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					 EMISSION OF URBAN
    TRANSPORT
                JOHN TRIANDAFYLLIS
                    PROFESSOR

IP: ENERGY EFFICIENT AND ECOLOGICAL URBAN
         TRANSPORT OF THE FUTURE
                3-16 April 2011


   Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki,
               P.O. Box 141, GR – 57400, GREECE
                  e-mail: jtriand@vt.teithe.gr                      1
     EMISSION SOURCES
    Emission from urban transport occurs while the
     automobile or train or lawnmower or recreational
     boat or motorcycle
    1.   is moving through the traffic [from Combustion products]
    2.   is stationary (parked) [through fuel evaporation and fuel
         leaks]
    Emission from the inside environment of the vehicle
    Emission in the city air/ground/water from fuel leaks
     from the fuel storage tanks.
    Emission in the work environment
    1.   Related to occupation (traffic police, license examiners,
         operators of heavy equipment, bus drivers, train personnel)
    2.   Related to work area (garages, fuel stations)

                       Alexander Technological Institute               2
                               of Thessaloniki
     Emission products

 Regulated Combustion products
  CO, HC, NOx , Particulate Matter
 Unregulated Combustion Products
  CO2 , O3 , PAH, BTEX
 Noise [it is not a combustion product but
  occurs during combustion]


               Alexander Technological Institute   3
                       of Thessaloniki
EMISSION STANDARDS




      Alexander Technological Institute   4
              of Thessaloniki
Alexander Technological Institute   5
        of Thessaloniki
Alexander Technological Institute   6
        of Thessaloniki
CO EMISSION STANDARD




       Alexander Technological Institute   7
               of Thessaloniki
HC EMISSION STANDARD




       Alexander Technological Institute   8
               of Thessaloniki
PM EMISSION STANDARD




       Alexander Technological Institute   9
               of Thessaloniki
         CO EMISSION

 A product of incomplete combustion,
  especially in cold weather.
 In urban areas, the motor vehicle
  contribution to CO pollution is over 90%.
 It is colorless, odorless and poisonous. It
  enters the bloodstream through the lungs
  and inhibits the blood’s capacity to carry
  oxygen to organs and tissues.
               Alexander Technological Institute   10
                       of Thessaloniki
CO EMISSION




  Alexander Technological Institute   11
          of Thessaloniki
CO EMISSION BY SOURCE




       Alexander Technological Institute   12
               of Thessaloniki
CO EMISSION BY SOURCE

 On-road mobile                     Non-road mobile




             Alexander Technological Institute         13
                     of Thessaloniki
         CO EMISSION

 To reduce it:
   Annual maintenance inspections.
   On-board warning devices about the car’s
    emission control systems.
   Oxygenated fuel during the winter months.




                  Alexander Technological Institute   14
                          of Thessaloniki
        HC EMISSION

 A product of incomplete combustion and
  fuel evaporation.
 A key component of smog, ground-level
  ozone is formed by reactions of HC and
  NOx in the presence of sunlight.
 Some HC are considered toxic, causing
  cancer.

             Alexander Technological Institute   15
                     of Thessaloniki
HC EMISSION BY SOURCE




       Alexander Technological Institute   16
               of Thessaloniki
HC EMISSION BY SOURCE

 On-road mobile                     Non-road mobile




             Alexander Technological Institute         17
                     of Thessaloniki
         NOX EMISSION

 It is produced when fuel burns at high
  temperatures.
 A key component of smog, ground-level ozone
  is formed by reactions of HC and NOx in the
  presence of sunlight.
 They can travel long distances from their
  sources.
 They contribute to the formation of PM through
  chemical reactions in the atmosphere.
                Alexander Technological Institute   18
                        of Thessaloniki
NOX EMISSION BY
    SOURCE




    Alexander Technological Institute   19
            of Thessaloniki
    NOX EMISSION BY
        SOURCE
 On-road mobile                     Non-road mobile




             Alexander Technological Institute         20
                     of Thessaloniki
            PM EMISSION
 Both on-road and non-road mobile sources emit fine
  particulate matter.
 Diesel-powered vehicles and engines contribute more
  than half the mobile source particulate emissions.
 They can travel long distances from their sources.
 Health effects include asthma, difficult or painful
  breathing, and chronic bronchitis, especially in children
  and the elderly. Fine particulate matter associated with
  diesel exhaust is also thought to cause lung cancer.


