MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
BISCAYNE LANDING TOWNCENTER
COMMERCIAL INDOOR REUSE
I. GRAY WATER OVERVIEW II. SYSTEM CASE STUDIES III. DESIGN PARAMETERS IV. CODE COMPLIANCE
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
This document was prepared by EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Boca Developers and the Biscayne Landing Town Center design team, led by
Arquitectonica, want the Biscayne Landing Office Tower to be a flagship green
pilot project. To do this, we are proposing sustainable design features and tech-
RANA CREEK nologies that are new and innovative to Florida but well tested in other parts
LIVING ARCHITECTURE of the United States and abroad.
contact:: J. Brent Bucknum
35351 E. Carmel Valley Road This document serves as a primer for one of these technologies, a large-scale Unique Florida Mangrove Ecosystem
Carmel Valley, CA 93924
commercial gray water recycling system, which will capture water from office
F: 831.659.4851 lavatory sinks, treat the water to Florida water reuse standards and recirculate
www.ranacreek.com it to lavatories for flushing toilets. The system will save as much as 1.6 million
gallons of potable water per year. It will also set an example as a development
that reduces strain on the overdrawn Biscayne Aquifer.
in colaboration with
TLC ENGINEERING fOR When many people think of gray water recycling, they think of small residential
ARCHITECTURE systems for landscape irrigation that are simple, low-tech, and “do-it-yourself ”.
Guillermo R. Gonzalez, CIPE However, large-scale gray water recycling systems for building reuse are, in fact,
5757 Blue Lagoon Drive, Suite 400
highly automated, sophisticated waste treatment technologies. These systems
Miami, FL 33126-2078 have been proven in residential and commercial applications in multiple coun-
(305) 266-6553 office phone tries (notably Germany) over the past 15 years. Included in this Gray Water
(305) 266-6695 office fax Primer are reviews of four well-known manufacturers and case studies of their
Anne Cotter, AIA, LEED AP
Vice President As we are proposing the first system of its kind in Florida, the design team is
801 Brickell Avenue Suite 1100 committed to diligently working with the permitting agencies to ensure that
Miami . Florida 33131 USA all parties are in support of the system, and that it meets or exceeds all code
requirements. A review of the applicable Florida codes and relevant permitting
email@example.com agencies is included. We have also provided a “road map” to successful permit-
www.arquitectonica.com ting of the system and hope to work with each agency to refine this process.
BISCAYNE LANDING TOWN CENTER design by Arquitectonica International Corp.
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
INTRODUCTION TO GRAY WATER treatment systems can essentially eliminate risks. Many jurisdictions are beginning to encourage gray water systems for their
significant environmental benefits, or simply due to practical issues with wastewater treatment capacity. The New South Wales
WHAT IS GRAY WATER? Government Department of Water and Energy’s newly released greywater diversion rules and the recent passage of greywater
legislation in the state of Montana reflect growing benefit recognition (see “Code Considerations” for a detailed discussion of
Gray water (synonymous with greywater) is non-industrial wastewater generated from domestic processes such as hand regulations).
washing, laundry and bathing. Gray water comprises approximately 40% of commercial wastewater, and can be treated onsite
and then employed for non-potable uses (a process referred to as “gray water recycling or gray water reuse”). Gray water is WHY SHOULD MIAMI PROMOTE GRAY WATER RECYCLING?
distinct from black water (wastewater containing toilet effluent) in the amount and composition of its chemical and biological The State of Florida already encourages the use of reclaimed water and permits gray water recycling. The WASD explains, “As
contaminants, tending to be cleaner (see “What is the quality of gray water?” below). Process water is also distinct from gray Miami-Dade County’s population continues to increase, so does our demand for drinking water. Like all natural resources, the
water. It refers to wastewater from cooling towers and other HVAC or industrial processes. Both black water and process Biscayne Aquifer, Miami-Dade County’s current source of drinking water, is not limitless. The use of reclaimed water and gray
water can also be recycled, but the processes are not the same. Gray water gets its name from its cloudy appearance and water in Miami-Dade County helps preserve the Biscayne Aquifer.” Aquifer preservation safeguards public health and business
from its status as being neither fresh (clear water such as potable groundwater), nor heavily polluted (black water). viability. Onsite reuse of gray water confers additional benefits, including savings in energy and infrastructure. Since commercial
buildings can comprise 20% of urban water demand, savings from gray water recycling in this sector (sometimes an 80-90%
Reclaimed water is different from all of the above reusable water sources. Reclaimed water refers to municipal wastewater reduction in potable use) can significantly reduce aquifer draws and wastewater load.
that has undergone advanced treatment and arrives at buildings via “purple pipe”.
