Endocrine.scheme by abdialasso

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									   In Capsule Series
Endocrine


                               Endocrine scheme

                                :    ‫ا‬     ‫ا‬     ‫ءا‬    ‫ا‬      ‫ض‬    ‫أي‬
       1.   Physiology.
       2.   Etiology.
       3.   Clinical picture.
       4.   Differential diagnosis.
       5.   Investigation.
       6.   Treatment.


       1. Physiology :                                        ‫ت‬     ٤
                a.   Hormone.
                b.   Gland.
                c.   Function of the hormone.
                d.   Regulation of this hormone.


       2. Etiology :
                a. Hyper                                        ‫ت‬   ٣
                          i.   Tumor.     → adenoma. ( benign > malignant )
                         ii.   Hyperplasia.
                        iii.   Exogenous intake.
                b. Hypo                                         ‫ت‬   ٣
                          i.   Surgery.
                         ii.   Irradiation.
                        iii.   Tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, heamochromatosis.

       3. C / P :
                a. C / p of i cause :
                         i. Surgery.
                        ii. Tumor.
                b. C / p of i hormone :
                         i. Hyperfunction = function of i hormone.
                        ii. Hypofunction = opposite i function of hormone.
       N. B.:
                Neurological manifestations [ depression & polyneuropathy ]
                        → may occur in any endocrinal disease.



                                                                              -i -
   In Capsule Series
Endocrine


       4. Differential diagnosis :
               Differs according to each hormone.

       5. Investigation :
            a. Inv. for i cause :
                    i. Imaging for i gland :
                         1. U/S.
                         2. C.T.
                         3. M.R.I.
            b. Assay of i hormone level :
                    i. In blood :
                            2-3 times to avoid i diurnal variation.
               N.B. :
                       It's not an ideal method because the plasma level
               of all hormones varies through the day ( beause of
               pulsatile secretions ).
                    ii. In urine :
                             1. hormone.
                             2. metabolite of i hormone.
            c. Inv. of i function of i hormone : e.g. aldosterone
                     i. Blood :           ↑ Na.     ↓ K.
                    ii. Urine :           ↓ Na.     ↑ K.
            d. Dynamic test :
               N.B. :
                       The principle is :
                               If a hormone level is high →     supress it.
                               If a hormone level is low  →     stimulate it.
                    ii. Suppression test       → for Hyperfunction.
                           1. normal +ve.
                           2. in this case no change.
                   iii. Stimulatory test → for Hypofunction.
                           1. normal +ve.
                           2. in this case no change.
       6. Treatment :
            a. Hyper :                                    ‫ت‬        ٣
                     i. Surgery.
                    ii. Irradiation.
                   iii. Antagonism.
            b. Hypo :                                     ‫ة‬   ‫وا‬       ‫آ‬
                    i. Replacement therapy.

                                                                           - ii -

								
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