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					National Plan for Agriculture and Rural Development




                               ROMANIAN
                AGRICULTURE RESOURCES
                                      AND
                 TERRITORIAL DISPARITIES

                                      MAPS




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National Plan for Agriculture and Rural Development


  REGIONAL DISPARITIES OF AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES WHICH
   ARE UNDER THE INCIDENCE OF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES



Agricultural lands

The diversity and specificity of pedological climate system (mountains, hilly, plain)
general and regional features of the social history and of the economic conjuncture
have generated a financial structure, dominated by the share of agricultural land with
62% (Table 1).

The greatest share of the agricultural land (>80%) is recorded in the Romanian plain,
the West and the South plain and centre of Dobrogea plateau defined as agricultural
regions of first importance, which include 11 counties. This share then decreases to
40-65% in the hilly region and to less then 20% in the mountain area.

The structure of the agricultural lands by crops is characteristic by the
complementarity of the two main categories arable land (62% of the total agricultural
area) and the hay lands and graze lands (31%) the share of which in the territory
depending on the altitude. The share of arable lands decreases from over 80% in the
low lands (plains, several plateau) to 40-60% in the steeply hilly area and less than
20% in the proper mountain regions. On the other hand, the share of hay lands and
graze lands is on the increase, from less than 10% in the plains to over 60% in the
mountains.

These two main categories are complemented by an important area cultivated with
vineyards (212817 ha, or 1.7%) and orchards (263043ha, or 1.8%) which are situated,
as a rule, in certain hilly and plateau areas, at heights of 300-700 m (1/3 of Romania’s
main vineyards are however situated at lower heights of 150-300 m, while the fruit
trees are to be found at height of 800-1000 m). A special mention has to be made in
what regards the areas put to vineyards and orchards on the sandy soils from the
Romanian Plain or from the terraces of Danube or of other inland rivers.

Territorial disparities of several cumulative structures of agricultural lands

The agricultural land due to the area of 14.8 million hectares, and also through its
structural diversity and the way of linkage between the four categories of land use
arable, natural graze land, vineyards, orchards, represent the "strong points" in the
development of local economies.

The way of correlation of territorial disparities of the four categories of lands at the
county level defines the regional profile of the agricultural lands, which corresponds
of structural zones (table no. 1)

Table no. 1

Structural cumulative zones of the agricultural lands




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Region     Characteristics

           Arable       Graze lands(%)     Other categories of specific lands
           (%)

Region     Over 80      Under 29           Vineyards or vineyards and orchards
1

Region     60-80        20-40              Vineyards and orchards or orchards and
2                                          vineyards

Region     40-40        20-40              Vineyards and orchards
3

Region     40-60        40-60              Orchards and vineyards
4

Region     Under 40     40-60              Orchards
5

Region     Under 40     Over 60            Sometimes orchards
6

The region type shows the way of quantitative linkage between the shares of arable
lands (<49%, 40-60%, 60-80%, >80%) and of the natural graze lands (<20%, 20-40%,
40-60%, >60%) followed by the mentioning of the cases where the areas put to
vineyards and orchards are higher or immediate under the averages of 6700 ha and
6260 ha/county.

2. Resources of the animal production sector

The drastically decrease of the animal numbers after 1989 (by 48.5% in the case of
cattle; 52.8% for sheep; 43.3% for pigs and 60.7% for poultry) is motivated by the
dismantling of the animal farms of former Agricultural Cooperatives and by the des-
capitalisation of the state farms, to which is added the lack of a functional system of a
vertical integration of the animal breeders with the processing industry and lack of a
proper competition environment.

2.1. Territorial disparities of animal number

The reduction of the number of animals has equally determined a substantial decrease
of their density up to half of their number existing in 1986.

Against the background of this decrease, a simultaneous analysis of territorial
disparities of main farm animal species, having as bench marks the average densities
(22.7 cattle/100 ha. Agricultural land, 76 pigs / 100 ha. Arable land, 67 sheep / 100
ha. Agricultural land) and the extreme values allows the identification of the potential
regions and of the de-favored regions in this regard.




