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                                  WHAT ’ S
                                           R I S I N G               THE SAN FRANCISCO BAKING INSTITUTE                           FA L L 2002


                                                                                                         what’s rising
               New Program                            How Different                                      this season...
               & New Home                             Flours Perform                                     ● 14Week Training Program Begins
                                                                                                            in April ...Sign up by February 2003!
               Michel Suas                            Didier Rosada                                      ● Baking Performance of Flours
               SFBI Founder                           SFBI Head Instructor
                                                                                                         ● Baker’s Tip and Recipe
We are happy to announce that SFBI— As we all know, flour is the most important                          ● New 2003 Class Schedule!
the only school in the U.S. dedicated                 ingredient of the dough. Flour—because of
exclusively to artisan baking—will soon be            its origin, process and characteristics—is
moving to a nearby location three times               also one of the most sensitive ingredients.
the size of our current facilities. Our new           Its baking performance can be effected by
10,000 square foot building includes two              a myriad of factors, such as the type of
large classrooms, a lab, a library and a              wheat used, protein content, ash content,        Recently, we decided to explore the rela-
cafeteria. We are very excited about this             treatments and aging.                            tionship between the flour specification
opportunity to give our students and                                                                   sheets and the quality of the final product.
visitors an even more comfortable and tech-           Millers, in order to classify flours and give    To do so, we used eight different flours sold as
nologically advanced environment in which             more indications about their characteristics,    “Artisan Flour”—all within the same protein
to experience artisan baking at its best.             compile a flour specification sheet to provide   range and ash content.
                                                      information about the type of wheat used,
Our move comes just in time for the new               protein content, ash content and treatments.     Five samples were from the Bay Area.Three
14 Week Intensive Training program we are                                                              samples were the same flour brand but sold
offering starting in April 2003. (You can             Only a baking test allows                        in different areas of the U.S.— East Coast,
                                                                                                       Midwest and West Coast (#5, #6, #7: See
read more about it beginning on page 5.)
Designed with the European model of                   a baker to define the                            chart on page 4. )
apprenticeship and training in mind, the              subtle changes that occur                        Because we were comparing for educational
14-week program gives students all the
skills they need to qualify as skilled profes-        with every type of flour.                        purposes only, we did not use brand names,
                                                                                                       but instead labeled the flours by number.
sional bakers. The program includes two
weeks of training in Rouen, France, where             As bakers, we can gain much valuable
students will be introduced to artisan                information from these specification sheets,                                   continued on page four

baking in the European tradition.                     including analytical data such as alveograph
                            continued on page seven
                                                      or farinograph values. Of course, bread
                                                      characteristics like crust, crumb color
                                                      and flavor are not provided
                                                      with these specification




      SFBI
     The San Francisco Baking Institute               sheets. Only a baking
           390 Swift Avenue, #13                      test allows the baker to
       South San Francisco, CA 94080                  define these subtle
    phone 650.589.5784 fax 650.589.5729               changes that occur with
               www.sfbi.com                           every type of flour.




         where better baking begins                                                                                                                     1
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                                                                                                                                  Baker’s Tip:
                                                                                                                                  The Power Of Salt
                                                                                                                                   from Didier Rosada
                                                                                                                                 In addition to improving bread flavor, salt is
                                                                                                                                 useful in controlling the activity of preferments.
                    Benoitons Recipe                                                                             When a preferment, such as poolish or sponge, is maturing too
                                                                                                                 quickly due to warmer temperatures, adding .2 to .3% salt is just
                                                                                                                 enough to slow down activity without interfering with aroma.
                                                                                                                 Just remember that when the quantity of salt in the final dough is
                                                                                                                 calculated, the amount of salt used in the preferment must be
                                                                                                                 considered.

                                                                                                                 When a stiff levain is becoming liquid or mushy in the center, this
                                                                                                                 is a sign of undesirably intense enzyme activity (protease) between
        Rich in hazelnuts and raisins, these delicious rolls are the                                             feedings. As little as .1% of salt incorporated during the feeding
        perfect way to celebrate the fall season with your                                                       of the culture will be enough to noticeably slow down the
        customers. The combination of the toasted nuts and                                                       protease of the flour and bring your sourdough culture to a
        sweetness of the dried fruit will make a perfect accompa-                                                normal consistency—without interfering with the microorganism
        niment for blue cheese, fruit platters, or simply as a snack                                             activity of the sourdough.
        anytime during the day.


                                                      Total                                    Final
               Ingredients            Baker’s %                            Levain
                                                     Quantity                                 Dough
        Flour                             60            6 Lbs.            1.2 Lbs.            4.8 Lbs.
        Rye flour                         40            4 Lbs.                                 4 Lbs.                From the Rolling Pin Forum
        Water                             70            7 Lbs.             .6 Lbs.            6.4 Lbs.                 Didier Rosada Answers Your Baking Questions
        Yeast (fresh)                     .4           .04 Lbs.              ---              .04 Lbs.
        Starter                           6            .6 Lbs.              .6Lbs.               ---
                                                                                                                 Question:
        Salt                              2            .2 Lbs.               ---               .2 Lbs.
        Hazelnuts (toasted)               15           1.5 Lbs.              ---              1.5 Lbs.
                                                                                                                 After many years of practice, my rye bread usually turns out very
        Raisins (moistened)               15           1.5 Lbs.              ---              1.5 Lbs.
                                                                                                                 well, but I cannot achieve a nice, really crisp crust.The crust is always
                                                                                                                 rather soft. I steam the oven, I use a baking stone and the bread
        Levain                            ---              ---               ---              2.4 Lbs.
                                                                                                                 “thumps” when done. But I never get a crispy, crackly crust.
        Total Dough                      208.4      20.84 Lbs.            2.4 Lbs.          20.84 Lbs.
                                                                                                                 Answer:
                                                 Procedure                                                       Try to bake your rye at a decreasing temperature and open the oven
                          Sourdough
                             Mixing                  Mix until ingredients are well incorporated                 door at the end of the bake for about 10 to 15 minutes. This will
                          Fermentation                     Ferment 8 hours at 75 -80°F
                                                                                                                 allow the crust to dry out and stay crispy as the bread cools down.
                          Final dough
                         Mixing 1st speed:             4 – 5 minutes (soft dough consistency)
                        Mixing 2nd speed:              Improved mix (gluten half developed)                      If you have a baking question, visit us at www.sfbi.com




