"Jacksonian Democracy - Download as PowerPoint"
Unit 5 Politicians appealing to the masses High offices still belonged to the wealthy Democracy’s emphasis change: -government for the people -done by the people Leads to the spoil system… Bases on white-male suffrage rather than property qualifications. Between 1810&1821: 6 new western states grant more male suffrage, 4 eastern state reduce voting requirements South was the last region to grant universal white-male suffrage Jackson-result, not cause of new democracy. Fredrick Jackson Turner- Frontier Shapes Americans The rise of workingmen parties -labor movements -Locos Focos for example Panic of 1819-McCullough vs. Maryland Missouri Compromise-Goal of the white southerners Two Party System reemerged by 1832 Jacksonian Democrats vs. Whigs (National Republicans) Voter turnout dramatically increases New campaign styles to appeal to the people Voting Reform-Electoral college now chosen by the people 4 candidates: Henry Clay, John Clays hatred for Jackson + Quincy Adams, John C. support for John Quincy Adams Calhoun, and General Andrew = Jackson Losing and Adams Jackson becoming president. Jackson wins popular vote, but Jackson’s supporters call it the not enough electoral votes to be “Corrupt Bargain” elected Similar to who….? Adam’s presidency would be 12th amendment state the House plagued with growing of Reps must choose between sectionalism and the splitting of the top 3 finishers the republican party. Clay – finished fourth, but was Speaker of the Souse. 1828 –Adam’s Presidency Supported by New Congress Increases Tariff England to 37% on goods (from Webster now in support, 23%) Calhoun against The Goal of the Jacksonians Southern Carolina to increase the tariff to Exposition 45% (Would look bad on Adams) Denounced tariff as unjust and unconstitutional States should nullify the tariff….similar to…? Wanted to save the Union by lowering the tariff No other states supported South Carolina and its protest Personified the West Gov’t=Haven of wealth taken away from the public Reduce role of the gov’t Against Henry Clays system…which was? Unionist and Nationalist Defied Congress and Supreme Court Used Veto Power J.Q.A. vs. Andrew Jackson Jackson wins….178-83 (electoral votes) “Common Man”, from the West Support came from who? The Revolution of 1828 No Landslide victory Voter turnout increases Power shift to west from east White Male Suffrage Spoils System Rewarding Political Supporters with public office Martin Van Buren and the “Albany Regency” Believed in the Rotation of Office Civil Service is corrupt. Replace Adams-Clay appointees with loyal Jacksonians Informal group of people of about 13 “Kitchen Cabinet” Group never officially met, and did not have too much influence NOT Unconstitutional Slave Rebellion 1831 Nat Turner Rises up in Virginia! Lasts for days! Finally suppressed…cause widespread Panic. Local Militias kill absurd amounts of slaves in retaliation… Laws passed against educating slaves…think reformation, abolition, education, etc… Daniel Webster-NE Robert Hayne-SC Issue-Protective Tariff NE wants to “curb sale of West Disagrees, South public land” Allies with west People Created the NE disloyal during the Constitution, not the War of 1812 states Against Tariff of Webster accredited for Abominations jumpstarting a new Said Calhoun’s generation of Nullification Doctrine ‘northerners’ only means of protecting States Rights Jefferson Day Dinner “Our Union…It must be begins the political split preserved!” Jackson between Calhoun and Jackson. States Rights vs. “The Union, next to our National Rights liberty, most dear!” Tariffs marked a major Calhoun resigns in 1832 issue between Calhoun Becomes Senator and Jackson. Calhoun now a fierce sectionalist… States rights and slavery. Calhoun suggests “concurrent majority plan” 2 presidents (N&S), each have veto power. Union could be stable only through representation of the majority and minority SC and Tariff of Abominations Jackson attempts to lower the tariff of 1828. 45% to 35% Did not meet southern demands South Carolina Nullifies and threatens secession Jackson threatens to hang ‘nullifiers” and sends naval and military to SC Jackson VS. Calhoun Henry Clay Henry Clay proposes a compromise… tariff reduced 10% every 8 years (Compromise Tariff) Force Bill enacted which extends the power of the president Aftermath Victory for both sides Stepping stone for civil war Tariff issue main reason for Calhoun and Jackson split Henry Clay Andrew Jackson Advantage: Highly Advantage: Support of funded the masses Easterners and BUS Advantage: Support Advantage: Most overwhelms the wealthy newspapers supported vote Clay and disliked Jackson **Jackson wins 219-49** Focus on Economy and State’s Rights Divorce government from the economy (laissez faire) Anti-monopoly Return to Jeffersonian More power to the states, equal opportunity Distrust for the Bank Clay tries to recharter the bank in 1832 to anger Jackson…Wanted to put the recharter through Congress so it mad it to the White House If Jackson signed it, it would alienate western support If he vetoed it, he would alienate the wealthy and the influential of the East Jackson Vetoes BUS Charter Criticized Nicholas Biddle (head of BUS) Jackson says the bank supports the elite (wealthy and stock owners) Appeals to the common people BUS strengths before its downfall Organized, reduced bank failures, spurred economic expansion, safe depository for the gov’t 23 state banks controlled by