ENVI 201 S02 / Colt Name (5 pts):
Final Exam with Answers
There is some choice -- be sure not to do too many questions! You have 2 hours to
think about and write your answers. Please return the exam within 24 hours to me at
email@example.com or at firstname.lastname@example.org or you can drop off your hard
copy at my office at the Institute of Social and Economic Research. Ask the receptionist
to put it in my mailbox. Office is open from 8 am to 5 pm. If you have a crisis I will be
back in town on Monday Morning May 6 – and you will still have about 24 hours to get
You can use a cheat sheet (8.5 x 11, both sides) and you can use the Readings by Muir
and Pinchot from the Sources book and the two-page discussion of Muir and deep
ecology that I emailed to you in case it wasn’t in your packet. The purpose of using
these readings is simply in case you want to quote from Muir or Pinchot directly.
Multiple Choice –
Choose 22 out of 23 (2 pts each – 44 pts total)
Choose the ONE best answer
1) In the reading about “The Convergence of Environmental Disruption,” Marshall
Goldman used evidence about environmental conditions in Russia to argue that, as of
A. The communist system generally does a better job of protecting the environment
than the capitalist system.
B. Both communism and capitalism seem to cause environmental problems but for
completely different reasons.
C. Both communism and capitalism cause environmental problems because economic
decisionmakers ignore the cost of pollution to the larger society.
D. Since conditions in Russia are so bad, the U.S. should not be concerned about its
own pollution problems.
2) Historian Lynn White basically said that:
A. There is no ecological crisis
B. Religion has nothing to do with the ecological crisis.
C. The ecological crisis can be traced directly to Christianity, which promoted the joining
together of science and technology in a human-centered religious belief system
D. Saint Francis was the original polluter
3) Garrett Hardin said that the "Tragedy of the Commons" would continue until societies
get tough and abolish which freedom:
A) Freedom of speech
B) Freedom to choose your career
C) Freedom to breed
D) Freedom to choose your marriage partner
4) Dr. Gordian said that pollution from the combustion of diesel has what relation to
A) Diesel pollution is now recognized by almost all doctors as the single leading cause
B) There is no evidence that diesel pollution causes asthma
C) There is some evidence that diesel pollution acts as an “adjuvant” or promoter of an
asthma attack, in combination with other factors such as pollen, dust, or other irritants.
D) Anchorage has no real asthma problem because we have so little industry in the city.
5)-9) For each of the following statements, put an "P" next to it if it describes the
philosophy of John Muir and "preservation", and put a "C" next to it if it best describes
the philosophy of Gifford Pinchot and "conservation"
5) __C___ Nature is a storehouse of resources for human use
6) __P___ Nature is like a Cathedral
7) __C___ The greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time
8) ___P__ Nature should be left alone
9) __C___ Scientific management should be used to control nature for human benefit
10) The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) basically says that
A. The environment must be preserved no matter what the cost
B. Every federal action that causes “significant deterioration” of the environment must
be approved by Congress
C. The Council on Environmental Quality has the final say on major environmental
D. Every major federal action requires an environmental impact statement
11) Among other things, the Clean Air Act (CAA) took what major step:
A. Reduced the amount of driving that people could do
B. Forced automakers to build cleaner cars
C. Took away all authority from the states
D. Reduced speed limits to save gasoline
12) Which of the following was NOT a "criteria pollutant" regulated under the CAA:
B. Sulfur Dioxide
C. Carbon Dioxide
13) The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) can be described as:
A. Very ineffective
B. The most powerful U.S. Law for the protection of habitat used by endangered
C. Almost completely procedural -- tells agencies what process to follow
D. Not applicable to Alaska because of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation
14) In his excerpt from "Dumping in Dixie" Robert Bullard basically argued that one
group in American society has borne more than its fair share of the burden of toxic
waste dumps and unhealthy industrial sites. Which group?
B. The poor
D. American Indian Tribes
15) In his talk on environmental justice Joe Sarcone said that while there are lots of
words on paper about avoiding a “disproportionate impact” on minorities, the reality is
A. When the dominant culture (White people) deals with the indigenous culture (Alaska
Natives), the indigenous culture usually loses out.