SFBI
                    Desired dough temperature                         75 to 77°F
                        First fermentation                              2 hours                                  and go to the Rolling Pin Forum under the Forums and
                              Divide:
                           Rest Time:
                                                                       3oz rolls
                                                                   15 to 20 minutes
                                                                                                                 Links section of our site.
                               Shape:                                Round shape
                               Proof:                   One and a half hour on dusted linen
                              Scoring               Lightly dust with flour and create a cross with
                                                             the blade on top of the crust
                              Bake:                           460°F for 15 to 20 minutes




2
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register early for our upcoming classes
  Sunday              Monday                   Tuesday                Wednesday                 Thursday
                                                                                                           december       Friday
                                                                                                                                                  2002
                                                                                                                                                 Saturday

            1   Baking with
                                     2   Baking with
                                                              3   Baking with
                                                                                       4   Baking with
                                                                                                               5   Baking with
                                                                                                                                       6   home baker class     7
                                                                                                                                           Holiday Baking for
                Organic Flour            Organic Flour            Organic Flour            Organic Flour           Organic Flour           Parent and Child

            8   Naturally Leavened
                                     9                   10
                                         Naturally Leavened
                                                                                  11
                                                                  Naturally Leavened
                                                                                                            12                     13                       14
                Whole Grain Breads       Whole Grain Breads       Whole Grain Breads

           15                   16                       17                       18                        19                     20                       21

           22                   23                       24                       25                        26                     27                       28

           29                   30                       31




  Sunday              Monday                   Tuesday                Wednesday                  Thursday
                                                                                                                   januaryFriday
                                                                                                                                                   2003
                                                                                                                                                 Saturday

                                                                                       1                       2                       3                        4

            5                        6                        7                        8                       9                   10                       11

           12     Artisan I:
                                13        Artisan I:
                                                         14        Artisan I:
                                                                                  15        Artisan I:
                                                                                                            16     Artisan I:
                                                                                                                                   17                       18
                  Baking Fundamental      Baking Fundamentals      Baking Fundamentals      Baking Fundamentals    Baking Fundamentals

           19                   20                       21                       22                        23                     24                       25
                  Artisan II:             Artisan II:              Artisan II:             Artisan II:             Artisan II:
                  Mastering Sourdough     Mastering Sourdough      Mastering Sourdough     Mastering Sourdough     Mastering Sourdough

           26     Breakfast     27        Breakfast      28        Breakfast      29       Breakfast        30     Breakfast       31
                  Pastry                  Pastry                   Pastry                  Pastry                  Pastry




  Sunday              Monday                   Tuesday                Wednesday                 Thursday
                                                                                                               february   Friday
                                                                                                                                                  2003
                                                                                                                                                 Saturday

                                                                                                                                                                1

            2    Chocolate
                                     3    Chocolate
                                                              4    Chocolate
                                                                                       5   Chocolate
                                                                                                               6   Chocolate
                                                                                                                                       7                        8
                 Cakes Galore             Cakes Galore             Cakes Galore            Cakes Galore            Cakes Galore

            9    Advanced       10        Advanced       11        Advanced       12       Advanced         13     Advanced        14                       15
                 Breads:for the           Breads:for the           Breads:for the          Breads:for the          Breads: for the
                 Experienced Baker        Experienced Baker        Experienced Baker       Experienced Baker       Experienced Baker

           16                   17                       18                       19                        20                     21                       22

           23                   24                       25                       26                        27                     28

                                                                                                                                                                3

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                                                                                                             Shaping
                                     How Different                                                           Dough extensibility and dough elasticity
                                  Flours Perform, cont.                                                      are evaluated during the shaping process.

                                                                                                             Final Proof
            Flour description
                                                                                                             Fermentation activity in the dough and
                                                                               Falling                       tension of the dough are judged at the
             Flours Protein       Ash       P      G         P/L        W              Organic
                                                                               Number                        end of the first final proof (after one hour)
            Control         9     .46       87    22.3       .45        240       288       No
                                                                                                             and at the end of the second final proof
              #1           11.6   .49       117   20.1       1.45       333       296       No
              #2           11.7   .57       82     24        .71        303       605       Yes
                                                                                                             (after one hour and 30 minutes)
              #3           12.7   .57       94    24.8       .76        373       279       No
              #4           14.6   .56       111   24.7        .9        489       271       No               Final Product Evaluation
              #5           12.8   .55       112   23.3       1.02       391       284       No               -Crumb
              #6           11.9   .56       103   22.2       1.04       340       313       No               -Color, cell structure, tenderness
              #7           11.6   .45       108   20.4       1.29       309       285       No
              #8            12     .5       99    21.2       1.09       313       702       No
                                                                                                             -Crust
                                                                                                             -Color, crispiness and cuts openings
     continued from page one                             Final Proof                                         -Volume of the bread
                                                         One hour for half of the loaves;                    -Breads are compared to each other after
                                                         One hour and 30 minutes for the other half           baking
     Testing Procedure
                                                                                                             Flavor Taste and After Taste
     To preserve the integrity of the flour, a           Baking
                                                         25 minutes at 470 degrees F                         Fermentation Tolerance
     straight dough with no preferment was                                                                   This is a very important value for the baker.
     used.                                                                                                   The product characteristics (appearance in
                                                                                                             particular) are evaluated after the two final
     Since preferments improve flour baking
                                                                                                             proof times. If the products look the same,
     performance, it is assumed that if a flour
                                                                                                             or even better, after 30 extra minutes of
     performs well with no preferment, it will
                                                                                                             final proof time, fermentation tolerance is
     perform better with preferment.
                                                                                                             judged good.
     A: Formula
                                                                                                             If the product looks worse after one and a
     Flour 100%
                                                                                                             half hours of proofing compared to the
     Water 65%
                                                                                                             one with only one hour of proofing time,
     Yeast  1.5%
                                                                                                             then fermentation tolerance is judged as
     Salt   2%
                                                                                                             insufficient.
     B: Process                                                                                              In summary, if a baker is late in his
     Mixing                                                                                                  production one day and the bread goes in the
     In order to duplicate the mixing method                                                                 oven later than expected, product quality will
     most widely used in the artisan baking                                                                  vary based on the fermentation tolerance of
     industry, the improved mix technique, in                                                                the flour. As we all know, delays in pro-
     which the gluten structure is not fully             Evaluation
                                                                                                             duction do happen, as hard as we may try
     developed, was used. Targeted dough                 Evaluation of the flour baking characteristics
                                                                                                             to prevent them.This is why fermentation
     temperature was 75 to 77 degrees F.                 was made during the whole baking process on
                                                                                                             tolerance is so important.
                                                         the dough and—after cooling—on the bread.
     First Fermentation                                                                                      Results of the Baking Test
     One hour and 30 minutes at room                     Dough Evaluation
                                                                                                             Hydration
     temperature (75 to 78 degrees F)                    Hydration:
                                                                                                             Average hydration is 67%. However, flour
                                                         Percentage of water necessary to reach a
                                                                                                             #5 absorbed 70% water while flour #2
     Dividing                                            specific dough consistency
                                                                                                             took only 65% to obtain the same dough
     350 grams (12 oz)
                                                         Mixing                                              consistency. Technically, dough character-
     Preshaping                                          Dough extensibility and dough elasticity            istics might not be effected. However,
     -Round for batard shape                             were assessed at the end of the mixing              shelf life might be a little bit shorter. More
     -Rectangle for baguette shape                       time.Mixing time is also taken into consider-       important, this could have a significant
     -Resting time: 20 to 25 minutes                     ation, as it will affect bread characteristics if   impact from an economical point of view,
     -Shaping: Hand shaping for this test                dramatically longer (crumb color and flavor).       since a lower dough yield will be obtained
                                                                                                             if the hydration is lower.
                                                                                                                                          continued on page eight