Jackson Federal funds transferred funs over to them Biddle wants public to reconsider charter Specie Circular payment for government land to be in gold and silver (hard money/paper currency vs Gold and silver standard) currency becomes unreliable-leads to inflation All public land had to be purchased with federal money Hard money=hard times for the west Inflation continues Connecticut, 1837 Allow corporations to be formed without a charter from the legislature Examples: Railroads States make incorporation easier, helping the economy through small and medium sized businesses Limited liability for business owners-reduced the risk of owning a business Builders of CRB gain Supreme Court allows WB charter through to build bridge Massachusetts—Boston has high growth making SIGNIFICANCE: stocks skyrocket Economic development WB also gains charter between companies enabling it to build 300 encouraged yards away from CRB (transportation for CRB takes WB to court example) saying the state’s charter Began to end monopoles cannot interfere with in public facilities contracts Example of Jackson using his power to veto The bill would call for federal funding for intrastate improvements (road linking Lexington to the Ohio River) Jackson vetoes on the ground that federal funding for intrastate projects was unconstitutional Also says this would have disrupted the ability to pay off the national debt Jackson proposes removing of Native Americans (Cherokee, Creek, Chocktaw, Chickasaw and Seminoles) Mississippi to Oklahoma Bureau of Indian Affairs Helps with Native American relations Was around until 1954, where it merged with the the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, (known today as the Department of Health and Human Services) Known now as the Indian Health Service (IHS) Black Hawk War (1832) Black Hawk leads Indian Resistance Crushed by US Troops Are a west of Lake Michigan open for settlement Second Seminole War Indian resistance in Florida Bloodiest Indian conflict in US history 3,000 moved to Oklahoma Georgia creates a law that nullifies Cherokee law. Cherokee challenge Georgia and take them to the Supreme Court Supreme Court rules in favor of Georgia, stating the Cherokee have no jurisdiction over their land) Sam Worcester missionary living with Cherokee Georgia forces him to have allegiance with GA or leave Cherokee land Refuses and is arrested Marshall rules Cherokee nation is a self-sufficient nation that must be recognized Georgia has no jurisdiction in Cherokee land Cherokee can invite whomever they wished to their land Jackson says “John Marshall has made his decision…now let him enforce it!” Case helped prevent political conflict between the executive and judicial, while still delivering what appeared to be a pro-Indian decision. 18,000 Cherokees forcibly removed 1,000 miles to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) 4,000 die from malnutrition, cholera, etc. Soldiers force the march 25% of Choctaw die en route 3,500-15,000 Creeks die during removal in 1836 By 1821, Stephen Austin tries to migrate 300 families to Texas Tries to Mexicanize them ( requirements were to convert them to Catholicism and allow now slavery) Requirements are ignored by most migrants Mexico Prohibits importation into Texas and prohibits further settlements by Americans Americans refuse and still import slaves and new settlers Santa Anna (Mexican Dictator) raises army to exert control in Texas. Outlaws all local rights in Texas Texas declares independence in 1836 Santa Anna’s Army invades Goliad, ALAMO America Unites Sam Houston and American army victorious at San Jacinto Santa Anna agrees to withdraw troops and recognize Rio Grande as the new border Does not honor agreements America still aids Texas in its fight for independence Public opinion nullifies neutrality agreement Should he recognize Texas? Would re-open slavery issue among states rights Recognizes Texas on the last day of office North disagrees (anti-slavery petitions) South welcomes Texas Texas left to fend for themselves and feared reprisals from Santa Anna. Also courted the British and French for aid Sam Houston become first president for the Independent Republic of Texas Whigs vs. Jacksonian Democrats William Henry Harrison vs. Martin Van Buren Van Buren wins 170-73 Whigs beliefs? Many of these beliefs foundation for modern day Republican party. Positives Negatives Strong Executive Spoil System leadership Death of the BUS Common People Specie Circular Democratic party Trail of Tears Increased Sectionalism Continued Spoils system Presided over the Panic of 1837 (Jackson’s policies were a major cause) Formalizes the Pet Banks (Independent Treasury System Caroline Incident-Rebellion in Canada threatens war with Britain **He is ineffective as president** Over-speculation yet again Remember Panic of 1819? Bank War and Specie Circular hurts economy Flour Riot 2 Major British banks fail, call in foreign loans Banks Collapse Whigs sought expanding (including Pet Banks) bank credit, higher Commodity prices and tariffs, and internal public land sale improvement funds decreases Treasury Bill of 1840- Factories close leading to Independent Treasury soaring unemployment system Van Buren (D) vs. William Henry Harrison (W) Depression blamed on who? Harrison Wins Significance: 1st mass turnout election in US history Propaganda and slogans set examples for future campaigns (“Tippecanoe and Tyler Too” and “Log Cabin and Hard Cider) Liberty Party Will Run (Anti-Slavery Agenda)