Whether or not Perpetual Motion Exists?
Summary: Physicists have traditionally held that nothing exist perpetuum
mobile. However this is contrary to observations because any particle ranging
from Photons to Galaxies and even higher formations has to be perpetually
mobile to keep its existence.
In my school days, I was taught that nothing stands perpetually mobile and this is
in accordance with 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. This was explained to be because
the inevitable energy flow accompanying mobility is always associated with
entropy. This entropy manifests in different forms in different domains such as
friction, viscous drag, resistance of an electric conductor etc. It results in loss of
energy and consequential loss of mobility and hence the above stated statement.
But imagine, if Earth were to lose its energy in its motion around Sun, within
almost no time, gravitational pull of Sun is bound to lead to gravitational collapse
of earth into Sun and hence Earth would not be able to keep its existence for
more than a brief period of time. This must be true of all celestial bodies including
Stars, Galaxies and even Comets and Asteroids.
If gas particles in Brownian motion were to lose their energy after each and every
collision (taking place approximately @ 109 per second) in compliance of Law of
Conservation of Linear Momentum, soon gas particles after losing their energy
would liquefy (since in a gas its kinetic energy is a measure of its temperature and
lowering of temperature of a gas results in its liquefaction). Liquid particles again
being in Brownian motion shall lose their energy and turn in to solids. Therefore
in this universe gases and liquids will have only transient existence. But it is
contrary to observations.
Same is true of Photons. If Photons travelling along a straight line were to suffer
space drag and therefore were unable to conserve their energy in their cosmic
sojourn, than a change in identity and character of any Photon is inevitable. For
Photons, Planck’s law states E = hf. Therefore following loss of energy due to
space drag, a change in frequency (f) is inevitable, h being a universal constant.
Since identity and character of any Photon are determined by its frequency,
hence the above statement. In such a situation Photons can’t keep their existence
for billions of years which is normally subject only to absorption by a material
particle. In that case a Photon would no longer be representative of its source and
so Astrophysicists would lose scientific validity of their observations.
This is true for stable subatomic particles as well i.e. electron, proton and
neutron. This argument is equally valid for atoms, molecules and all other
particles displaying Brownian motion. In case of electrons Physicists have
employed such terms as rest mass, rest energy and rest charge knowing fully well
that an electron is never in a state of rest in ordinary sense of the term.
Perpetual motion is a mandatory condition for existence of any particle, whether
of energy or matter or both.
Any particle in motion conserves its mass, energy and momentum to the extent of
its perpetual motion. Energy necessary to sustain perpetual motion is generally
known as free energy of the particle. A particle in perpetual motion only, is in its
basal state. Each and every particle has a tendency to return to its basal state and
to conserve its basal state. A particle even at 0°K shall conserve its basal state or
free energy or sustain its perpetual motion.
A particle in perpetual motion only, being devoid of any Newtonian motion is in a
state of ‘Deemed Rest’ for the purpose of laws of physics since in this state
conservation of mass, energy and momentum is absolute. According to Newton’s
2nd law, absolute conservation of its momentum by a particle implies no
unbalanced external force acting on the particle and hence no acceleration and
hence a state of ‘Deemed Rest’ – An axiomatic concept like the concept of point,
line and plane in Geometry.
Perpetual motion may be linear as in case of Photons, rotatory as in case of
celestial bodies, electrons, along a zig-zag path as in case of Brownian motion and
oscillatory as in case of Photons and other subatomic particles, atoms, molecules
etc. Therefore almost all types of regular motion can be seen in perpetually
mobile particles but the exact type of perpetual motion seen is dependent upon
nature of the particle.
Briefly stated any particle to keep its existence has to be perpetually mobile and
this is a mandatory condition for any particle to keep its existence. Perpetual
motion of Photons, stable subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, colloid particles,
celestial bodies and even galaxies and higher formations can’t be refuted.
Hence perpetual motion is a material reality and Physicists have misguided
themselves in believing that nothing exist perpetuum mobile.
Author: Dr Mahesh C. Jain is a practicing medical doctor has written the book
“Encounter of Science with Philosophy – A synthetic view”. The book begins with
first chapter devoted to scientifically valid concept of God and then explains
cosmic phenomena right from origin of nature and universe up to origin of life
and evolution of man. The book includes several chapters devoted to auxiliary
concepts and social sciences as corollaries to the concept of God. It is pertinent
to mention that the book contains a chapter devoted to the concept of ‘Rest’ in