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					    The History of Al-Andalus

The History of Al-Andalus

  Alexandra Conway, Alex Davis, Rick Dunlap,
Alexandra Conway, Alex Davis, Rick Dunlap,
     TaliaHolm, Gillian Rathbone-Webber
          Gillian Rathbone-Webber
• April 711
   – The government from
     Tangers sends over an army
• Led by Tariq ibn-Ziyad
   – 9-10,000 man army lands at
     the Rock of Gibraltar
• Goth king Roderick goes South
  to fight him!
• Roderick is defeated at River
  Guadalete before heading North
  Tariq goes North and takes Ejica
  y Cordoba
General Musa
      • General Musa lands in
        712 with 18,000 more
      • He takes Medina,
        Sidonia, Sevilla, Merida
         – while his
           subordinates took
           Portugal and East
      • Tariq y Musa meet in
        Toledo and head NE to
        Ebro Valley
                How could this happen?
• Only about 40,000 men conquered 4
  million people
    – Hispano-Roman population
      never actually supported the
      Goth rulers
• Roderick came to power because of a
  civil war and many people sided with
  the moors
    – It is possible that Prince Achila
      (who was a rival to the throne)
      invited the Moors to invade
      Spain thinking that they would
      leave right away.
                        Muslim Spain
•   They bribed into cooperation the
    Goth aristocrats and Christian
     – changed taxes so they were
       more bearable even if you
       weren´t Muslim
•   However, there may have been
    mass conversions to Islam post-
•   Limits of Al-Andalus are set in 722
     – until the Arab defeat at the
       Battle of Covadonga in
       Asturias which was the
       beginning of the Reconquista!
                The Caliphate of Cordoba
                                             *In 750 the Umayyad Caliphate of
                                             Demascus was deposed by the
                                             *Abd-al Rahman I of the Umayyad
                                             Dynasty survives and fled to the
                                             Iberian Peninsula, where in 756 he
                                             established the independent emirate
                                   Dgdfgdf   of Cordoba

*Abd-al Rahman centralized the power of
the Umayyads to Cordoba with the
intention of emulating the Baghdad
Abbasid Caliphate
*In 929 Abd-al Rahman III established the
Caliphate of Cordoba and titled himself
The Growth of the Caliphate
                                      * The Caliphate faced resitence at
first                                 from the Fatimids, but when the
                                              conquered Egypt in 961
they lost                                             interest in Iberia.
                                      *The “Omnipotent Campaign” of
Abd-                                  al Rahman led to clear dominance
in                                    the region, with Christian
Kingdoms                                               paying tribute to
the Caliphate

*By the 10th century Abd-al Rahman brought the Caliphate to its peak
of peace and prosperity; Cordoba was a city comparable in significance
to Baghdad and Cairo, boasting over 100,000 people.
*Develpment of structures such as the Great Mosque expressed the
prosperity of the Caliphate
•The Muslim rulers respected the command of Islam to
protect the “people of the book”. The civilization that
developed in Cordoba and Muslim Spain can be largely
attributed to the contact between the three monotheistic
religions that coinhabited Iberia.
•Spanish Jews welcomed the new rulers warmly because
they had been persecuted by their former leaders, the
•Christians in Cordoba accepted the culture even if they
didn´t change faiths
•The number of volutary converts to Islam grew
exponentially during the time of the Caliphate of
•Al-Hakam succeeded Abd-al Rahman III (961-
•Al-Hakam´s som Hisham II was overpowered
by Al-Mansur, who eliminated the powers of
the Caliph. Al-Mansure conducted bi-annual
raids to destroy Christian capitals on the
peninusla, but at the same time nourished the
growth of poetry and academics.
•Al-Mansur was succeeded by his sons, first Al-
Muzaffar (1002-08), then Abd-al Rahman
Sanchuelo. Sanchuelo was killed in an uprising
to vindicate Hisham II.
•By 1031, the Caliphate had ended, and was
marked by a riot in the capital.
•After the fall of the Caliphate, Andalusians
and Berbers created “local dynasties”-
fragments known as “taifas”
 Taifa Kingdoms 1031-1091