Typical Commercial Building Water Use WHAT IS THE QUALITY OF GRAY WATER?
Both onsite gray water recycling systems and local water reclamation facilities have benefits compared with centralized sewage
treatment plants, and these benefits generally increase with degree of decentralization. They include resource efficiency, aquifer As the table below shows, gray water tends to have much lower levels of pollutants than blackwater from toilets or kitchen gar
water conservation and reduced sewage loads. Onsite gray water treatment is also energy efficient, as it does not require bage disposals. In some applications, (such as subsoil irrigation in areas with low water tables), gray water can potentially be
electrical energy to pump water to and from a centralized treatment plant. used without treatment. However, most gray water requires treatment before it is safe for reuse, especially in applications with
some level of human contact. The exact composition of gray water depends on the source (sink, shower, etc.), the use patterns,
HOW LONG HAS GRAY WATER BEEN IN USE? as well as the composition of the original water stream. For example, if tap water has high salt concentrations, gray water will
Reuse of gray water has been occurring informally for centuries, but its formal implementation and regulation began more too. The following table discusses some components typically found in gray water. Bottom: In early 2002, a patch of waste
recently. Water crises in the early nineties increased awareness of the need to find innovative ways to conserve. and wisely water spanning over 60 miles in diameter
use limited water resources. Early systems tended to be residential scale “do it yourself ” systems with minimal treatment and Component Description Common Source Purication formed off southwestern Florida and
reuse for irrigation. More sophisticated systems for irrigation were developed by companies like Earthstar and Clivus Multrum. strategy contributed to severe coral reef stress
Pathogenic Bacteria, viruses, protozoa Fecal matter present in small amounts Disinfection and death in the Florida Keys. The im-
Germany has one of the longest histories of larger commercialized gray water recycling systems, with pilot projects beginning Microorganisms in shower, bath, wash or sink water ages above show elevated phytoplankton
in the nineties. Today, systems recycling gray water into non-potable water suitable for building applications such as toilet flush-
activity resulting from the patch. Sustain-
ing are quite common in Germany, and exist in many other countries as well, including the UK., Spain, China, Australia, Canada Biochemical The amount of oxygen it would take Food residues from sinks, oil-based Physical and biological
able managment of waste water can help
Oxygen to decompose present organic matter bath products ltration
and the US. Commercial manufacturers include Brac, Lokus, Pontos and GE Zenon. Demand (BOD) (higher BOD = more organic matter) prevent sewer overflow and consequent
HOW DO GOVERNMENTS REGULATE THE USE OF GRAY WATER ? Suspended Any solids, organic or inorganic All gray water sources Physical ltration
‘Gray water’ is still legally defined in most US jurisdictions to be ‘Sewage’, and is not distinguished from black water. Under Nutrients Nitrogen and phosphorus primarily Soaps and detergents, food residues Physical and biological
that definition gray water is commonly bound by the same regulatory procedures enacted to ensure properly engineered ltration
septic tank and effluent disposal systems are installed for long system life and to control spread of disease and pollution. In Other Includes salts, chlorine, etc. Soaps and detergents, products such Filtration, education to
such regulatory jurisdictions this has commonly meant domestic greywater diversion for garden irrigation was either simply chemicals as paints and solvents improperly avoid contamination
Clivus Multrum System recycling gray water for poured down the drain
not permitted or was discouraged by expensive and complex governmental sewage system approval requirements. It is now
subsurface irrigation (not recommended for
recognized and accepted by an increasing number of regulators that the microbiological risks of greywater reuse at the single
Miami due to sensitive, high water table) See Appendix for a detailed list of component sources and appropriate treatments.
4 dwelling level where inhabitants already had contact with that gray water are low, and at the multifamily or commercial scale, 5
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
Storage and use of untreated gray water: As shown, greywater can contain bacteria and organic matter, which will quickly
develop disease-inducing pathogens if stored untreated in a warm climate. Ideally gray water should be used immediately for
non-potable applications, or treated for short-term storage. Untreated gray water cannot be used as flush-water as it will start
to smell and discolor the flush toilet fixture if left for a day or more. There would also be a possibility of exposure to patho-
gens through splashing or air contact. However, as discussed in this document, only minimal treatment is required to reach an
acceptable standard for flushing reuse.