 4
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O
    new                     New!
               Intensive 14 Week
               Training Program
                Bread & Pastry
                                ■




     ur new 14 week intensive courses are unique in baking
education.We offer you an opportunity you won’t find anywhere
else—the chance to begin a career in artisan baking with just 14
weeks of hands-on, intensive training from some of the most
respected instructors in the United States.
                                                                   ■                                 ■                                        ■




The small, hands-on classes at The San Francisco Baking            “Where do I go when I need to learn more
Institute give you an uncommon opportunity to learn by doing.
Our emphasis is on teaching skills you can bring to jobs in the    about baking, or to share what I know?
real world. Our progressive program concentrates on the funda-
mentals and advanced techniques of artisan baking and pastry in    SFBI! I love that place - a “church” for
a fast-paced creative environment.
                                                                   baking.”
As the only school in the U.S. dedicated exclusively to artisan                                                         Craig Ponsford
                                                                                          Owner, Artisan Bakers of Sonoma, Sonoma, CA
baking, The San Francisco Baking Institute is the place                                        President, Bread Bakers Guild of America
where better baking begins.

                                                                                Program Description
     Who Benefits from Intensive                                   ■   SFBI’s new long program consists of 14 weeks of intensive

        14 Week Training?                                              training, including 2 weeks spent at Institut National de la
                                                                       Boulangerie Patisserie in Rouen, France.
                                                                   ■   Our curriculum gives you everything you need to become a
●   Working bakers who want to enhance their careers and
                                                                       competent and skilled professional in baking and pastry—from
    salaries by making a serious commitment to learning
                                                                       sanitation and equipment knowledge to actual production
    new skills.
                                                                       methods and techniques.
●   Bakeries, restaurants, hotels, and supermarkets that           ■   Our 14 week program is uniquely focused and concentrated,
    know the value of investing in better trained employees.           with more hours of training per day than typical training
                                                                       programs.
●   Beginning bakers and people changing jobs who are
                                                                   ■    Although a standard certification is not provided, a diploma
    interested in a rewarding baking career.
                                                                       from SFBI acts as a powerful tool for your job search because
                                                                       of SFBI’s reputation in the baking industry.


Train at Institut National de                                                   General Information
                                                                   ■   Tuition includes one meal per day and all expenses for
la Boulangerie Patisserie in                                           studying in France excluding airfare.
Rouen, France for 2 weeks of                                                ■ Tuition with provided housing: $22,300

                                                                            ■ Tuition without housing: $17,500

program!                                                           ■   The primary instructors are Didier Rosada, Jeff Yankellow and
                                                                       Philippe Le Corre
                                                                   ■   Guest instructors include Volker Baumann, Craig Ponsford,
(Visit www.inbp.com for more
information about the school.)                                         Michel Suas, and others to be announced soon.
                                                                                                                      continued on page six

                                                                                                                                              5
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                                              Long Program                                           Week Five
                                                                                                     with Guest Instructor Volker Baumann
                                                                                                     Volker Bauman will be our guest instructor this week to

                                               Curriculum                                            introduce you to the art and science of German breads.
                                                                                                     The last two days of the week will include trips to a flour

                                                 Overview                                            mill and flour testing facility.
                                                                                                     ■ Rye flour selection and evaluation
                                                                                                     ■ German methods of bread baking using sourdough rye
                                                                                                     ■ Use and application of the farinograph and alveograph
                                                                                                     ■ Visiting a flour mill and testing facility
                                                   Week One
                                              The first week of training will introduce
                                             you to SFBI and the baking profession.
                                                                                                     Week Six
                                                                                                     Learn how to create a variety of specialty breads.You will bake French and Italian
                                           Sanitation and proper manufacturing practices
                                                                                                     breads, including Panettone, Pan d’Oro, and the classic Miche. Breads with the addi-
                                        will be presented by a certified instructor.You will
                                                                                                     tion of secondary ingredients will be practiced, including Olive Bread,Walnut Raisin,
                                    learn general baking terminology and the basics of
                                                                                                     and Sesame Semolina.
                               bakery equipment and ingredients. Proper scaling tech-
                                                                                                     ■ Using an Italian starter
    niques and measuring practices will be addressed, along with baker's math.
                                                                                                     ■ Regional French and Italian specialties bread
    ■ Baker’s percents
                                                                                                     ■ Decorative shaping techniques
    ■ Sanitation and Hygiene
    ■ Equipment identification and usage
    ■ Ingredient identification and selection
                                                                                                     Week Seven
                                                                                                     American and European style breakfast pastries will be our
    Week Two                                                                                         focus this week. Lamination will be covered in detail. You
    This week, you will roll up your sleeves and start hands-on                                      will produce Croissants, Danish, Brioche and Sweet Rolls.
    practice while learning the fundamentals and science of                                          We will conduct comparison tests to evaluate the best
    the bread making process.You will begin to understand the                                        methods and ingredients. Quick breads will also be cov-
    relationship between mixing and fermentation and learn                                           ered, including Muffins, Loaf Breads and Scones.
                                                                                                     ■ Lamination using single and double folds
    the proper use of mixing equipment.The standard steps of
                                                                                                     ■ Fat selection for lamination
    bread baking will be reviewed in detail. You will practice
                                                                                                     ■ Quick breads using rubbing method, creaming method, and blending method
    beginner shaping techniques and begin to learn what char-
    acteristics are desirable in a properly baked loaf of artisan bread.
    ■ Relationship between mixing and fermentation                                                   Week Eight
    ■ The science of bread                                                                           This week, you will be immersed in the world of retail baking. Learn all about the
    ■ Differences between short mix, improved mix, and intensive mix                                 classic American and rustic European pastries that are popular staples in most retail
    ■ Flour selection and the milling process                                                        bakeries.You will produce Cookies, Pies, Brownies,Tarts and Rustic Cakes. Students
    ■ Enzymes in flour                                                                               will thoroughly practice hands-on with standard doughs including, Pate Brise, Pate
    ■ Standard steps of baking                                                                       Sucre and Puff Pastry.
    ■ Product evaluation