• After the fall of the Caliphade Spain is divided into
  many small Kingdoms
                     Taifa reign
• At any given time there were as many as
  21 Taifa Kindoms governing in Al-
• Toledo, Granada, Denia, Sevilla, and
• Lacked structure and leadership
• Often fought one another for property
  and prestige.
• Fell under Christian control,
• Focus lay in fighting other Morrish
 • Los reinos de los Taifas¨ was a bloody time period for the moorish
    people. Kingdoms were constantly being conquered and divided.
    Some notable events include:
 • The war between Cordoba and Zaragoza which lasted from 1043-
    1047. During this time Toledo pays the Navarrese to attack
    Zaragoza, while they recruit the assistance of the Leon-Castillians.
    During the fighting, Christian armies move in and destroy Muslim
    cities without confrontation.
 • In 1063 Pope Alexander II commisions the sending of Christians
    into Spain against the Moors. He grants a papel standard and an
    indulgence to those killed in battle. This is the ¨prototype cursade¨
• By July the Christians have already conquered the
   Muslim Kindom of Lerida, and massacre and enslave
   50,000 of the kingdom´s people.
• In 1085 Toledo falls to Christians of
• In 1085 Toledo falls to the the Christians of
   Castille (Alfonzo the Brave) , and and
  Castille (Alfonzo VI VI the Brave) , the
   the Almoravid tribe of is called in to
  Almoravid tribe of Africa Africa is called
  help fight off Christian forces. forces.
   in to help fight off Christian
• In 1986 Almoravoids fight Alfonso VI´s
• In 1986 Almoravoids fight withwith Alfonso
  army and defeat the Christains
   VI´s army and defeat the Christains
• In 1091 the many of the last Taifa kingdoms
• fall1091 the many of the last Taifa
  kingdoms fall
• 1090 - 1147
• confederation of 3 Berber tribes
  (Lamtuna, Gudula, Massufa)
• Led by Abdallah bni Yasin
• Functioned as military commanders
• At the extent of the dynasty they
  controlled northwest Africa and the
  southern half of the Iberian

                         Info from: http://i-cias.com/e.o/almohavids.htm
• 1125 - 1212
• Muslim Berber tribe led and taught
  by Ibn Tumart
• Believed in a strict adherance to the
  teachings of Islam
• Almohad crusade was an attempt to
  purify Islam
• At the extent of the dynasty they
  controlled most of northern Africa
  and all of Al-Andalus

                            Info from: http://i-cias.com/e.o/almohads.htm
    Almoravids and Almohads
• The Almoravid dynasty began around 1039 when leader
  Abdallah bni Yasin declares holy war against the Sanhaja
• The Almoravid rule came to an end because of the Almohad
  rebellion led by Ibn Tumart which began in 1125 (rebellion came
  from opposition to the Jurists)
• Abd al-Mu'min al-Kumi, one of Tumart’s successors, led the
  conquest of the city of Marrakech that defeated the Almoravids
  in 1147
• In 1212 the Almohads were defeated by Christian armies at the
  Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, and forced back into Africa
Almoravids and Almohads
      The Downfall of The Kingdom of
           Granada (1212-1492)
The Alhambra was the beginning
  of the Nazari Dynasty when it
  was founded by Muhammad
  ben Yusuf Ben Nasr in 1238.
  The Alhambra served as the
  protection for the Muslim
  population the occupied the
  region of Granada. The Nazari
  Dynasty occupied the regions
  of Granada, Malaga, Almaria
  and parts of Cordoba, Seville,
  Cadiz and Jaen.
• After much conflict, the
  Spanish succeeded in
  taking away all the
  regions but Granada. In
  1482, the Muslim
  Kingdom divided into two
  factions creating hostility
  towards each other. At
  the same time King
  Ferdinand of Aragon and
  Queen Isabella of Castile
  married joining both their
  kingdoms together
  creating a strong force
  again the Moors.
• The treaty of Granada was signed on
  November 25th of 1491 between King
  Ferdinand, Queen Isabella and Boabdil,
  the last king of Nazari. Under the
  Treaty of Granada, it guaranteed the
  religious tolerance and fair treatment
  of the Moors in return for unconditional
  surrender and capitulation. About
  three months later on January 2nd of
  1492 the Kingdom of Granada the last
  Muslim Kingdom fell and Boabdil was
  sent into exile.

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