Google Search: 1/1000 of a millimeter - Excel by 2bEj7R5

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									                                        Events in Geologic Time list                          Page 1

Columbus sails the ocean blue                                                  514
Holocene                                                                    10,000   today
Last ice sheet retreats from Michigan                                       15,000
Modern humans Homo sapiens                                                 100,000
Homo erectus                                                               600,000
Sabertooth tigers                                                        1,600,000
Pleistocene                                                              1,800,000       10,000
Quaternary                                                               1,800,000
Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy)                                        2,000,000
Light seen today left Andromeda galaxy                                   2,200,000
Beginning of the Cenozoic Era                                            3,400,000
Pliocene                                                                 5,300,000    1,800,000
Light seen today left "very distant" galaxies                           13,000,000
Miocene                                                                 23,800,000    5,300,000
Oligocene                                                               33,700,000   23,800,000
Grass                                                                   37,000,000
Mastodons                                                               37,000,000
Monkeys and apes                                                        37,000,000
Eocene                                                                  54,800,000   33,700,000
Primitive horses                                                        57,000,000
Cenozoic Era                                                            65,000,000   today
Dinosaurs become extinct                                                65,000,000
Mammals expand                                                          65,000,000
Paleocene                                                               65,000,000   54,800,000
Tertiary                                                                65,000,000    1,800,000
Angiosperms (flowering plants)                                         130,000,000
Cretaceous                                                             144,000,000   65,000,000
Tyrannosaurus Rex                                                      144,000,000
Atlantic Ocean opens                                                   145,000,000
Birds                                                                  160,000,000
Mammals                                                                200,000,000
Jurassic                                                               206,000,000   144,000,000
Primitive birds                                                        208,000,000
Sauropod dinosaurs                                                     208,000,000
Dinosaur                                                               245,000,000
Flies                                                                  245,000,000
Mammals                                                                245,000,000
Glacial event                                                          245,000,000
Extinction event                                                       248,000,000
Mesozoic Era                                                           248,000,000    65,000,000
Triassic                                                               248,000,000   206,000,000
Conifers                                                               286,000,000
Extinction event                                                       286,000,000
Permian                                                                290,000,000   248,000,000
Cockroaches                                                            320,000,000
Pennsylvanian                                                          323,000,000   290,000,000

                              c6dc9c91-b587-4446-ae1b-7ee27b5c2ffb.xls
                                     Events in Geologic Time list                              Page 2

Carboniferous                                                         354,000,000    229,000,000
Mississippian                                                         354,000,000    323,000,000
Fern forests                                                          360,000,000
Amphibians                                                            375,000,000
Petoskey stone alive and well in what is now Michigan                 375,000,000
Glacial event                                                         408,000,000
sharks                                                                408,000,000
Devonian                                                              417,000,000    354,000,000
land plants                                                           435,000,000
Glacial event                                                         438,000,000
Silurian                                                              443,000,000    417,000,000
Ordovician                                                            490,000,000    443,000,000
Corals                                                                505,000,000
Fish                                                                  505,000,000
Tommotian                                                             530,000,000    527,000,000
Cambrian                                                              543,000,000    490,000,000
Paleozoic Era                                                         543,000,000    248,000,000
Phanerozoic                                                           543,000,000    today
Trilobites                                                            570,000,000
Edicaran                                                              600,000,000    543,000,000
Jellyfish                                                             600,000,000
Glacial event                                                         650,000,000
Vendian                                                               650,000,000    600,000,000
Oldest Metazoan Fossils                                               900,000,000
Copper emplaced in the UP                                           1,060,000,000
eukaryotic algae (cyanobacteria)                                    1,300,000,000
Banded iron formation                                               2,000,000,000
Grypaniea / banded iron formations (BIF)                            2,000,000,000
Oxygen Atmosphere / Ozone Layer Forms                               2,000,000,000
Glacial event                                                       2,300,000,000
Proterozoic                                                         2,500,000,000    543,000,000
Glacial event                                                       2,900,000,000
Earliest fossils                                                    3,500,000,000
Archaean                                                            3,800,000,000   2,500,000,000
Oceans and atmosphere form                                          3,800,000,000
Oldest evidence of life                                             3,800,000,000
Oldest dated crustal rocks                                          4,100,000,000
Oldest date (from a zircon)                                         4,400,000,000
Hadean                                                              4,500,000,000   3,800,000,000
Moon forms                                                          4,500,000,000
Precambrian                                                         4,500,000,000    543,000,000
Formation of the core of the earth                                  4,550,000,000
Origin of the Earth                                                 4,600,000,000


What would you add to this list?