                    Alexander Technological Institute     21
                            of Thessaloniki
PM EMISSION BY SOURCE




       Alexander Technological Institute   22
               of Thessaloniki
PM EMISSION BY SOURCE

 On-road mobile                     Non-road mobile




             Alexander Technological Institute         23
                     of Thessaloniki
         PM EMISSION

 There are primary PM10 particles emitted
  directly in the atmosphere and there are
  secondary PM10 particles which are formed as
  a result of photochemical reactions from NOx,
  SO2 and NH3.
 In 2007 transport accounted for 30% of PM in
  Europe.
 There has been in transport a decrease of PM
  by 38% from 1990 to 2007.
                Alexander Technological Institute   24
                        of Thessaloniki
PM EMISSION




  Alexander Technological Institute   25
          of Thessaloniki
PM EMISSION




  Alexander Technological Institute   26
          of Thessaloniki
PM EMISSION




  Alexander Technological Institute   27
          of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
         CO2
 All nations are CO2 polluters; some more,
  some less.
 It is interesting to know that the worst
  polluters in CO2 quantities do not have
  the greatest number of citizens.




              Alexander Technological Institute   28
                      of Thessaloniki
Alexander Technological Institute   29
        of Thessaloniki
                       CO2 per capita
                                            Amount of CO2
                                        (thousand metric tonnes
           Rank   Countries
                                           of carbon dioxide
                                           per 1,000 people)
            #1    Qatar                        40.6735
                  United Arab
            #2                                  28.213
                  Emirates
            #3    Kuwait                       25.0499
            #4    Bahrain                      20.0253
            #5    United States                19.4839
            #6    Luxembourg                    17.977
                  Trinidad and
            #7                                 16.8278
                  Tobago
            #8    Australia                    16.5444
            #9    Canada                       15.8941
            #10   Singapore                    13.8137


          #27     Greece                       8.63801
          #80     China                        2.65908


Source: World Resources Institute, 2003; as depicted in www.NationMaster.com
                                  Alexander Technological Institute        30
                                          of Thessaloniki
Total CO2 per country
                                   Amount of CO2
  Rank    Countries            (thousand metric tonnes
                                  of carbon dioxide)
   #1     United States:              5,762,050
   #2     China                       3,473,600
   #3     Russia                      1,540,360
   #4     Japan                       1,224,740
   #5     India                       1,007,980
   #6     Germany                      837,425
          United
   #7                                  558,225
          Kingdom
   #8     Canada                       521,404
   #9     Italy                        446,596
  #10     Mexico                       385,075


#27       Greece                       92,150.3


Source: World Resources Institute, 2003; as depicted in www.NationMaster.com
                           Alexander Technological Institute                   31
                                   of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
         CO2
 Cars account for 20% of total European
  CO2 emission.
 The 1995 goal was set to 120g/km of
  CO2 emission by 2012. This corresponds
  to 4,5 lt/100 km for diesel cars and 5
  lt/100 km for petrol cars.
 In December 2007 the goal was set to a
  new car fleet average of 130g/km by
  2012.         Alexander Technological Institute 32
                      of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
         CO2
 Limit value curve:
   The limit value curve implies that heavier
    cars are allowed higher emissions than
    lighter cars while preserving the overall fleet
    average.
   Manufacturers will be given a target based
    on the sales-weighted average mass of their
    vehicles.

                Alexander Technological Institute   33
                        of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
         CO2
 Final deal in December 2008:
   Phasing-in of requirements: in 2012 65% of each
    manufacturer's new cars must comply on average with the
    value of 120g/km. This will rise to 75% in 2013, 80% in 2014,
    and 100% in 2015.
   The goal of 130g/km will be achieved by better tires or use of
    biofuels.
   Long-term target: a target of 95g/km is specified for the year
    2020. The modalities for reaching this target and the aspects
    of its implementation will have to be defined in a review to be
    completed no later than the beginning of 2013.


                      Alexander Technological Institute           34
                              of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
         CO2




       Alexander Technological Institute   35
               of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
         CO2




       Alexander Technological Institute   36
               of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
         CO2




       Alexander Technological Institute   37
               of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
      Ozone - O3
 Ozone in the upper atmosphere occurs
  naturally and protects life on earth by filtering
  ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
 Ozone at ground level is a noxious pollutant. It
  is the major component of smog.
 It is responsible for the choking, coughing, and
  stinging eyes associated with smog.
 It causes respiratory diseases.
 It inhibits plant growth.
                 Alexander Technological Institute   38
                         of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
      Ozone - O3
 Ozone is formed in the atmosphere
  through a complex set of chemical
  reactions involving sunlight and ozone
  precursors (HC, NOx, CH4 and NMVOC).
 Very high levels of O3 occur on hot
  summer days.