    “I have sent key production managers to various bread and pastry courses at SFBI. They have returned energized and
    feeling more confident with their abilities to take the quality of our products even higher; able to identify and correct
    problems with our processes and strengthen the knowledge of our crews, making them more productive."
                                                                                                                                                             JT, Semifreddi’s Bakery

    Week Three                                                                                       Week Nine
    This week, we will build upon the fundamentals of the bak-                                       We will start this week with an intensive focus on savory pastries.You will use yeast-
    ing process. Students will use preferments and evaluate                                          ed and non-yeasted dough to prepare a variety of savory items frequently offered
    the advantages and disadvantages of each type. You will                                          in today's bakeries. Products will include, Pizza, Quiche and Various Finger Foods.
    make bread using alternative varieties of flour such as                                          The end of this week will introduce cake mixing and baking. Numerous techniques and
    whole wheat and rye and learn about enriched dough                                               products will be covered.You will practice all of the standard cake mixing techniques.
    made with eggs, sugar, and fat. We will conduct an initial                                       ■ Standard sauces and fillings used with savory pastry
    testing and evaluation of each students' knowledge and                                           ■ Marriage of cooking and baking
    technical ability.                                                                               ■ Cake mixing using creaming method, foaming method, chiffon method, angel food
    ■ Use of preferments including poolish, sponge, biga, and levain                                    method, and modified method
    ■ Bread using multiple flours and grains
    ■ Enriched doughs and the proper mixing technique when using secondary                           Week Ten
       ingredients such as eggs, milk, and sugar                                                     Further skills and product from the previous week to prepare classic cakes and
                                                                                                     creams. Creams, fillings, and glazes will be covered. This week will include finishing
    Week Four                                                                                        and decorating. At the conclusion of the week students will prepare and assemble
    You will learn all about sourdough, including topics such as: starting a starter, maintain-      a finished wedding cake.
    ing a consistent culture, and controlling the starter to get specific characteristics.You will   ■ Cake and cream mise en place and assembly
    use stiff and liquid starters and compare results.The retarding process will be covered          ■ Buttercream technology
    and a variety of formulas will be mixed and delayed in various forms. Production plan-           ■ Cooked creams and fillings
    ning and scheduling will be reviewed.                                                            ■ Design and finishing of decorated cakes
    ■ Natural starters and the sourdough process                                                     ■ Glazing techniques
    ■ Starting a starter and maintaining a healthy culture
    ■ Advantages of using natural starters in baking
    ■ The effects of wild yeasts and bacteria
    ■ Effects of hydration, climate, and feeding schedule on the final product
    ■ Scheduling of real life production scenarios
6                                                                                                    Week Eleven
■                                             ■                                                 ■                                           ■
                                            ■                                              ■                                         ■                                            ■

This week will cover petit four production and plated desserts. Students will learn the
skills for making miniature pastries and creative ways to present them to guests.They will           Letter from Michel, cont.
also learn how to prepare classic and contemporary desserts that are well suited for
serving as an individual portion and the fundamentals of presenting and garnishing them
properly.
■ Production and presentation methods                                                          SFBI’s new program is a major step in providing training that
■ Flavor combination and principals of taste                                                   will match the European programs that have successfully trained
■ Sauce preparation and garnishing techniques
                                                                                               bakers for many years. Students who complete the program will
                                                                                               be competent to work in any bakery or pastry kitchen. If you are
Week Twelve and Week Thirteen
Institut National de la Boulangerie Patisserie in Rouen, France                                a bakery owner,we encourage you to support our new program—
                                                                                               and help your business—by sending one of your employees to
These two weeks will be spent at the Institut National de la Boulangerie Patisserie in
Rouen, France. All expenses are included, excluding airfare. Topics will include bread,
                                                                                               our classroom. The investment of time and cost will benefit
sugar and chocolate, ice cream and showpieces. Students will get a first hand look at bak-     your bakery immediately and in the long-term. When you
ing and pastry in Europe through classroom study and bakery tours.This is a trip every         encourage young people who show an interest to pursue a
aspiring baker should make—back to the homeland of authentic
artisan baking. Immerse yourself in the culture of the European baker; bring home a sense
                                                                                               career as a baker or pastry chef—and push them to reach the
of professional pride and broaden your knowledge of baking history.                            top levels of the profession through education and practical
                                                                                               experience—you are giving yourself more excited, motivated
Week Fourteen                                                                                  employees and helping the future of the industry as a whole.
A guest speaker will introduce you to everything you need to know about equipment selec-
tion, bakery design and layout. Students will use and demonstrate all the skills they have
learned. Four days of the week will involve student projects in preparation for a grand buf-
                                                                                               We are looking forward to welcoming all of our 2003 students
fet to display the products on graduation day.The last day of the week will be a graduation    to our brand new facility and welcome you, as always, to keep
ceremony with a viewing of the completed work.                                                 in touch with us should you have any questions or comments.