WHAT TYPE OF WATER REUSE IS MOST APPROPRIATE FOR MIAMI’S UNIQUE ECOLOGY?
The South Florida climate has particular challenges such as year-round humidity and pest control. Metropolitan South Florida
emerged from the swampland of the Everglades, and consequently has a high water table. An advantage to the climate in
South Florida is the rain. Besides a very active hurricane season (June 1 through December 1), there is also an extensive rainy
season. This presents a great opportunity for green design and water efficient innovation. The problem is that many communi-
ties focus only on handling water runoff and drainage (water as waste) instead of focusing their energies on water collection
and reuse (water as resource).
Landscape Application: With abundant rainfall and a water table only a few feet below the surface, Florida’s paramount water
concern is safely disposing of contaminated water. It makes little sense to reuse graywater for irrigation on the Biscayne site
when we would have to drain out 2/3 of the water collected because of abundant rainfall. In fact, the water table is so high
in the region that our drainfield is required to be mounded about 18” above the surface in order to avoid contaminating the
groundwater. Additionally, the project area has fissured limestone aquifers. The bedrock is a network of open, water filled
caves that channel water rapidly without treatment directly to the aquifer. This means that quality of water to be land applied
must approach drinking water standards. The brownfield status of the site and proximity of Mangrove preserve further indi-
cate that land application of non-potable water could be risky.
Mechanical Reuse: HVAC and industrial systems require copious amounts of water. Treated gray water can be used to offset
potable use in these applications, since potable quality is generally not necessary. However, treatment systems must maintain
potentially corrosive water components at a particularly low level for mechanical reuse. Although it is worth evaluating the
potential for mechanical gray water reuse, reclaimed water may be a preferable option for cooling towers and other applica-
tions (see Rana Creek’s Cooling Tower Reuse Document for further information).
Building Reuse for Toilet flushing: For efficiency, ease of implementation, and environmental protection, we propose that gray Diagram showing gray water collection, treatment and reuse options (source: Zenon)
Oleta River State Park - Florida’s
water be treated and reused for flushing at the Biscayne Landing Office Building. In this type of system, water from lavatory
largest urban park.
sinks and showers (if present) will be separately piped to a treatment system. Once purified, the water will be pumped to the
building’s toilets (and urinals, if waterless urinals are not used). A number of packaged and custom in-building greywater treat
ment systems are available to Biscayne. Four of these systems are presented below for informational purposes (not to pro
mote any particular system), and there may be other options available.
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
BRAC SYSTEMS www.bracsystems.com PONTOS www.pontos-aquacycle.com
Brac is a Canada-based company that manufactures the Residential Grey Water Recycling (RGW) Systems. They are indoor- Pontos is a German-based company that manufactures the Aqua Cycle line of gray water treatment systems. The Aqua Cycle
installed systems available in four sizes: RGW-150 (39 gallons), RGW-250 (66 gallons), RGW-350 (92.5 gallons) and RGW-450 is an indoor system with sizes appropriate for both homes and larger buildings. The largest system offered can process 13,500
(119 gallons). These systems are all much smaller than needed for the Biscayne Office Building, but are worth knowing about liters (3,566 gallons) of gray water per day.
as they may be applicable for other local projects.
The Aqua Cycle treats water without the use of chemicals.
The RGW system removes particles using a 100 micron filter, and disinfects gray water using a managed chlorination system The four-stage process includes two stages of biological
(MCS). The MCS circulates and chlorinates the water at pre-programmed intervals. The entire treatment process, from gray treatment and ultrviolet (UV) disinfection. An advantage of
water intake to treatment to storage of treated water, takes place in a single tank. this treatment regime is that the water it produces does not
contain chemical residues, such as chlorine,. It can conse-
Performance testing certified by the Society of Environmental Expertise (Sodexen) in Quebec on June 3, 2006 shows that the quently be used for more quality-sensitive applications, such
Brac system achieves acceptable disinfection (see chart). IAPMO Research and Testing certifies that the Brac system meets as irrigation.