             Alexander Technological Institute   39
                     of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
      Ozone - O3




       Alexander Technological Institute   40
               of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
      Ozone - O3




       Alexander Technological Institute   41
               of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
      Ozone - O3




       Alexander Technological Institute   42
               of Thessaloniki
UNREGULATED EMISSIONS
      Ozone - O3
 Ozone levels can be reduced by:
   Improved emission control systems in cars.
   Use of lower volatility gasoline.
   Improved annual state inspections of cars.
    Problem: few very “dirty cars”.
   Reduce driving.



               Alexander Technological Institute   43
                       of Thessaloniki
      UNREGULATED
     EMISSIONS - PAH
 Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are
  potent pollutants and occur in oil, coal
  and tar deposits, and are produced as
  byproducts of fuel burning (fossil fuel or
  biomass). Also, they are found in cooked
  foods (barbecuing meat or smoked fish).
 Some are carcinogenic, mutagenic and
  teratogenic.
              Alexander Technological Institute   44
                      of Thessaloniki
       UNREGULATED
      EMISSIONS - PAH
 Because of their affinity to mix with oil as
  opposed to water, they are found
  primarily in soil and sediment and not in
  water or air. However, they may be part
  of suspended PM in air.
 They are also formed by incomplete
  combustion of wood, coal, diesel, fat,
  tobacco and incense.
               Alexander Technological Institute   45
                       of Thessaloniki
 UNREGULATED
EMISSIONS - PAH




    Alexander Technological Institute   46
            of Thessaloniki
        UNREGULATED
       EMISSIONS - PAH

 The most potent carcinogens have been
  shown to be benz[a]anthracene,
  benzo[a]pyrene and
  dibenz[a,h]anthracene.
 The semi-volatile property of PAHs
  makes them highly mobile throughout the
  environment via deposition and re-
  volatilisation between air, soil and water
                 Alexander Technological Institute 47
  bodies.                of Thessaloniki
     UNREGULATED
    EMISSIONS - BTEX
 BTEX stands for Benzene, Toluene,
  Ethylbenzene and Xylenes. They are
  found in gasoline.
 They affect the central nervous system.
 They can contaminate the soil and
  groundwater near fuel storage areas by
  leaking.

              Alexander Technological Institute   48
                      of Thessaloniki
      UNREGULATED
     EMISSIONS - BTEX
 BTEX can be emitted to the air when gasoline
  evaporates or passes through the engine as
  unburned fuel.
 High octane gasoline contains a larger amount
  of BTEX.
 Other Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s)
  that are products of incomplete combustion:
    Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, diesel PM and
     1,3-butadiene.
               Alexander Technological Institute   49
                       of Thessaloniki
      UNREGULATED
     EMISSIONS - BTEX
 To reduce BTEX emission:
    Lower gasoline volatility.
    Reformulated gasoline.
    Lower sulfur content in diesel.
    More efficient catalytic converters.
    Annual state inspection of cars.
    Use of alternative fuels:
       Alchohols, natural gas, propane, biofuels,
        electricity.
                   Alexander Technological Institute   50
                           of Thessaloniki
        CAR EXHAUST
       MEASUREMENTS
 A number of central locations were chosen in
  Thessaloniki where cars were randomly stopped
  with the help of a traffic police officer to undergo a
  tailpipe gas analysis test at idle and at 2000 RPM.

 A portable gas analyzer has been used enabling
  the measurements of CO, HC, CO2 and O2
  concentrations, as well as the λ ratio value. The
  tests have been spread daily to cover the time
  period 08:00 to 20:00 in a uniform manner in all
  locations selected.