                             c6dc9c91-b587-4446-ae1b-7ee27b5c2ffb.xls
                               Events in Geologic Time list        Page 3


What would you change? Why?

Have you found dates different than those above?




                        c6dc9c91-b587-4446-ae1b-7ee27b5c2ffb.xls
                                     TimeLine - Example - 1 mile




                                                        change information below to suit your model
                                                      5,280.0            12     0.3048            1000
Event                              Years Ago *           Feet      inches     meters                  mm
Modern humans                            100,000            0           1        0.03             35
Pleistocene epoch                      1,800,000            2          25        0.63            630
Mastodons                             37,000,000           42         510        12.9         12,945
Dinosaurs become extinct              65,000,000           75         895        22.7         22,741
Cretaceous period                    144,000,000          165       1,983        50.4         50,379
Jurassic period                      206,000,000          236       2,837        72.1         72,071
Dinosaurs / Mammals                  245,000,000          281       3,375        85.7         85,715
Triassic period                      248,000,000          285       3,416        86.8         86,765
Permian period                       290,000,000          333       3,994       101.5        101,459
Reptiles                             320,000,000          367       4,408       112.0        111,954
Pennsylvanian period                 323,000,000          371       4,449       113.0        113,004
Mississippian period                 354,000,000          406       4,876       123.8        123,850
Amphibians                           400,000,000          459       5,510       139.9        139,943
Devonian period                      417,000,000          479       5,744       145.9        145,891
Land plants                          435,000,000          499       5,992       152.2        152,188
Silurian period                      443,000,000          508       6,102       155.0        154,987
Ordovician period                    490,000,000          562       6,749       171.4        171,430
Corals / fish                        505,000,000          580       6,956       176.7        176,678
Cambrian period                      543,000,000          623       7,479       190.0        189,973
Trilobites                           570,000,000          654       7,851       199.4        199,419
Copper emplaced in the UP          1,060,000,000        1,217      14,600       370.8        370,849
Oxygen atmosphere . . .            2,000,000,000        2,296      27,548       699.7        699,715
Oceans and atmosphere . . .        3,800,000,000        4,362      52,341     1,329.5      1,329,458
Moon forms                         4,500,000,000        5,165      61,983     1,574.4      1,574,358
Precambrian time                   4,500,000,000        5,165      61,983     1,574.4      1,574,358
Earth forms                        4,600,000,000        5,280      63,360     1,609.3      1,609,344

* Based on information from
     Cal @ Berkley Museum of
Univ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/help/timeform.html




                              c6dc9c91-b587-4446-ae1b-7ee27b5c2ffb.xls
Event                            Years Ago *
Modern humans                          100,000
Pleistocene epoch                    1,800,000
Mastodons                           37,000,000
Dinosaurs become extinct            65,000,000
Cretaceous period                  144,000,000
Jurassic period                    206,000,000
Dinosaurs / Mammals                245,000,000
Triassic period                    248,000,000
Permian period                     290,000,000
Reptiles                           320,000,000
Pennsylvanian period               323,000,000
Mississippian period               354,000,000
Amphibians                         400,000,000
Devonian period                    417,000,000
Land plants                        435,000,000
Silurian period                    443,000,000
Ordovician period                  490,000,000
Corals / fish                      505,000,000
Cambrian period                    543,000,000
Trilobites                         570,000,000
Copper emplaced in the UP        1,060,000,000
Oxygen atmosphere . . .          2,000,000,000
Oceans and atmosphere . . .      3,800,000,000
Moon forms                       4,500,000,000
Precambrian time                 4,500,000,000
Earth forms                      4,600,000,000

* Based on information from
     Cal @ Berkley Museum of
Univ http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/help/timeform.html
                                                       1 Cent basic