B. Environmental Justice is all about the interface or the interaction between the formal
rules and regs and bureaucrats and the people who actually live in rural Alaska
C. Every single interaction between a federal government employee and a minority
citizen is an opportunity to promote environmental and social justice, or to set it back
D. All of the above
16) The environmental lawyer Jack Sterne said that Steller Sea Lions are worth fighting
over in court, in part because:
A. Steller Sea lions are an indicator species – like the canary in the mine, the health of
the Sea Lion population reflects the health of the surrounding ecosystem.
B. Steller Sea Lions are worth millions on the black market in Asia
C. Sea Lions are such a nuisance to fishers that someone has to stick up for the sea
D. Saving the Sea Lion is a good way to raise money for his public-interest law firm
17) In order to help solve California’s energy crisis last summer, Professor Rosenfeld
A. Painting the rooftops of buildings white
B. Increasing the output of nuclear power plants by using ultraprocessed plutonium
C. Installing radio-controlled switches that would allow the electric companies to turn off
people’s air conditioners
D. Planting 100,000 Palm trees
18) According to the article "Acid Rain on the Cheap," the experiment with tradeable
sulfur dioxide (SO2) permits showed that:
A. It is much more expensive to clean up SO2 than people thought it would be.
B. It is much less expensive to clean up SO2 than people thought it would be.
C. It is not possible to lower the total amount of allowed SO2 emissions over time.
D. There was no way to reduce SO2 emissions other than the standard "scrubber"
19) In a famous phrase Aldo Leopold said that “A thing is right when it tends to preserve
the integrity, stability and beauty of the ______________________”
A. marine ecosystem
B. human family
C. earth’s atmosphere
D. biotic community
20) Jack Sterne presented some evidence that (according to him) showed that
A. The Stellar Sea Lion population is exploding in the western Bering Sea
B. Stellar sea lions are declining due to food stress
C. Stellar sea lions are declining due to global warming
D. Judges are generally incompetent compared to federal agencies like NMFS
21) Sheila Selkregg said that planning should be done how?
A) Do not involve the public until after the professionals have come up with several
B) Be as inclusive as possible – get all viewpoints out in the open and then try to
find common ground
C) Planning should be done by professionals, because the public gets lazy and
doesn’t follow through
D) To give the greatest good to the greatest number for the longest time
22) The big issue represented by the Shrimp and Sea Turtles dispute is basically:
A) Can the US refuse to accept shrimp from Thailand based on HOW the shrimp is
produced (with vs. without Turtle-friendly fishing gear)?
B) Can the World Trade Organization set direct limits on how many sea turtles are
killed each year
C) Does Mexico have a right under NAFTA to sell shrimp if Thailand cannot sell
shrimp to the US?
D) Does the US have the right to exclude shrimp if it contains too much mercury?
23) In the article “sprucing up beaver meadows” Moore shows that the red-backed vole
plays a crucial part in helping spruce trees to grow up on beaver meadows. What does
the vole do?
A) the voles eat insects which would otherwise eat up the young spruce seedings
B) the voles spread the spruce tree seedlings from the forest into the meadows
C) the voles bring an important fungus needed by the spruce seedlings from the
forest into the meadows, in their feces (scat).
D) The voles keep the spruce bark beetle in check
Short Answer -- Choose ONLY SIX – (5 pts each – 30 pts total)
IF You do more than six I will grade the FIRST six, not the best six!
1. Make up your own question and answer it
2. Briefly explain the idea of the "Tragedy of the Commons" -- the conditions under
which it can occur, and the essence of why it occurs.
The TC can occur when a significant number of users all have open access to a natural
resource such as a pasture, a stock of fish, or a clean stream. The TC occurs because
all of the benefit of more use goes to the user while the cost is shared by all users in the
form of reduced productivity or ecological destruction. In the extreme case, everyone
can see that this type of behavior is causing the destruction of the resource and they
engage in a race to get what they can before someone else gets it.
3. What is “Natural Capitalism” according to Lovins and Hawken? Does it require big
changes in lifestyles or the capitalist economic system?
Natural Capitalism is the efficient use of of natural resources through whole-system and
closed-loop design, the mimicking of natural systems, a focus on solutions (such as a
pleasant, healthy indoor work environment) rather than products (such as fancy air-
handling systems), and making investments to improve natural systems. L&H argue
that embracing natural capitalism would not require big changes in lifestyles and that it
can lead to higher profits for businesses that use the principles.