the International Plumbing Code (IPC). Building officials in in four Florida counties have verified that the BRAC system is per-
missable under Florida codes, and one system has been installed (see below case study and code section for more detail). Water treated by the Aqua Cycle systems meets the strict
European Union (E.U.) Directive for Clean Recreational
Operational considerations include a need to periodically clean filters (depending on influent water quality), and the possibility Water Quality This means that it is safe not only for toilet
that toilet water may appear slightly cloudy. Annual maintenance supply costs are estimated at less than $100. flushing, but also for clothes washing and, as mentioned above,
landscape irrigation. The Aqua Cycle 13500 consumes 16.9
The RGW system was named a Top Ten Green Building Product for 2007 by Sustainable Industries Journal (USA), and Brac kWh of electricity per day (equivalent to a constant 700W
Systems was awarded Best New Product in the Energy Efficient category at Mecanex Climatex 2007 (Canada). load). This is similar to the power draw of a household refrig-
CASE STUDY: SINGLE FAMILY HOMES IN FLORIDA, NEW MEXICO AND CANADA
CASE STUDY: TRAINING CENTER AND APARTMENTS
Florida’s Green Envirohome in Indialantic, FL (shown at left) is being outfitted with
a Brac system. In addition to gray water recycling, the home will showcase environ- At the 85-room Training Center in Schonblick, Germany, an Aqua Cycle 3300 gray water system treats up to 870 gallons of
mentally-friendly technologies such as solar air conditioning and hot water heat- water per day from showers and reuses it for toilet flushing. In Ansbach, Germany, the Aqua Cycle 2400 treats water from
ing, Structural Insulated Panel (SIP) construction and water and energy monitoring showers and bathtubs in 16 apartments and reuses it for toilet flushing. Water demand that is unmet by gray water supply is
systems. filled through an integrated rainwater collection system.
A Brac system, installed at a four-person residence in Ruidoso, NM, was tested in the CASE STUDY: STUDENT RESIDENCE HALL
summer of 2006. Results showed that annual greywater harvesting from the tub,
shower, sink and washing machine was 10,480 gallons. Of this water, 2700 gallons The images at center and bottom right show a Pontos Aqua Cycle 12,500 designed for a student residence hall renovation in
per year are reused for toilet flushing, and the remaining 7780 gallons are used to Mainz, Germany. This larger system is placed in a mechanical room rather than in the occupied space. It treats shower and
irrigate fruit trees and landscaping. Similar results were achieved in a home in British sink water from 300 rooms, and sends treated water back for toilet flushing.
Over twenty additional case studies of installed systems can be viewed on the Pontos website, from hotels to multi-family
residences, schools to fire departments. These projects are located in multiple countries, primarily in Europe.
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
LOKUS www.graywater.com GE - ZENON www.zenon.com
Lokus is a German-based company that manufactures custom gray water treatment systems, including high-volume systems for ZENON is a GE-owned company based in Canada that manufactures large commercial and industrial-scale treatment systems
commercial buildings. The systems treat gray water using a biological wastewater treatment system, the centerpiece of which for gray water as well as blackwater (sewage). The compact Z-MOD packaged system is made to be installed underground.
is a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC). Characteristic wastewater bacteria populate the large surface area of the polyeth- Its cenral component is the ZeeWeed membrane bioreactor (MBR). The complete treatment process consists of fine screen-
ylene rotating contactors and consume the biologically degradable waste particles. The optimal oxygen supply is provided by ing (2 mm internally fed traveling band screen), grit removal, fine bubble aeration, membrane (MBR) filtration and UV disinfec-
the revolving rotors. The surplus biological sludge is then allowed to settle in a secondary settling tank. The biologically treated tion. ZeeWeed MBR systems can be custom designed to produce water of essentially any quality. They have been used both
graywater is then disinfected by means of UV-radiation and stored in a service water tank. From there the water is pumped as whole-house drinking water filters, and in community wastewater treatment facilities. Data below show some possible
into the separate mains network for service water and distributed to end use points. The storage tank is automatically re- outflow water quality where influent included blackwater. While most Zenon systems are more robust and expensive than
plenished with potable water when the treated gray water is in short supply. Treated gray water from the system approaches necessary for building gray water recycling, the company is capable of customizing systems to fit Biscayne’s needs.
drinking water quality, and meets bathing standards according to the European Union Directive. More detailed water quality
data can be found in the table below at left. Although the system is generally low-maintenance, past use has suggested a few CASE STUDY: KEY COLONY BEACH WWTP
important factors. Since the system creates a high-humidity environment, equipment sharing space with it should be corro- In Key Colony, FL, a water reuse plant designed by US Greiner treats brackish wastewater (gray water and black water) to
sion-resistant. Control visits should occur at least monthly, and maintenance visits twice annually. Florida’s 5,5,3,1 standard using the ZeeWeed MBR and, for 10% of the effluent, reverse osmosis. The plant processes 250,000
to 750,000 gallons per day, and treated water is used to irrigate a golf course. Below is a quality data set for this facility.
