"Chapter 28 pgs 940 947"
A.P. US Artem Kholodenko Mods 6/7/8 0109 Notes for pgs 940 – 947 European Crisis, - West & east Europe was in ruin & food was currency after American Commitment the war - US was asked to help UK and FRA fight communism in Greece and Turkey - Dean Achenson said at a conference that if USSR got the oil fields of middle east it would be not too much alter that Asia would fall to them too - On 3/12/47 Truman asked for $400 mil to assist TUR & GRC Truman Doctrine - The document committed US to be an international policeman without any limits Marshall Plan - The plan proposed massive assistance to Europe to make sure that the weak countries wouldn’t fall to Reds - The plan would also economically help US, and Congress approved a $17 billion plan - West Europe boomed and prospered, along with USA The Soviet Response - In mid-’47 soviets rigged Hungary elections to their favor - In ’48 a communist gov. took over in Czechoslovakia - In June 24, Russians blockaded Berlin and supply lines - Truman ordered an airlift over the blockade, providing people in Berlin w/tons of food - To scare USSR, Truman ordered B-29 bombers be moved into England in ’48 (they could carry A-Bombs) - In may ’49 soviets ended the blockade; people saw US as “good guys” and USSR as “bad guys” - In May ’49 FRA, UK, US ended GER occupation and allowed formation of Fed. Rep. of GER (West Ger.) North Atlantic Treaty - In April ’49, 10 west euro nations signed this treaty, allying CAN and US and saying that when 1 member was attacked, all were - In July US joined the North Atlantic Treaty organization (NATO), this ended US isolationism - Two days after, Truman asked for $1.3 billion for military assistance to NATO nations German Democratic - The USSR responded with the creation of the GDR (East Republic Ger.) in ‘49 - Same year USSR set off their own A-Bomb The Cold War in Asia - Gen. Douglas MacArthur banned communism in Jap government offices; US used JAP islands for naval bases - In China a fight went on between communist Mao Zedong and nationalist Jiang Jieshi - US gave $3 billion to help nationalists from ’45-‘49 - The nationalists were mutinying and deserting their armies, while communists advanced in full force - The communists took over the new People’s Republic of China - US was in shock, because the most populated country turned RED - In Sep. ’49 US found out about USSR atomic capability, and the nation was in a panic H – Bomb - The pres. ordered the Atomic Energy Comm. To develop the Hydrogen Bomb (H-Bomb) more powerful than (A- Bomb) - In Nov. ’52 US exploded 1st H-Bomb in Marshall Islands - A 25-mile-long & 175 deep canyon was made in the ocean floor - Nine months later the Russians also detonated H-Bomb NSC-68 - Established by Truman in ’50, the State and Defense Department ordered the making of the top-secret report of USSR activity - The NSC-68 called for a massive military build up, with a 400% increase in military spending - The National Security Council (1947) approved the plan, but Truman hesitated the expensive idea, but ordered it after the start of N. Korean activities The Korean War - On June 24, ’50, North Korean troops swept over the 38’ parallel invading S. Korea - Truman saw the move more of a Soviet direction and Stalin was using N. Korea to test US international policy - Truman, w/o Congress approval asked UN for approval, which he easily got, because USSR was then boycotting UN’s not allowing to seat China in the UN - Three days later US soldiers were fighting in Korea, despite Truman’s asking of Congress for permission - Nearly ½ of troops of UN were from US and 43% from Korea - N. Korea pushed back UN forces until MacArthur’s landing, during which he cut off supply lines and forced N. Koreans to move back across the 38’ parallel - Truman allowed MacArthur to move past the parallel and closer to the Chinese border - China sent 300,000 to defend its borders against US, which was driven back across the line - The wart was limited because US worried that if USSR saw US’s major involvement in the war in Asia, it would try to work in Europe - MacArthur couldn’t take a slow war and after negative comments was relieved of command, on April 10, ‘51 - Only 29% of a ’51 poll favored the limited war - Truth talks began in ’51, but the war went on for 2 more years; Fire ended n July 26, ‘53 - US lost 54,246 men, 103284 injured & missing and $54 billion in cost between ’50 – ’53 defense expenses went from $13-$60 billion - US also joined pacts in Europe, committed itself in W. Germany - By ’54 US would be paying ¾ of French war costs in Vietnam - Truman expanded pres. powers and set-up ways for undeclared & unofficial wars