4. Suppose you are the owner of an apartment building. If you want to encourage
responsible use of energy by the renters, should you make them pay separately for
utilities, or should the utilities be included in the fixed monthly rental payment? Explain.
If the renters pay separately for utilities, they will have a financial incentive to use less
energy. If the utilities are included in the fixed monthly rent, then the renters might as
well open the windows, take really long showers, etc.
5. The Clean Air Act is an example of "technology-forcing, command-and-control
regulation." Explain what this means. What specific technology did the clean air act
require the automakers to use?
The term “technology-forcing” means that the law requires performance that may not be
technologically feasible at the moment. The idea is that tough standards will provide the
incentive to develop new technologies. The “command and control” part means that the
regulations spell out specific reductions in specific pollutants that every new car must
meet. The answer to the last part of this question was supposed to be the catalytic
converter, but as of spring 2004 I am not sure that the Clean Air Act itself actually
mentioned the use of catalytic converters.
6. Explain how a system of tradable emissions permits can stimulate the development
of new technologies for reducing pollution. You can answer by pretending that you are
an inventor with some good ideas for these new technologies.
With tradable permits, there is a price per unit of pollution that companies must pay in
order to pollute. If I am an inventor, I could make a lot of money by coming up with a
new technology that eliminates pollution at a lower cost. For example, if the going price
for a permit is $100 per ton of emission, I could make a lot of money by inventing a way
to avoid emissions that is cheaper than $100 per ton. Companies can save $100 for
each permit they don’t have to buy, so they will be willing to pay me the inventor close
to $100 to use my new technology.
7. Explain how "inertia" can reduce the immediate effectiveness of "clean technologies"
such as hypercars or solar roof tiles.
Inertia is the fact that most of our buildings, cars, and factories have relatively long lives.
So even if all NEW buildings, cars, and factories, are clean and green, it takes many
years to recycle the entire stock of buildings, cars, and factories. One way to deal with
this problem is to “retro-fit” new technologies onto old things (like putting triple-pane
windows into an old house) but this is almost always more expensive than including the
efficient windows as part of new construction.
8. Briefly explain whether (and why) hypercars that get 80 miles to the gallon will be
good or bad for the problem of "urban sprawl."
Super-efficient cars will make driving even cheaper for consumers which will tend to
encourage longer commutes and more sprawl.
Essay – (26 points)
Discuss the concepts of “conservation” and “preservation” as articulated by Gifford
Pinchot and John Muir, respectively. Your essay can go in a direction that is meaningful
to you, but here are some suggestions: How would you describe each idea to a friend
at a party who has not taken any courses like this one? What are the key differences
between the two concepts? How would Aldo Leopold respond to each concept – would
he have any sympathy for Pinchot’s idea of “scientific management?” Which concept is
most personally satisfying to you? Why?
Pinchot touted the idea of conservation to mean the wise use of natural resources to
avoid waste and to provide the greatest economic benefit to the greatest number of
people for the longest time. Pinchot believed that nature is a storehouse of resources
that can be unlocked through scientific knowledge and used through scientific
management. By contrast, Muir thought of nature as a sacred place, a sort of wild
temple that should be visited, revered, and enjoyed but not consumed or plundered.
Famously, Muir accused those who would dam the wild Hetch-hetchy valley of being
“temple destroyers” with a “perfect contempt for nature,” who lift their eyes not to God
but to “the Almighty Dollar.” Muir’s ideas were summed up by the idea of preservation
rather than “conservation.” Preservation is ecocentric while conservation is
anthropocentric. Under preservation nature is best left alone while under conservation it
would be wasteful not to use all resources for maximum human benefit.
Leopold would probably identify most closely with Muir, but he does seem to have some
sympathy for the rational use and scientific management of nature, especially the use of
land to grow food. (Muir, after all, was more of a hunter-gatherer than a farmer).
Leopold speaks of the need for wolves to “trim the herd to fit the range” and frets about
the problems of dustbowls and erosion, a concern that Pinchot would probably share.
Personally, I have an emotional attachment to the idea of preservation, with its
fundamental humility and its placement of humans within nature and not apart from or
above it. I acknowledge the need for people to use natural resources for survival, and
the need to do this efficiently and fairly and with regard for future use by future
generations, but I am most comfortable starting with the idea of preserving wildness and
working back from there toward necessary resource use, rather than starting from the
idea of nature as a storehouse of goodies that exists for our benefit.