Source: Data above are from Thompson, Schneider and Murphy, 2003
CASE STUDY:VIEJAS INDIAN RESERVATION
In San Diego County, the Viejas Reservation operates an expanding casino and shopping center. To accomodate this growth,
the Tribal Council selected a ZeeWeed system for its adaptability and high quality. The Viejas plant effluent meets California
tertiary standards for reclaimed water, and is used primarily in the HVAC system as process water.
CASE STUDY: CONVENTION CENTERS
In Downtown Pittsburgh, PA, the 1,486,000 sqft David L. Lawrence Convention Center (below left) was completed in 2003.
CASE STUDY: THE fOUR-STAR HOTEL ARABELLA The world’s first green certified convention center (LEED Gold), it makes use of a Zenon gray water system to recycle sink
The Bavarian Industrie und Gewerbe Bau GmbH & CO, Munich, hired Lokus to manufacture a six-stage gray water plant for and driking fountain water for toilet and urinal flushing. The system recycles 50 percent of the Center’s water and saves an
the four-star hotel ‘Arabella’. The system, one of the first of its kind worldwide, treats gray water produced in the hotel’s 400 estimated 6.4 million gallons annually, reducing potable water consumption by over 60 percent. The planned Vancouver Con
guestrooms. This plant has a cleaning capacity of 20,000 liters (5283 gallons) per day, and has been operating successfully since vention Center (center right) will treat both black water and gray water with a Zenon system. Rana Creek is working with
January, 1996. the design team to set new standards for green roof and living systems integration, reusing wastewater on the roof.
CASE STUDY: OEKO-TECHNIK PARK From top: ZeeWeed MBR, system diagram
From top: Hotel Arabella exterior; Hotel Arabella (conventional vs. ZeeWeed), Vancouver Con-
system (control panel, RBC group and settling
The Oeko-Technik Park in Hannover, Germany is a community of residences with a school and church that has been retrofit-
vention Center, Viejas Reservation System
tank); RBC unit for Oeko-Technik Park Apts.; ted with ecological water treatement and recycling systems. Lokus installed an RBC system to treat gray water from a 24-unit
Water quality data from a Danish Apartment apartment building. The system, pictured at left (second from bottom), cost € 26,000.
Building, Copenhagen. DK.
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
SyStem DeSign PARAmeteRS In the 3000-6500 gpd size range, Pontos AquaCycle and Lokus have manufactured systems. Brac systems tend to be too small
and Zenon systems tend to be overbuilt for the commercial gray water application. However, we have spoken with both compa-
As the case studies above suggest, there are a number of options to choose from when selecting a gray water treatment system. nies, and they are capable of designing custom systems to suit Biscayne Landing’s needs.
System Sizing: One of the first choices to be made is system size. The system needs to be large enough to collect, convey, treat, Note that to achieve the lowest overall building water use, the most efficient fixtures (low-flow faucets, waterless urinals) should
store and supply the entire gray water volume intended for recycling. It will need to have a method of dealing with excess gray be selected. Although this results in a smaller amount of reused gray water (and a higher potable demand for flushing) than the
water as well as a method of supplying back-up water when gray water volumes are insufficient. Gray water systems are generally maximum flow scenario above, the difference is more than accounted for in the reduced faucet demand. It would be an inefficient
sized by daily volumetric treatment capacity (gallons per day or GPD). There are various methods of determining expected gray choice to use more potable water than necessary in faucets just to increase available gray water for flushing. As the chart above
water volume, resulting in varied estimates for Biscayne’s GPD. Average use numbers based on occupancy and square footage shows, the minimum water use (efficient fixture) scenario has a lower overall potable water use even though it makes use of a
suggest that the Biscayne Landing Office Building will produce anywhere between 1700 and 10,000 gallons of gray water per day. larger volume of gray water.