                        If 1 penny =          20             years

Event                                  Years Ago             Pennies
Modem humans                                       100,000                5,000
Pleistocene epoch                              1,800,000                90,000
Mastodons                                     37,000,000              1,850,000
Dinosaurs become extinct                      65,000,000              3,250,000
Cretaceous period                            144,000,000              7,200,000
Jurassic period                              206,000,000             10,300,000
Dinosaur / Mammals                           245,000,000             12,250,000
Triassic period                              248,000,000             12,400,000
Permian period                               290,000,000             14,500,000
Reptiles                                     320,000,000             16,000,000
Pennsylvanian period                         323,000,000             16,150,000
Mississippian period                         354,000,000             17,700,000
Amphibians                                   400,000,000             20,000,000
Devonian period                              417,000,000             20,850,000
Land plants                                  435,000,000             21,750,000
Silurian period                              443,000,000             22,150,000
Ordovician period                            490,000,000             24,500,000
Corals / Fish                                505,000,000             25,250,000
Cambrian period                              543,000,000             27,150,000
Trilobites                                   570,000,000             28,500,000
Copper in the UP                            1,060,000,000            53,000,000
Oxygen / O3 / BIF                           2,000,000,000        100,000,000
Oceans / atm / Oldest life                  3,800,000,000        190,000,000
Moon / Precambrian                          4,500,000,000        225,000,000
Earth forms                                 4,600,000,000        230,000,000


change the number in cell B1 and see what happens to the values in the
"pennies column"




                                       c6dc9c91-b587-4446-ae1b-7ee27b5c2ffb.xls
                                                                                   1 Cent plus
If 1 penny =                                              20 years                 diameter                          19.05 mm
The thickness of a penny is                              1.55 mm                   mass (weight)                         2.5 grams


Event                                    Years Ago              Pennies            $ amount                 Thick (mm)        (m)            (km)            (mi)          Mass (Kg)
Modem humans                                          100,000              5,000                   $50.00             7,750           7.75            0.01          0.00           12.5
Pleistocene epoch                                1,800,000                90,000                 $900.00           139,500          139.50            0.14          0.09          225.0
Mastodons                                       37,000,000            1,850,000               $18,500.00          2,867,500          2,868            2.87          1.78         4,625.0
Dinosaurs become extinct                        65,000,000            3,250,000               $32,500.00          5,037,500          5,038            5.04          3.13         8,125.0
Cretaceous period                              144,000,000            7,200,000               $72,000.00         11,160,000         11,160           11.16          6.93       18,000.0
Jurassic period                                206,000,000           10,300,000            $103,000.00           15,965,000         15,965           15.97          9.92       25,750.0
Dinosaur / Mammals                             245,000,000           12,250,000            $122,500.00           18,987,500         18,988           18.99      11.80          30,625.0
Triassic period                                248,000,000           12,400,000            $124,000.00           19,220,000         19,220           19.22      11.94          31,000.0
Permian period                                 290,000,000           14,500,000            $145,000.00           22,475,000         22,475           22.48      13.97          36,250.0
Reptiles                                       320,000,000           16,000,000            $160,000.00           24,800,000         24,800           24.80      15.41          40,000.0
Pennsylvanian period                           323,000,000           16,150,000            $161,500.00           25,032,500         25,033           25.03      15.55          40,375.0
Mississippian period                           354,000,000           17,700,000            $177,000.00           27,435,000         27,435           27.44      17.05          44,250.0
Amphibians                                     400,000,000           20,000,000            $200,000.00           31,000,000         31,000           31.00      19.26          50,000.0
Devonian period                                417,000,000           20,850,000            $208,500.00           32,317,500         32,318           32.32      20.08          52,125.0
Land plants                                    435,000,000           21,750,000            $217,500.00           33,712,500         33,713           33.71      20.95          54,375.0
Silurian period                                443,000,000           22,150,000            $221,500.00           34,332,500         34,333           34.33      21.33          55,375.0
Ordovician period                              490,000,000           24,500,000            $245,000.00           37,975,000         37,975           37.98      23.60          61,250.0
Corals / Fish                                  505,000,000           25,250,000            $252,500.00           39,137,500         39,138           39.14      24.32          63,125.0
Cambrian period                                543,000,000           27,150,000            $271,500.00           42,082,500         42,083           42.08      26.15          67,875.0
Trilobites                                     570,000,000           28,500,000            $285,000.00           44,175,000         44,175           44.18      27.45          71,250.0
Copper in the UP                              1,060,000,000          53,000,000            $530,000.00           82,150,000         82,150           82.15      51.05         132,500.0
Oxygen / O3 / BIF                             2,000,000,000         100,000,000          $1,000,000.00          155,000,000     155,000             155.00      96.31         250,000.0
Oceans / atm / Oldest life                    3,800,000,000         190,000,000          $1,900,000.00          294,500,000     294,500             294.50     182.99         475,000.0
Moon / Precambrian                            4,500,000,000         225,000,000          $2,250,000.00          348,750,000     348,750             348.75     216.70         562,500.0
Earth forms                                   4,600,000,000         230,000,000          $2,300,000.00          356,500,000     356,500             356.50     221.52         575,000.0