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The frequency and the way of association of higher and lower animal densities then
the average values defined the following types of regions:

Regions with a large number of livestock – Region Central (corresponding to the
Transylvanian Plateau and to the interior side of the Carphatians) where 4 counties out
of 6 have higher farm animal densities than the average, for all animal species, Sibiu
county for pigs and sheep and Harghita county for sheep;

Regions with significant number of livestock – Region N-W and Region N-E where
the frequency of higher densities then the average is three times bigger than that of
densities bellow the average. The de-favourable densities in this region refer to the
pigs and sheep species;

Regions with a medium density of livestock – Region South and Region S-W where
densities higher then the average are found in the mountain areas (for almost all farm
species) and in the counties neighbouring Bucharest (especially for pigs). Almost all
the counties situated in the plain are recording densities bellow the average for all the
species, these counties representing the de-favoured zones within these regions;

Regions having an insufficient density of livestock – the Region S-E where the only
farm animals with densities over the average in all the component counties is the
sheep species, while the density of cattle is slightly over the average in the mountain
counties (Vrancea and Buzau).

In this category are also comprised the Region West where the county Arad records a
livestock number under the average and immediately under the average for all the
species, while the other 3 counties have for only one species a density over the
average livestock number (Timis county and Hunedoara county for pigs respectively
Caras-Severin county for sheep). A particular case for these regional classification
depending on the density of main farm species, is represented by the agricultural
counties situated in the plain, in which the animal numbers were subject first to the
diminishing of the fodder resources needed by the large animal complexes for pigs
and sheep, and then the reduction of animal numbers occurred because of privatisation
of the lands are because of the lack of farmers.

As a consequence of the above we may appreciate that the regions with potentially in
the animal breeding sector are those with tradition in this field, namely those situated
in the half northern part of the country, which have an increased favourability of the
environment conditions (existence of natural fodder basis) and which were less
collectivised before 1989.

But, irrespective of the region be it with a light density of farm animals or not, or with
their animal more or less influenced by the structural novelties in the field, there is,
however a common requirement for revigorating the sector through both the
improvement of the genetic stock and the modernisation of animals welfare.

AGRICULTURE RESOUCES

   1. Grain cereals (wheat, barley, oats, rye, maize)



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General data (1999)

       Cultivated area : 5,370,743 ha.            Total output: 17,037,346 to

       Average area : 126,951 ha/county    Average output: 405,800 to/county

       Max. area      323,850 ha/Dolj             Max. output: 1,055,297 to/Dolj

       Min. area:     34,542 ha/Harghita          Min. output: 67,313 to/Harghita

                                                  Yield: 3,172 kg/ha




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    •   Correlation: area put to cereals (ha)/cereals output (tones)

Area (ha)/             under        100000-        300000-        400000 –   500000-   over

output (tone)          100000       300000         400000         500000     700000    700000

30000 – 50000          MM; HR;      HD;      BV;
                       CV; BUC.     SB

50000 – 100000                      SV;   AG;      PH; GJ
                                    VL;    CS;
                                    BN;    CJ;
                                    SJ; AB; IF;
                                    NT

100000 – 150000                                    TL;      DB;   BC; VR;
                                                   GR;      SM;   MH
                                                   MS

150000 – 200000                                                   BT; IS;    BR; BZ;
                                                                  VS; BH     GL; AR

over 200000                                                                            CT; CL;

                                                                                       IL; TR; DJ;
                                                                                       TM; OT


    •   Territorial disparities (fig.1, fig.2)

From the correlation table and from the map with the territorial distribution of the
crops, they’re come out the following regional disparities:

    •   Regions with an important cereal potential – Region S-E, Region S, Region S-
        W, Region W, where the area of these crops is frequently comprised between
        150,000-200,000 ha and more than 200,000 ha/county, while the output is
        between 500,000- 700,000 tones and more than 700,000 tones /county;
    •   Regions with low cereal potential – Central Region, as well as the mountain
        counties from the Regions N-W and N-E, where the cropped area and the total
        output are below the average values.




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    2. Oil seed plants

    •    General data (1999)

Cropped area: 1,244,337 ha                        Total output: 1,606,642 to
Medium area : 29,695 ha/county                    Medium output: 38,253 tone/county
Max. area:    179,000 ha/Constanta                Max. output: 178,418 to/Calarasi
Min. area:    8 ha/Covasna                        Min. output 3 to/Covasna
                                                  Yield: 13,520kg/ha

    •    Correlation: Area put to oil seed plants (ha) /Total output (to)

Area(ha)/ output (to)   under 1000          1000-      10000-   20000-      40000-   60000-     Over

                                            10000      20000    40000       60000    80000      80000

Under 1000              GJ, VL;             SV;
                                            MM;
                        HD;    BN;BV;CV;    MS
                        GH

                        SB; BUC.