 In Fall, Winter, Spring and Summer, measurements
  were taken in each season for 15 consecutive days.
                  Alexander Technological Institute   51
                          of Thessaloniki
CAR EXHAUST MEASUREMENTS
         RESULTS
    VEHICLE          VALID          EXCESSIVE        EXCESSIVE       EXCESSIVE    EXCESSIVE
   CATEGORY      MEASUREMENTS          HC                 HC               CO          CO
                                     AT IDLE         AT 2500 RPM      AT IDLE     AT 2500 RPM

       Α

                   217 (100%)        30 (13.8%)       25 (11.5%)     37 (17.1%)    41 (18.8%)
       Β

                   345 (100%)         24 (6.9%)       54 (15.6%)     62 (17.9%)    62 (17.9%)
       C

                   4415 (100%)       795 (18.1%)     1012 (22.9%)    283 (6.4%)   553 (12.5%)

 Table 2. Number and percentage (in parentheses) of cars exceeding legal emission levels




  VEHICLE CATEGORY A                              cars older than 1/10/86 – non catalytic
  VEHICLE CATEGORY B                              cars after 1/10/86 – non catalytic
  VEHICLE CATEGORY C                              cars fitted with a 3-way catalyst
                                 Alexander Technological Institute                              52
                                         of Thessaloniki
CAR EXHAUST MEASUREMENTS
       CONCLUSIONS
 More non-catalytic cars do not conform with the CO
  limits as compared to the catalytic ones - see Table 2.

 More catalytic cars do not conform with the HC limits
  as compared to the non-catalytic ones - see Table 2.

 A small number of gross polluting cars are
  responsible for most of the tailpipe emissions.

 In every 40 catalytic cars there is one that emits CO
  as much as the 39 cars together. In every 6 non-
  catalytic cars there is one that emits CO as much as
  the five cars together.
                    Alexander Technological Institute     53
                            of Thessaloniki
BTEX MEASUREMENTS
 BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and
  Xylenes) measurements were made using
  passive samples for a continuous period of
  seven days, three times in 2005 and 2006.
 Measurements were made to measure air
  quality in the streets of Thessaloniki. The
  passive filters were placed 2,5-3 meters above
  the ground.
 Passive filters were also placed inside several
  private cars to measure the air quality inside
  these cars.
                Alexander Technological Institute   54
                        of Thessaloniki
                        BTEX RESULTS
                            2005
                      Sindos   Lagada      Egnatia/        Papanastasiou    Nomarchia    Tsimiski/
                               Street      Aristotelous    / Nea Egnatia    Building     Gounari


Benzene               2.1      8.0         4.9             10.3             5.3          8.1
Toluene               8.3      27.4        17.1            36.5             17.4         29.3
Ethylbenzene          1.5      5.4         3.3             7.2              3.4          6.0
m/p-Xylene            4.5      17.1        10.2            22.5             10.7         18.8
o-Xylene              1.3      5.9         3.6             8.0              3.8          6.6
Alpha-Pinene          <DL      0.4         <DL             <DL              2.3          <DL
1,2,4-TMB             2.3      8.2         5.1             11.1             5.0          9.1
D-Limonene            <DL      <DL         <DL             <DL              <DL          <DL

DL= Detection Limit



           Table 6: BTEX in atmospheric air at different streets in Thessaloniki in June 2005
                                        Alexander Technological Institute                            55
                                                of Thessaloniki
                      BTEX RESULTS
                          2005
             Car 1          Car 2       Car 3           Car 4             Car 5         Office
             Karagiannis    Prassas     Triandafyllis   Grammatikis I     Grammatikis   Triandafyllis
                                                                          II
Benzene      18.7           31.6        42.1            11.8              30.1          12.9
Toluene      63.3           84.1        203.1           76.1              171.3         74.3
Ethylbenze   33.7           11.2        26.3            25.8              90.4          20.2
ne
m/p-Xylene   14.4           35.3        74.8            67.8              235.8         53.2
o-Xylene     16.6           12.2        27.5            13.0              37.8          18.3
Alpha-       <DL            7.1         <DL             3.3               0.6           3.4
Pinene
1,2,4-TMB    71.6           12.2        33.9            14.6              34.5          45.4
D-           14.5           0.9         <DL             6.7               0.8           <DL
Limonene


                    Table 7: Measurements of BTEX inside private cars in June 2005


                                      Alexander Technological Institute                            56
                                              of Thessaloniki
               BTEX RESULTS
                   2006
                             Sindos              Nomarchia Str.            Karamanlis
                                                                      (former Nea Egnatia)


Hexane                         1.7                     2.0                     3.6
Benzene                        2.8                     4.7                     10.3
1-Butanol                      0.5                     0.8                     1.9
Toluene                        10.1                    17.1                    36.2
Ethylbenzene                   1.9                     3.2                     7.0

m/p-Xylene                     6.1                     11.2                    24.7
o-Xylene                       1.6                     3.5                     7.8
alpha-Pinene                  < DL                    < DL                     < DL
1,2,4-TMB                      2.5                     5.4                     11.2
D-Limonene                    < DL                     0.5                     < DL

      Table 10: BTEX in atmospheric air at different streets in Thessaloniki (June 2006)

                              Alexander Technological Institute                            57
                                      of Thessaloniki
      BTEX RESULTS
          2006
                         Aristotelous Square          Tsimiski Str.

