The Romantics - PowerPoint by JZaRVc


									The Romantics
  What exactly are
 you rebelling against?

               What do ya
 What is Romanticism anywho?
• The expression Romantic gained currency
• Certain ideas and attitudes arose, gained
  currency and in most areas of intellectual
  endeavor, became dominant.
• Expression was perhaps everything to them --
  expression in art, music, poetry, drama,
  literature and philosophy.
• Romantic ideas arose both as implicit and
  explicit criticisms of 18th century Enlightenment
  – These ideas were generated by a sense of
    inadequacy with the dominant ideals
      Philosphes v. Romantics
• The philosophes were too objective -- they chose to see human
  nature as something uniform.
• The philosophes had also attacked the Church because it blocked
  human reason.
• The Romantics attacked the Enlightenment because it blocked the
  free play of the emotions and creativity.
• The philosophe had turned man into a soulless, thinking machine --
  a robot.
• Christianity had formed a matrix into which medieval man situated
• The Enlightenment replaced the Christian matrix with the
  mechanical matrix of Newtonian natural philosophy.
• For the Romantic, the result was nothing less than the demotion of
  the individual.
• Imagination, sensitivity, feelings, spontaneity and freedom were
  stifled -- choked to death. Man must liberate himself from these
  intellectual chains.
        The Romantic Period
Social, political, and economic changes in
England increasing:
  – England as industrialized, urban.
  – English navy dominates – defining colonies,
    “ports of trade”
  – Constitutional monarchy established.
• Urbanization = city squalor
• Industrialists lack paternal
  interest in common people.
• Farmers displaced

   factory laborers
• Poverty increases.
• Hierarchy no longer just,
  necessary structure.
   Rage Against the Machine
• Enlightenment philosophes: individual has
  ‘natural rights’.
• 1789: Storming of Bastille
         Poet’s MUSe
• Natural poetry
• Poems endowed the landscape with
  human life, passion, and expressiveness.
  – Middle 18C poets – picturesque scenes as
    backdrop to meditations, feelings.
  – Turn-of-the-century-poets – put themselves
    above the scene, surveying vista below with
    terror, melancholy, and nostalgia.
  – New poets – close up to Nature: subject is the
    flower, the animal, the tree.
Poetic Theme
   • Re-creation of sensations
   • Arouse immediate feeling in
     the reader
   • Power of imagination as
     joyful, active, and creative in
     connection with Nature
   • New images combining,
     reordering sensations, return
     to God
   • Major theme: poet’s lament
     that imagination is lost,
     leaving regret
           Poetic Leitmotif
• Through exploration of
  imagination, poet studies self

• Through self, truth of human
  condition is made apparent
  (“aeolian harp” syndrome)
                Poetic Form
• Nature poetry linked to idealization of the natural
  scene as a site where the individual finds
  freedom from social laws.
• First hippies: wrote in folk song, ballad – lyric
• Primary mode: the lyric.
   – 1st person, present tense, “I see, I hear, I feel”
• Secondary mode: ode
   – Encompassed more complex, ambitious expressions
• Third mode: narrative poem
   – Mythical characters, visionary situations
   – Many lost focus, less unified, most not finished
                The Gothic Novel
Gothic novelists delved into a pre-modern,
pre-rational past as a means of exploring
the nature of power, supernatural.
  –   Romance, horror interwoven
  –   Set in remotes times, distant places
  –   Not realistic scenes necessarily
  –   Dark castles, gloomy dungeons, etc
  –   Spirits come back to haunt living
  –   Byronic heroes
  –   Theme: philosophical concerns

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