2000- 10000             BC; NT; CS; CJ;
                        SJ; AB

10000-20000                                 DB         VR;PH;   IS
                                                       MH; IF

20000-40000                                            AG       BT;BH;      VS       AR
                                                                SM

40000-60000                                                                 GR       BZ; GL

60000-80000                                                                          DJ         TL;
                                                                                                OT;TM

Over 80000                                                                                      BR;
                                                                                                CT;
                                                                                                CL; IL;
                                                                                                TR


    •    Territorial disparities (fig.3, fig.4)

From the correlation table and from maps of territorial distribution of the area cropped
of oil seed pants and of the total output they’re come out the following Regional
disparities:

    •    Regions with an important potential – Region S-E and Region S, everyone
         having around400,000 ha cropped area and more than 500,000 to output.
         Obviously, the yield in the plain counties is over that average of 1352 kg/ha;


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National Plan for Agriculture and Rural Development


   •   Areas with medium potential, which include the plain counties from the
       Western Region and Region S-W and the plateau counties from the Region N-
       E (Vaslui, Iasi, Botosani). The yield is approximately equal with the average;
   •   Areas with low potential, which include the mountain and the hill counties
       from the Central Region, Region N-E, etc. Area put to oil seed plants and the
       output decreases until less 1,000 ha/county and less 1,000 to output county.




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3. Orchards

   •   General Data (1999)

Area put to orchards : 263043 ha.                Total output: 935552 tone
Average area 6214 ha/county                      Average output: 222222 tone/county

   •   Correlation: Area put to orchards (ha) Fruits output (tones)

Area (ha)/        Under           10000-          20000-        30000-      Over

Output (to)       10000           20000           30000         40000       40000

Under 10000       IL;      TR;    CL; CV
                  BUC

1000 – 3000       BR; TL; IF      GL; GR;
                                  AB; BV

3000 – 5000       CT              VS;             BT; HD        BC; NT      SV; VR
                                  HR,SJ

5000 – 7000       HR              SB;             MM; MS        AR          CJ

7000 - 9000       MH                                            SM          IS

9000 – 11000                      DJ;                           BH          DB
                                  TM,SJ

Over 11000                        PH              GJ; OT; CS    BZ,BN       AG; VL

   •   Territorial disparities (fig.5, fig..6)

From the table above and from the maps with the territorial distribution of the areas
put to orchards and the total output it comes out the following regional disparity:

   •   Regions with important fruit tone potential
   •   Region NE (Reg. W, Region S-W, to which are added the counties situated in
       the mountain and hilly areas from de Region. S and SE. The areas put to
       orchards at county level has frequent values of 9,000 – 11,000 ha. and over
       11,000 ha, while the total output reaches values of 30,000 – 40,000 tones and
       over 20,000 tones/county.
   •   Regions with average. fruit trees potential (Reg. Central, Reg. south, where the
       …indicators records values close to the average values at national level;
   •   Areas with low fruit tree potential, whale are overlapping usually the counties
       from the central-eastern part of the Romanian Plain.




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   4. Vineyards

   •     General data (1999)

Vineyards and vineyard nurseries (ha.             Total output: 1,117,357 to
Total area: 273,013 ha
Medium area : 6,500 ha/county                     Medium output: 2,650 tone/county
Max. area:     28,445 ha/Vrancea                  Max. output: 236,521 to/Vrancea
Min. area:77 ha/Harghita                          Min. output 63 to/Brasov
                                                  Yield: 4,093kg/ha

   •     Correlation: Vineyard area (ha)/Grapes output (to)

Area(ha)/     Under 2000       2000-     10000-       20000-     30000-        45000-   Over
Output
(to)                           10000     20000        30000      45000         60000    60000

Under         CV,HG,BV,        CS, NT,
1000          MS,BN,CT,        IF’CJ
              HD, SV, SB

1000-                          MS;
3000                           SJ;BT;
                               AG; AB

3000-                          TM;       SM; BH       GJ; VL
5000                           AR

5000-                                    AB           GR;        BC; PH,       OT
10000                                                 CL; IL;    MS
                                                      BR