                                                                                                                                                    Michel Suas, SFBI Founder




                                                                                                                 SFBI Instructors
                 HOW TO APPLY FOR THE
          14 WEEK INTENSIVE TRAINING PROGRAM
                                                                                               HEAD INSTRUCTOR
                                                                                               Didier Rosada
                                                                                               Didier Rosada began baking at the age of 15 in France,
     Call 650.589.5784 and ask for an application and information                              where he attended a regional professional school and
                                                                                               apprenticed under a local baker. He was awarded the Brevet
packet to be mailed to you. Or, tear out this form and mail it to:The                          de Matrise from the Institut National de Boulangerie
                                                                                               Patisserie in Rouen, France, and in 1996 he became the
           San Francisco Baking Institute 390 Swift Avenue, #13                                unofficial trainer for the Baking Team USA, which took first
                                                                                               place in the bread category at the Coup du Monde de la
     South San Francisco, CA 94080 or fax to us at 650.589.5729.                               Boulangerie. For the past several years, he has helped train the world champion
                                                                                               Baking Team USA for the Coup du Monde in Paris. Didier was most recently a
        You can also visit our website for complete                                            baking instructor at The National Baking Center in Minneapolis before joining us
                                                                                               as Head Instructor at SFBI.
          information about our curriculum and
                  an on-line application.                                                      BAKING & PASTRY INSTRUCTOR
                                                                                               Philippe Le Corre
                                                                                               Philippe Le Corre studied for three years at the school run
                                                                                               by the famous Gaston Lenotre in Paris. After finishing first
NAME___________________________________________________                                        in his class, Philippe stayed on at Lenotre for three more years
                                                                                               as head of a production team that prepared product for the
COMPANY______________________________________________                                          company's upscale pastry shops. He came to the United
                                                                                               States in 1984 to lead the pastry and baking programs for the
ADDRESS________________________________________________                                        Sofitel Hotel Group’s American properties and later for the
                                                                                               Minneapolis Hilton. Before joining SFBI, Philippe was the baking and pastry
CITY____________________ __STATE ______ ZIP ____________                                       instructor at The National Baking Center since its inception in 1996.

PHONE (_____)_______________                                                                   BAKING & PASTRY INSTRUCTOR
                                                                                               Jeff Yankellow
FAX          (_____)_______________                                                            Originally from Baltimore, MD, Jeff started his culinary
                                                                                               career as a high school student, cooking in local restau-
EMAIL___________________________________________________                                       rants. In 1996, he received a degree in Culinary Arts and
                                                                                               Foodservice Management from Johnson & Wales
BAKING EXPERIENCE                                                                              University in Providence, RI, and continued to cook in
                                                                                               Baltimore and Chicago for three years after graduating.
________________________________________________________                                       Jeff decided to pursue an interest in baking with a focus on Artisan Breads and
                                                                                               Viennoiserie. He worked at several bakeries in the Maryland area; completed
________________________________________________________                                       a 6 month internship at The National Baking Center in Minneapolis; and
                                                                                               worked as a baker in Minneapolis before joining SFBI as a staff instructor.
                                                                                                                                                                                  7
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                                                                             Volume
     How Different                                                           All the bread had a very similar volume except for flour #2,
     Flours Perform, cont.                                                   which produced bread with a noticeably lower volume.

                                                                             Fermentation Tolerance
     continued from page four
                                                                             Very good fermentation tolerance with flours #1, #3, #4, #7
                                                                             and #8. Dough # 5 was not as good, however the breads were
                                                                             still acceptable. Flour #2 had a poor fermentation tolerance
     Dough Characteristics At Mixing                                         (poor appearance of the bread after one and a half-hour of final
     All of the flours we tested provided dough with a good                  proof).
     balance between extensibility and elasticity. This was
     somewhat expected since the protein level is very similar.              Flavor
     Only dough # 4 showed a slight lack of extensibility                    Flavor is a very subjective topic, so we evaluated with a panel
     (stronger dough) at the end of the mixing. Mixing times were very       rather than just one person.The results were as follows:
     similar for all the dough, except for dough #4, which required a
     longer mixing to reach the same gluten development. Dough #2            # 1: Complex, more round flavor.The preferred flavor for all
     showed some stickiness at the end of mixing.                                 the bread tasted
                                                                             # 2:Very bitter flavor.The least preferred flavor
     Dough Characteristics at Shaping                                        # 3: Good overall but with an off taste in the crust
     Flours #1, #3 and #5 had a good balance between extensibility           # 4: Slightly bitter taste in the crust
     and elasticity. This allowed for very easy shaping. Dough #2            # 5: Good overall but neutral taste
     and #4 were a bit too extensible and tended to be porous and            # 6: Good overall
     sticky.This could be the sign of some degradation of the gluten         # 7: Good overall
     as fermentation progresses (when gluten degrades, some pro-             # 8: Good overall
     teins liberate water that migrates to the surface of the dough,
     increasing its stickiness)                                              In Conclusion
                                                                             The results of this simple test show how bread characteristics
     Crumb Characteristics                                                   may be affected depending on the flour that we use, even if the
     Flour #1 provided a crumb with the best creamy color. # 4,              dough characteristics are very similar.
     #5, #6 and #7 were less creamy but still acceptable, while # 8
     was so creamy that it almost looked artificial.                         Secondly, all of the dough was made with no preferment.
                                                                             Certainly, baking performances would have been improved by
     Crumb of the bread made with flour #3 was on the grayish                involving some pre-fermentation in the process. But, as
     side (higher ash content) and #2 was on the green side. Both            mentioned earlier, if the flour performs well with no preferment,
     of these flours had an inferior color pattern compared to #1.           it will perform even better when using one. Finally, even if the
                                                                             numbers look the same (or are very close) on the specification
     Cell structure of the crumb was on the tight side for all of the        sheet, bread characteristics such as crumb, crust, volume and
     breads, but this is normal for this type of baking process.             flavor may be very different.This is why a baking test remains the
     However, flour #2 had very tight and very dense crumb.                  best way to assess flour baking performance.
     Crumb of bread #2 was not as tender but very rubbery. Crust
     color and crispiness were very similar in all of the bread.             To confirm the result of our tests made here at the SFBI—and get
     However, we noticed a darker crust color on breads made with            more precise information about the flour baking performances—
     flour #4. Cut openings were nice on all the breads, except on the       we sent the same flour samples to Eurogerm, a French company
     ones made with flour #2, where cuts didn’t open as much.                specializing in cereal works such as wheat and flour testing,
                                                                             dough conditioners and enzyme technology. Our goals included
                                                                             comparing the performances of the U.S. flours with a “control
                                                                             flour” from France.