                       1 kilometer =           0.621371192 miles
                              1 mile =               1.609344 kilometers



                                                                c6dc9c91-b587-4446-ae1b-7ee27b5c2ffb.xls
                                              Coin info




V               M            D            T               Cu          Zn         Ni          D/T

    0.01            2.50      19.05           1.55             2.50      97.50   --           12.29

    0.05            5.00      21.21           1.95         75.00      --          25.00       10.88

    0.10            2.27      17.91           1.35         91.67      --              8.33    13.27

    0.25            5.67      24.26           1.75         91.66      --              8.33    13.86

    0.50         11.34        30.61           2.15         91.66      --              8.33    14.24


           V = Value $
           M = Mass in grams (g)
           D = Diameter mm
           T = Thickness mm
           Cu = % copper
           Zn = % zinc
           Ni = % nickle




                              c6dc9c91-b587-4446-ae1b-7ee27b5c2ffb.xls
                Coin info




    g Cu          g Zn         g Ni

        0.06            2.44    --

        3.75       --                1.25

        2.08       --                0.19

        5.20       --                0.47

      10.39        --                0.94




c6dc9c91-b587-4446-ae1b-7ee27b5c2ffb.xls
                    Measurement Conversion Factors

1,000        feet          (ft)     =        304.8         meters
    1        foot          (ft)     =       0.3048         meters

1,000      meters          (m)      =      3,280.84        feet
    1      meter           (m)      =      3.28084         feet

      1     meter          (m)      =          10          decameters
      1     meter          (m)      =         100          centimeters
      1     meter          (m)      =        1000          millimeters

1/5        teaspoon                 =                  1   milliliter
      1    teaspoon                 =                  5   milliliters
      1   tablespoon                =                 15   milliliters
1/5           cup                   =                 50   milliliters
      1       cup                   =                240   milliliters

   20      drops                    =              1       milliliter
    1      ounce                    =    29.57352970       milliliters
    1     milliliters     (mm)      =     0.03381402       ounces
1000      milliliters     (mm)      =              1       liter

      1   kilometer       (km)      =         0.621371      miles
      1      mile         (mi)      =         1.609344      kilometer
      1      foot          (ft)     =         0.000305      kilometer

      1      mile         (mi)      =         1,760.00      yards
      1      mile         (mi)      =         5,280.00      feet
      1      mile         (mi)      =        63,360.00      Inches

      1 millimeter        (mm)      =         0.03937       Inches
      1 centimeter        (cm)      =          0.3937       inches
      1   meter            (m)      =       39.370079       inches

      1 kilometer    (km)           =            1,000        meters
      1 hectometer   (hm)           =              100        meters
      1 decameter (dam)             =               10        meters
      1   meter       (m)           =                1        meter
      1 decimeter    (dm)           =              0.1        meters
      1 centimeter   (cm)           =             0.01        meters
      1 millimeter  (mm)            =            0.001        meters
      1 micrometer (micron)         =         0.000001        meters




              c6dc9c91-b587-4446-ae1b-7ee27b5c2ffb.xls
                                      Size of Numbers


                 Prefix    Symbol                    Numerical Multiplier     Exp.
really big       yotta       Y         1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000    10 ^24
big              zetta       Z             1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000    10 ^21
quintillion        exa       E                 1,000,000,000,000,000,000    10 ^18
quadrillion       peta       P                     1,000,000,000,000,000    10 ^15
trillion          tera       T                         1,000,000,000,000    10 ^12
billion           giga       G                             1,000,000,000    10 ^9
million          mega        M                                  1,000,000   10 ^6
thousand           kilo       k                                     1,000   10 ^3
hundred          hecto       h                                        100   10 ^2
tens              deca       da                                        10   10 ^1
       one          -         -                                         1   10 ^0
tenths            deci       d                                        0.1   10 ^ -1
hundredths        centi       c                                      0.01   10 ^ -2
thousandths       milli      m                                      0.001   10 ^ -3
millionths       micro       m                                   0.000001   10 ^ -6
billionths        nano       n                               0.000000001    10 ^ -9
trillionths       pico       p                           0.000000000001     10 ^ -12
quadrillionths   femto        f                       0.000000000000001     10 ^ -15
quintillionths    atto        a                    0.000000000000000001     10 ^ -18
small            zepto        z                 0.000000000000000000001     10 ^ -21
really small     yocto        y             0.000000000000000000000001      10 ^ -24




                          c6dc9c91-b587-4446-ae1b-7ee27b5c2ffb.xls

								
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