10000-                                   MH                      TR            IS; TL
15000

15000-                                                           DJ            VS       BZ;
20000                                                                                   CT

Over                                                                                    VR;GL
20000

   •     Territorial disparities (fig.7, fig.8)

The territorial differences of the vineyard area and of the total output of gropes,
respectively the yield, allow to define the following types of regions:

   •     Regions with important potential for grapes – Region SE, with the greatest
         area (100,747 ha) total output (527,208 to) and yield (5,223 kg/ha), as



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National Plan for Agriculture and Rural Development

       compared to the average of 4093 kg/ha. To this way be added Ilfov county
       Region Bucharest, with a yield of 4214 kg/ha.
   •   Regions with medium potential for grapes – Regions SV and Regions NE with
       two counties each, that concentrate the areas and the total output at levels over
       the average.
   •   Regions with low potential for grapes
   •   Regions NW, W and Regions Central – volume the soil and climatic
       conditions are less favourable. Only with small areas are compared here --
       counties Bihor, Satu Mare (region NW, Alba, Mures, Sibiu (region Central)
       which have important vineyards well known for the quality of their wives, but
       with a low yield and a debased acreage.




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       4. Bovine

       •   General Data (1999)

           No. bovines: 3,051,149

           Medium no.: 72,647 heads/county (Suceava)

           Max. no.:             166,588 heads/county (Ilfov)

Territorial repartition of bovines at county level is presented in fig. 9

  I.       Milk bovine

       •   General Data (1999)
           Total:         50,498,100 hl
           Medium output:        1,202,335 hl/county
           Max. output: ²,805,311 hl/county (Suceava)
           Min. output: 229,530 hl/county (Tulcea)
       •   Correlation: no. bovine (heads) / Milk output (hl.)

No.      bovine        Under     70000 –      100000-            150000-        Over
(heads)/
                       70000     100000       150000             200000         200000
output (hl.)

20000 – 40000          TL; IF;
                       BUC

40000 – 60000          CL; CS    BR; CT;      VR; GR
                                 GL; IL;
                                 MH; CV;
                                 SB

60000 – 80000                    VS;    GJ;   BZ;    PH;         BN
                                 VL           TR;    DJ;
                                              OT;    AR;
                                              HD; TM;
                                              SM; SJ

80000            –                            DB;      AB;       NT
100000                                        MS

Over 1000000                                  BC                 BT;      IS;   SV; AG;
                                                                 BH             CJ; MM




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National Plan for Agriculture and Rural Development


       •   Territorial disparities (fig.10)

From the correlation table and from the maps containing territorial repartition of
bovine number and of the milk output (fig.10) registered at counties level, it comes
out the following regional disparities:

       •   High milk potential regions: Region W, Central Region;

       •   Low milk potential regions: Region S-E, Region S, Region N-W.

  I.       Meat bovine

       •   General Data (1999)

           Total:           312,163 to

           Medium output:          7,432 to/county

           Max. output: 19,316 to/county (Suceava)

           Min. output:     ²,434 to/county (Tulcea)

       •   Correlation: No. bovine (heads) / meat output (to)

No.                       2000-    4000-      6000-        8000-     Over
bovine(heads)/
                          4000     6000       8000         10000     10000
Output (tone)

20000-40000               TL; IF   BR; CT;
                          BUC      GL

40000-60000               CS       VR;        GL
                                   CL;
                                   GR; IL;
                                   MH;
                                   CV;
                                   SB,DJ

60000-80000                        VS;OT      BZ;   PH;    GJ; AR;
                                              TR;OT;VL;    HD;
                                              BN;   BN;    TM; SJ
                                              SM    BV;
                                              HG

80000-100000                                  MS           DB;       NT
                                                           AB;

Over 100000                                                AG;       BC; BT;
                                                           BH; CJ    IS; SV;
                                                                     MM

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   •   Territorial disparities (fig.11)

From the correlation table and from the maps containing territorial repartition of
bovine number and of the meat output (fig.11) registered at counties level, it comes
out the following regional disparities:

   •   High meat potential regions: Central Region, Region S, Region S-W;

   •   Low meat potential regions: Region S-E, Region N-E, where the bovine meat
       output is under average.




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