The calculation method used in LEED WE3.1, which is based on flow rates of plumbing fixtures and standard use patterns, puts
the range at 3000 – 6500 gpd (3000 gpd if low-flow, efficient faucets are used, and 6500 gpd if faucets meeting national maximum filtration and Disinfection Technologies: Once sizing needs are determined, one must consider treatment technology choices.
allowable flow are used). These calculations are summarized in the table below. Various methods for filtration and disinfection exist. The most widely-used options for filtration are physical (screening media
that capture and remove particulates), activated carbon (a polishing filter that removes pollutants both through physical means
Greywater Calculations for Biscayne Landing Office Building (LEED WE3.1 Method)
and chemical reaction), reverse osmosis (a membrane conveys contaminants out of water) and biological (microorganisms that
Fixture Type Flowrate Flowrate Water gal/use Water gal/use Daily Uses # Total Daily Use (gallons - Total Daily Use (gallons - BRAC Estimateand break down pollutants). Available options for disinfection include chemical treatment (chlorine or iodine), ultraviolet
(max case) (min case) (max case) (min case) Occupants max case) min case) (1 light (UV) treatment and Ionization (using ozone or copper/silver). In chemical treatment, the chlorine or iodine is regularly added
Lavatory Faucet (15 sec/use) 2.5 gpm .5 gpm 0.6 0.1 3 1737 3256.9 651.4
directly to the water and kills all microbes. In UV treatment, water flows under UV light, which neutralizes microbes. In ozone
Shower (5 minutes/use) 2.5 gpm 1.8 gpm 12.5 9 0.1 1737 2171.3 1563.3
Kitchen sink, non-residential (2.5 gpm 1.8 gpm 0.6 0.5 1 1737 1085.6 781.7 ionization, UV light causes oxygen (O2) to rebind as ozone (O3), a highly reactive compound which destroys microbes in water.
In copper/silver ionization, water flows across ionized metal rods, killing microbes. The relative benefits of these systems are sum-
Total greywater produced (gallons/day) 6513.8 2996.3 1737
marized in the following table.
Water Closet (Toilet)
male n/a n/a 1.6 1.1 1 869 1390.4 955.9
female n/a n/a 1.6 1.1 3 869 4171.2 2867.7
Urinal n/a n/a
male n/a n/a 1 0.5 2 869 1738 869
Total recycled water demand for flushing (gallons/day) 7299.6 4692.6
with waterless urinals: 3824
Potable demand for flushing (demand in excess of greywater supply) -785.9 -1696.3
with waterless urinals: -827
% flushing demand met by greywater 90% 60% 37%
with waterless urinals: 80%
Water saved annually by displacing flushing water with treated greywater 1693588.0 779038.0 451620
Total potable water use by plumbing fixtures 7299.7 4692.6
with waterless urinals: 3823.3
Building Occupants = 2,380 Full Time Equivalent (FTE)
Top: Large-scale UV treatment in a waste treat-
Occupants are assumed to be 50% male, 50% female (1190 each) ment plant
Flowrates are based on Energy Policy Act of 1992 maxima (US national code). Efficient equipment will mean lower greywater production and lower consumption) Bottom: Beneficial bacteria consuming solids in
Note - water demand for flushing could be brought to zero with a combination of composting toilets and waterless urinals.
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
Advantages Disadvantages System Examples OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS
Chlorine Low rst cost, no energy use, Hazardous to maintenance staff, toxic Brac System Comparison: Each system discussed above has different maintenance needs. In chemical systems (Brac), chemicals must
standard practice in US residues in treated water can harm plants
and corrode copper pipes, not compatible
be administered on a strict schedule in controlled amounts. Exposure of maintenance personnel can be a health and safety issue.
with biological ltration The whole system must be cleaned out annually. In copper/silver ionization systems, metal rods must be cleaned regularly and
Iodine Quick treatment, no energy use Some chemical residue in efuent, more replaced every 3-5 years. In ozone ionization systems and UV systems, annual UV lamp replacement is required. Ozone sys-
costly than chlorine tems require annual replacement of some additional components. All physical filtration systems require regular cleanout. This is
Ultraviolet light (UV) No hazardous chemicals (safer Sensitive to clogging (cannot operate with Pontos AquaCycle, particularly critical when using UV disinfection. Systems with open biological treatment (Lokus) create a humid environment and
operation, cleaner efuent), any suspended solids), bacteria can persist if Lokus, Zenon
standard practice in EU UV is not strong enough
must be coupled with corrosion resistant materials and/or increased ventilation/dehumidification. Untreated gray water must not
Ionization (Copper/Silver) No hazardous chemicals in Copper or silver present in efuent (toxic be allowed to sit untreated for more than a day as microbes may begin to multiply. Storage of water once treated is acceptable.
