintain eye contact The Adult Learner: Difficult Behaviors Examples of Difficult Behaviour Aggressive/abusive behaviour Disruptive behaviour Bored, apathetic and disinterested Strange/bizarre behaviour Non-attendance Non Compliance Scapegoating/victimisation Personality conflicts - Which aspects? Potential Reasons for Difficult Behaviour Don’t want to be there Emotionally upset e.g. sad, angry, grieving Inappropriate social skills, e.g. different culture, etc. Just having a bad day Recognizing your own responses - The person you have most control over is you! Managing Yourself Know your buttons or triggers Recognize you’re agitated/upset Consciously calm and relax yourself Take time to choose your response Get another perspective and/or debrief Deal with your feelings Get over it! It’s All About ATTITUDE! You are not going to change THEM. You will have to work with THEM. You are the one who can make the change. Make it happen! A Summary Master Plan • What specifically about the behavior is hard to manage? • What do I think the reasons are for this behavior? • Which of my ‘buttons’ do they push? • What behaviors prevention strategies have I tried? A Summary Master Plan (cont.) How do I currently respond? What will I do differently next time? How do I care for myself during and after an interaction? Practice the Plan! Group Presentation Each group will plan, organize, develop and present a 45 - 50 minute Safety Training Topic Use TBS (TRAINING BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE) to outline and prepare your topic Use Training Techniques Self and Group Feedback Lead trainer will close the gap Objectives Plan preparation of an individual or group presentation Discuss resources needed Develop material for an individual or group presentation Practice the individual or group presentation Topics to Choose for Individual or Group Presentation Recordkeeping Intro to OSHA Personal Protective Equipment Safety and Health Programs Hand and Power Tools Ladders and Stairways Fire Protection and Prevention Welding and Cutting Concrete and Masonry Training Breakdown Structure Training Topic Purpose of Training Topic Sub Topic Sub Topic Sub Topic 1. Point 1. Point 1. Point 2. Point 2. Point 2. Point 3. Point 3. Point 3. Point Summary
"Tab 3 Adult Learner"