                                                                             The method used for the testing is a standard flour testing pro-
                                                                             cedure used in France. This method is similar to the one
                                                                             described earlier in this article. However, a main difference must
                                                                             be noted: the mixing process is an intensive mix (gluten fully
                                                                             developed) and the first fermentation time is only 20 minutes.

                                                                             The reason behind the use of this method in France is to avoid
                                                                             helping the flour by allowing some long fermentation time
                                                                             after mixing that would naturally improve strength and fer-
                                                                             mentation tolerance.
                                                                                                                              continued on page nine
 8
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How Different
Flours Perform, cont.
continued from page eight


A more complete flavor assessment was also performed after
the baking of the bread using very precise parameters (describing
different flavor profile like nutty taste, toasted taste, yeasted
taste, fruity taste.)

Eurogerm developed this flavor evaluation procedure after                  The most noticeable difference could be in the strength of the
intensive research and the method is now recognized by most                dough. Due to higher protein content, U.S. flours produce, in
of the French baking industry.                                             general, stronger dough.The baker could improve this by using
                                                                           autolyse in his process or preferment with a liquid consistency
Results from Eurogerm                                                      like poolish or liquid sourdough, since their high water content
                                                                           favors the proteolytic activity of the flour.
On the Dough Side
Results were very similar to the SFBI internal test. However,              The other difference is in the crispiness. Not much could be
French flour received a better note on dough extensibility at              done during the baking process to improve this problem.
the shaping and fermentation tolerance compared to the                     Ascorbic acid is known to dry out the crust and very slightly
samples from U.S.                                                          improve crispiness. However, its use must be carefully moni-
                                                                           tored. An excess of ascorbic acid will definitively create strong
On the Bread Side                                                          dough very difficult to work with.
This is where the results of the test are the most interesting. In
terms of volume, all the U.S. flours except sample #2 had a                Finally, the samples of the same flour sold in different areas of
superior volume in the final product.                                      the U.S. produced bread with similar characteristics.The minor
                                                                           differences between them could be explained by the availability
Crust crispiness was described as “soft” for all the American              of different classes of wheat within the area where the flour is
flour except for sample # 8. The control was judged as crispy.             milled. For example, the West Coast sample generated dough
                                                                           with a noticeable lack of extensibility. This is due to the
The crust color was evaluated as too excessive for all U.S. samples.
                                                                           stronger winter wheat largely available in this area and widely
This may be explained by the higher protein content—generating
                                                                           used by the milling industry.
a stronger Maillard reaction during baking.