Hexane                            2.1                     3.2
Benzene                           4.4                     8.6
1-Butanol                         0.8                     1.5
Toluene                          16.5                     31.1
Ethylbenzene                      2.9                     5.8
m/p-Xylene                       10.1                     20.5
o-Xylene                          3.1                     6.4
alpha-Pinene                     < DL                     < DL
1,2,4-TMB                         4.9                     9.4
D-Limonene                        0.5                     < DL


    Table 10: BTEX in atmospheric air at different streets in
                     Thessaloniki (June 2006)
                      Alexander Technological Institute               58
                              of Thessaloniki
               BTEX RESULTS
                   2006
                     Car 1 –               Car 2 –         Car 3 – Gogos        Car 4 –
                     Karagiannis           Karagianni                           Christidis
                         D.                    M.
Hexane                 16.2                  2.8                   4.1           44.4
Benzene                38.8                  6.5                   11.5          73.4
1-Butanol               4.2                  1.0                   1.0           6.2
Toluene                135.6                31.5                   52.0         280.5
Ethylbenzene           21.9                  5.5                   7.1           37.0
m/p-Xylene             77.5                 19.5                   26.9         147.1
o-Xylene               24.4                  6.0                   7.9           39.0
Alpha-Pinene           < DL                 < DL                   1.1           3.6
1,2,4-TMB              28.2                 11.2                   10.7          44.6
D-Limonene              3.9                  1.2                   5.1           8.9


               Table 11: Measurements of BTEX inside private cars (June 2006)

                               Alexander Technological Institute                         59
                                       of Thessaloniki
                BTEX RESULTS
                    2006
                      Car 5 –            Car 6 –            Car 7 –            Office
                      Raouzaios         Chatzigeorgiou       Gidaris          Triandafyllis
Hexane                  6.1                15.4              19.4               45.0
Benzene                16.7                37.4              33.2               61.5
1-Butanol               1.6                 4.6               8.7               18.4
Toluene                69.5                228.3             95.6              292.2
Ethylbenzene           10.1                32.5              14.8               65.7
m/p-Xylene             33.3                130.0             45.9              195.1
o-Xylene                9.3                35.8              14.2               61.7
Alpha-Pinene            1.1                < DL               1.4              < DL

1,2,4-TMB              12.5                40.4              14.0              147.1
D-Limonene              2.6                 3.3               9.7              < DL



             Table 11: Measurements of BTEX inside private cars (June 2006)
                               Alexander Technological Institute                          60
                                       of Thessaloniki
BTEX MEASUREMENTS
   CONCLUSIONS
 Benzene concentrations in the various
  streets ranged from 2 – 10,3 μg/m3 (June
  2005 and June 2006). In many locations the
  levels of benzene exceeded the established
  limit value (5 μg/m3 annual mean) set by the
  European Commission to be met by 2010.
 The ratio toluene/benzene was very similar
  in all locations (between 3 and 3,9) which
  indicated traffic emissions as the main
  source.
               Alexander Technological Institute   61
                       of Thessaloniki
 BTEX MEASUREMENTS
    CONCLUSIONS
 Very high concentrations of air pollutants were
  measured inside of almost all the private cars. In
  particular, fuel originated compounds (aromatic,
  aliphatic compounds) were present in high
  concentrations which can hardly be connected with
  the overall traffic emissions. This indicated strong
  pollutant sources inside the cars (fuel leaks,
  smoking).
 Exposure to multiple air pollutants in
  concentrations as they have been measured in
  some cars might constitute a health risk for the car
  owners.
                  Alexander Technological Institute   62
                          of Thessaloniki
THANK YOU
FOR YOUR
ATTENTION


 Alexander Technological Institute   63
         of Thessaloniki

				
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