Flavor was evaluated using two parameters: aroma and taste.The
main aroma found in samples from France and U.S. samples #1,
                                                                           In the last five to seven years, because
#4, #5, #6, #7 and #8 was described as “beurre noisette” or                of better communication between
buttery-nutty aroma. Aroma from sample # 2 was qualified as
“toasted-bitter.”                                                          miller and baker, the artisan baker has
The preponderant taste was also described as “beurre noisette”
                                                                           much more choice regarding flour
for sample # 1, #6, #7 and #8. Flavor from samples # 3, #4,                selection.
and #5 was judged as “neutral” while # 2 was described as
“yeasty flavor.”
                                                                           In the last five to seven years, because of better communication
Conclusion                                                                 between miller and baker, the artisan baker has much more
                                                                           choice regarding flour selection. Nowadays, some good flours for
Some interesting conclusions can be made from these tests.
                                                                           Artisan Baking are available in the United States. The skill of a
Again, our goal was not really to compare French and U.S.
                                                                           baker who understands how to work and transform this flour
flours, but the results have shown that despite some minor differ-
                                                                           into bread has a tremendous impact on the final product quality.
ence in the dough characteristics (lack of extensibility), some U.S.
flours can produce quality breads. Sample # 8, for example, had            On the other hand, our tests have demonstrated that despite the
the same notation compared to the French control flour.                    fact that some flours are marketed as “Artisan Flour,” their baking
                                                                           performances don’t really live up to this statement.
However, some flour sold as flour for Artisan Baking in U.S.
wouldn’t even be considered as bread flour in France (sample               Regardless of what is on the bag or the specification sheet, a
# 2), due to its lack of baking quality (on the dough side and             baker should always perform a quick baking test—using a
final product appearance).                                                 standardized method or his favorite formula—to see if the
                                                                           selected flour will be providing optimum performance during
                                                                           the baking process.                                            9
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         New!            CLASS SCHEDULE                                 2003
     Artisan I and II: The Essentials of Artisan Baking Series
                                                                                            “A good balance between theory
     Our most popular workshops, Artisan I and Artisan II attract students
     from around the country who share a desire to learn the fundamentals
                                                                                            and hands-on.”         SFBI Student
     and artistry of authentic artisan bread baking. Both novices and seasoned
     professionals tell us that they leave our workshops better bakers than when
     they arrived! The courses can be taken separately or consecutively. During             Advanced Breads: Techniques and Experimentation
     each five day session, you learn and practice core baking processes and tech-          for the Experienced Baker
     niques you need to become a skilled, knowledgeable baker. Our emphasis                 Five Day Course with Didier Rosada; $950 (includes lunch)
     is on hands-on learning; we deliberately keep our class sizes small to allow           This newly adapted version of Advanced Artisan Breads is designed for
     for personal instruction and experimentation.As the only school in the U.S.            experienced bakers interested in refining their skills and deepening their
     dedicated exclusively to artisan baking, we believe our                                overall knowledge to become even better at their craft. During this
     continuing education courses offer you an exceptional experience in an envi-           illuminating workshop for those who love their profession, you will learn
     ronment where baking never takes a back seat to other culinary learning.               about and practice a variety of interesting breads using advanced methods.
                                                                                            You will experiment with ways to fit new breads into an existing product
     Artisan I: Baking Fundamentals                                                         line with fresh techniques such as sourdough to make sweet breads and
     Five Day Course with Didier Rosada; $950 (includes lunch)                              miche using high ash flour and 230% (!) starter.Whole grain breads will be
     Sign up for both Artisan I and Artisan II and save 10% off the second                  produced using whole grain starters and no white flour.You will work with
     class - Total price: $1,805                                                            difficult flours such as rye and spelt. Retarding techniques will be demon-
     As a student in Artisan I, you will become familiar with the terms “short mix,”        strated with Baguettes and Ciabatta—retarded before shaping, and Whole
     “improved mix” and “intensive mix” while learning what types of flour you              Wheat —retarded after shaping. Because this more advanced class is not
     should be using and the proper mixing techniques for every bread imaginable.           designed for beginning bakers, students need to have taken Artisan I and II
     Through demonstration and discussion, you will learn the relationship between          or have extensive experience and a thorough understanding of the baking
     mixing and fermentation;how the profile of bread changes when you add an addi-         process, including science and terminology. Experienced bakers will be
     tional ingredient such as butter or sugar; overall knowledge about the most            inspired by the newfound understanding and marketable skills they take
     common preferments used in bakeries today;and how to use baker's math,along            away from this seminar!
     with much more.We use the classic baguette to teach the fundamentals,but you           2003 Schedule:
     will also learn to make Rye Bread, Whole Wheat Bread, Multigrain Bread, Pan            February 10 - February 14
     Bread and Braided Egg Bread.The skills you learn in this class are directly applica-   August 11- August 15
     ble for a position in a professional bakery or for a seri-
     ous home baker.When you finish this class, you will be                                                       Breakfast Pastry
     able to write recipes instead of following them! Limited                                                     Five Day Course with Philippe Le Corre;
     to 12 to allow for personal instruction, spots fills up                                                      $950 (includes lunch)
     quickly so reserve early. Be sure to consider our dates                                                      In this essential class for the aspiring pastry chef, you
     for the Artisan II workshop, scheduled to allow you 2                                                        will learn how to create beautiful and delicious
     consecutive weeks of intensive training.                                                                     breakfast pastries to enhance your product line and
     2003 Schedule:                                                                                               excite your customers! Expert pastry chef Philippe
     January 13 - January 17                                                                                      Le Corre will introduce you to ingredients selection,
     March 10 - March 14                                                                                          fermentation options and lamination techniques in a
     June 9 - June 13                                                                                             hands-on environment with lots of opportunity for
     July 28 - August 1                                                                                           practice and personal instruction. Students will learn
     October 20 - October 24                                                                                      how to use one dough to create multiple products -
                                                                                                                  croissant dough will be used to make classic crois-
     Artisan II: Mastering Sourdough                                                                              sants, chocolate croissants and almond croissants.
     Five Day Course with Didier Rosada; $950 (includes lunch); Sign up for                                       Different shaping techniques will be demonstrated
     both Artisan I and Artisan II and save 10% off the second class - Total price:         for Danish to allow you to maximize the selection and variety from one
     $1,805                                                                                 dough.You will learn the classic technique for making Brioche and discov-
     Building on the the skills you gained in Artisan I,Artisan II takes you full speed     er how to use it for individual Brioche a Tete and raisin rolls. Find out how
     ahead into the world of sourdough bread.To become a truly skilled baker, you           a sweet roll dough can be used to make a variety of specialties, including
     must learn how to control sourdough and not let the sourdough control you!             cinnamon rolls and sticky buns. In addition to yeasted treats, Philippe will
     Unravel the complex world of wild yeast and bacteria; start your own sour-             teach you how to make not just one, but four different kinds of puff pas-
     dough starter; adjust the feeding schedule and take your own version of the            try! They include Traditional French, Inverse, Blitz and Italian. See the dif-
     starter home. Experiment with different styles of starters and fermentation.           ferences in each and how they can be used for different items. You will
     The extensive hands-on portion of this 5-day workshop includes sourdough               make creams that complement Croissants, Danish and rich yeasted dough,
     breads made with liquid and stiff starters, Olive Bread, Raisin Bread, Ciabatta        learn about preferments selection and bakers percentage calculation and
     with a poolish and many other favorites.If you are serious about becoming a bet-       leave the class with a whole new set of skills and techniques for produc-
     ter baker, this is a class that you do not want to miss! We encourage you to           ing classic breakfast pastries.
     take Artisan I before enrolling in Artisan II unless you already have a thorough       2003 Schedule:
     understanding of baking fundamentals.                                                  January 27 - January 31
     2003 Schedule:                                                                         July 14 - July 18
     January 20 - January 24
     March 17 - March 21
     June 16 - June 20                                                                      “Didier is a masterful teacher-
     August 4 - August 8
     October 27 - October 31                                                                patient and knowledgeable.”
10                                                                                                                                                      SFBI Student
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Chocolate Cakes Galore
Five Day Course
with Philippe Le Corre;
                                                 New!      CLASS SCHEDULE                              2003
$950 (includes lunch)
Still the most popular item in American                                                                      Also learn about proofing the same products
bakeries, Chocolate Cakes are a necessary                                                                    before they go in the freezer and baking them
staple for the modern baker and a dessert that                                                               directly out of the freezer. The class will demon-
lends itself to endless variations. In this work-                                                            strate techniques for par baking that will allow you
shop, you will learn all the secrets for making                                                              to partially bake breads, freeze them and finish
mouth-watering and beautiful chocolate cakes                                                                 them after freezing. It is not as simple as it sounds,
that will keep your customers coming back for                                                                but our instructors will show you what character-
more! Practice hands-on as you explore the                                                                   istics to look for before removing the bread from
many varieties of chocolates you can use -                                                                   the oven and what precautions to take to ensure
white, dark and milk chocolates - and become          Philippe will introduce you to cake mixing tech-       that the baked-off loaf is as good as a loaf that
familiar with the complex textures and flavors        nology for sponge cake, chiffons, creaming and         never hit the freezer. This class is recommended
of this classic favorite.Try your hand at an array    foaming and will show you how to make a wide           for experienced baking professionals who are
of frosting and decorating techniques and learn       variety of creams such as Chiboust, Mousseline         interested in these specific techniques. This class
how to prepare dazzling presentations that will       and Buttercreams. During the significant hands-        will not cover the fundamental baking process and
tempt and satisfy.                                    on portion of the class, you will create a wide        all information will be targeted for frozen dough
2003 Schedule:                                        variety of beautiful cakes including Bittersweet       and par baked breads.
February 3 - February 7                               Mousse Cake, Strawberry Fraisier, St. Honore           2003 Schedule:
                                                      and Hazelnut Nougatine Cake. Philippe will             August 18 - August 22
Petit Fours and Upscale Cookies                       start with the basics, so everyone is welcome,
Five Day Course with Philippe Le Corre;               with or without experience.                            Magnificent Mousse Cakes
$950 (includes lunch)                                 2003 Schedule:                                         Five Day Course with Phillippe LeCorre;
Become an expert in the profitable art of             July 7- July 11                                        $950 (includes lunch)
creating upscale cookies and petit fours. Join us     October 13 - October 17                                Attain a new level of confidence in your pastry
for this intensive hands-on exploration of                                                                   skills when you take this more advanced class
production and decorating techniques, presen-         The Art & Science of German Breads                     that will immerse you in the art of high-end
tation skills and packaging of small scale            Five Day Course with Volker Baumann;                   mousse cakes and petit fours. Mousse cakes
delicacies with large scale profits! Attract more     $950 (includes lunch)                                  have long been a staple in pastry shops around
hotel/catering business, or increase your value       Volker Baumann, Certified Master Baker, is a           the world, but getting them perfect is not so
as a baker to the hospitality industry with the       popular SFBI visiting instructor who has been          easy. Philippe will demonstrate a variety of tech-
skills you acquire in this creative and exciting      active in the North American baking industry           niques for achieving perfection with your
workshop. Phillippe will focus on a wide variety      for 32 years. The author of an industry favorite,      mousse cakes, using chocolate, fruits and assembly
of products from the traditional to the nouveau.      “Baking, The Art and Science,” Volker currently        methods to create masterpieces that will dazzle
2003 Schedule:                                        teaches new bakers at the Southern Alberta             any pastry lover.Through hands-on training you
March 17 - March 21                                   Institute of Technology in Canada. In this hands-      will get a first hand look at how using
                                                      on class you will learn about many German              certain methods and ingredients will allow you
Rustic Pastries                                       bread varieties including Black Forest Rye,            to alter the texture of the mousse to get the
Five Day Course with Philippe LeCorre                 Landbrot, Frankonia Rye, Kommisbrot and                most desirable result. You will learn how to
$950 (includes lunch)                                 much more. Volker will show you uncompro-              make cakes that taste great and look world-
Rustic pastries are more popular then ever            mising techniques for creating these often chal-       class with advanced decorating techniques using
and can help you expand your product line             lenging, always rewarding breads, while expanding      chocolate decorations and glazes.You will learn
in delicious and appealing ways that your             your overall knowledge of artisan bread baking.        to assemble efficiently and decorate masterfully
customers will appreciate! In this hands-on           2003 Schedule:                                         for presentation that will impress and delight.
workshop, Philippe will teach you how to              July 21 - July 25                                      2003 Schedule:
create delicious and beautiful rustic pastries                                                               August 25 - August 29
to add interest and profit to your bakery’s           New! Par Baked Breads
selection.You will experiment with a variety          and Frozen Dough Techniques
of choices, including traditional pastry items        Five Day Course with Didier Rosada and                 Coming Next Fall!
from Europe - particularly Italy and France.          Roy Chung of US Wheat Associates;                      with Philippe Le Corre ...
2003 Schedule:                                        $950 (includes lunch)
                                                                                                             Holiday Breads & Pastries
March 24 - March 28                                   Par baked breads and frozen dough are becoming
                                                      a more popular and profitable choice for the mod-
                                                                                                             December 1 - December 5
October 6 - October 10
                                                      ern bakery.This timely workshop with SFBI Head         See our next newsletter, or visit our
Cakes and Creams                                      Instructor Didier Rosada and special guest Roy
Five Day Course with Philippe Le Corre;               Chung—a full-time consultant in Asia for U.S.          website, for more details.
$950 (includes lunch)                                 Wheat Associates—will show you how you can
If you are interested in building a foundation        boost sales in your bakery by starting a par baked
based on classic European pastry techniques or        or frozen dough line. Learn about the techniques,
refining the skills you already have, this class is   ingredients and equipment you need to introduce
for you. Our comprehensive cakes and creams           a new, innovative alternative to your customers.
workshop with expert pastry chef Philippe Le          Everything changes after freezing—from the activity
Corre will add new layers of competence to            of the yeast to the structure of the gluten. This
your skills. Instead of just learning recipes you     class will teach you what you have to do to pre-
will learn techniques. Philippe will teach you        serve the quality of raw dough in the freezer so
how to prepare the basic cakes and fillings used      that it can be baked into a first class bakery item.
in French pastry and then teach you how they          Learn the techniques for freezing breads and crois-
can be assembled and cross-utilized to create a       sants that can be taken from the freezer to the
number of finished cakes, just as you would do        oven with and without proofing.
in production kitchen.
                                                                                                                                                                      11
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                                                       New 14-Week Training Program ... Plus our New Classes for 2003!




                                                                                          94080     SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO, CA
                                                                                                        SWIFT AVENUE, #13           390
                                                                                  THE SAN FRANCISCO BAKING INSTITUTE


         PERMIT NO. 655
     SO. SAN FRANCISCO, CA
             PAID
        U.S. POSTAGE
           PRSRT STD




IN   ADDITION TO ARTISAN BAKING CLASSES AND SEMINARS, SFBI
OFFERS CONSULTING SERVICES TAILORED TO YOUR SPECIFIC NEEDS:                 THE BREAD PROJECT
                                                                            The Bread Project is a non-profit group with an
B A K E RY   C O N S U LT I N G                                             independent board of directors. The organization’s
● Bakery Design and Layout                                                  goal is to provide comprehensive training to people
                                                                            interested in the baking trade. The SFBI and The
● Assessing equipment requirements
                                                                            Bread Project have created an alliance that we hope
● Technical assistance                                                      will greatly benefit both prospective bakers and the
● Production Management
                                                                            baking industry. We are entering our second year
                                                                            with this project.
● On-site training in European baking techniques
                                                                            Educational programs that focus on baking are prohibitively
● Artisan bread and pastry recipes
                                                                            expensive for many people.We hope that this project will
                                                                            become a model for the education and training of many
                                                                            generations of future bakers. Currently the program will
FORMULA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
                                                                            be funded through a variety of grants.The goal is to create
● Developing signature products                                             an industry-sponsored fund that will give scholarships to
● Testing and comparing state of the art baking equipment
                                                                            the students, freeing The Bread Project from continual
                                                                            fund-raising. We believe that change has to happen
● Troubleshooting formulation/production problems                           regarding the training of our future bakers. SFBI is proud
● Training small groups                                                     to be taking a first step!
● Ingredient analysis




                                    L O O K W H AT ’ S             RISING...
       ●   New 14-Week Training Prog ram for Professional Baker s ● New 2003 Class Calendar s
             ● Baking Perfor mance of Flour - Compar ison Test ● Recipe and Baker’s Tip


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