operation bioaccumulation in receiving ecosystems), The packaged systems are equipped for immediate treatment.
complex install and maintenance
Ionization (Ozone) No hazardous chemicals (safer Cost, system complexity Planning for Operations and Maintenance: The operation of the proposed systems is highly automated, including remote moni-
operation, cleaner efuent), highly
effective toring by the manufacturer and varying levels of routine onsite maintenance. As a precautionary measure against system mal-
Maintenance staff member at wastewater treat-
Filtration Systems functioning, routine monitoring and surveillance of the system should be provided for (USEPA. 1992). An appropriate quality ment site
Physical Thorough particle removal Can clog, requires frequent cleaning, does Brac, Pontos control program should be established at the onset of implementation of the gray water reuse system. Isliefson, 1998, suggests
not break down pollutants AquaCycle, Lokus. the following list of additional operations elements.
Biological Aids in disinfection, breaks down Some particles likely to remain without Pontos AquaCycle,
pollutants, less solid buildup, less additional physical ltration Lokus, Zenon
“•Appropriate instrumentation and control systems for monitoring the treatment process performance
cleaning required and disposal of waste products.
Carbon Claries water, neutralizes odor Likely to be insufcient as a single gray •Appropriate alarms for process malfunctions.
water lter, but excessive in-line for non- •An appropriate quality assurance program to ensure adequate treatment and sampling protocol (in
potable applications cluding facilities for sampling).
Reverse Osmosis Claries water, highly effective for Likely to be insufcient as a single gray Some Zenon systems
removal of contaminants such as water lter, but excessive in-line for non- •Adequate emergency plumbing to discharge reclaimed water of unacceptable quality for re-treatment
nitrogen potable applications or discharge to the sewer.
•Flexibility of piping and pumping facilities to permit rerouting of flows to alternative disposal facilities
under emergency conditions.
Most packaged gray water recycling systems employ multi- •Stand by power for essential treatment processes.
ple filtration systems in sequence followed by a disinfection •Adequate operator training of permanent Office building maintenance staff to oversee the operations
treatment. Whatever the treatment process, the necessary of the system and perform emergency maintenance and inspection.
end results are the same. Recommended limits for water •An effective preventative maintenance program.” - Isliefson, 1998
components for toilet flushing are described in the table at
left, from Isliefson, 2003.
From top: chlorine tablets, carbon,
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
System access should be limited to certified trained plumbing specialists. Most manufacturers being evaluated offer training gRAy wAteR coDe comPLiAnce
courses to maintenance contractors and technical support staff with 5-15 year warranties. Manufacturer training and technical The following section includes a few known approved gray water projects in Florida as precedent, and then highlights the various codes and
support should be written into the assembly specifications. Authoring maintenance specifications will require experience with regulations that cover the proposed Biscayne system.
gray water recycling systems. In developing the maintenance specifications and contractor experience requirements, the design
team should work with the local industry organization, Florida Onsite Wastewater Association, Inc. (FOWA) to develop an RESIDENTIAL PRECEDENT
While there are no known commercial gray water systems in Florida for indoor (flushing) reuse, there are a growing number of permitted o Alachua County Residence:
O&M manual that meets all agency requirements. FOWA is closely involved with Department of Health’s most updated leg-
systems on the residential scale. Most residential gray water systems supply landscape irrigation, and require minimal treatment, as the Permitting Official: Douglas
islation, has training centers throughout Florida and a required certification program for Onsite Wastewater Treatment System water is delivered directly to sub-surface irrigation and has little threat of coming in contact with humans. These Florida Plumbing Inspector- A. Tillery, Plans Examiner for
installation & maintenance contractors. The early and continuous involvement of FOWA will provide continuity after construc- approved systems can be found in Alachua County, Walton County, Brevard County, and West Palm Beach County. On April 24, 2007,
tion at Biscayne, assuring the transition to system maintenance is smooth after the engineers, installers and manufacturers have Walton County, Florida
Florida’s Showcase Green Envirohome in Melbourne, Florida, became the first residence in the state to have a gray water reuse system installed Permit Applicant: Dennis
completed their work. for in-home use to flush toilets. Brevard County’s Permitting and Enforcement Department approved this system based on the 2004 FBC Yasar (BRAC representative)
plumbing code for gray water recycling systems. See the BRAC treatment system case study in this document for more information. Details o Walton County Residence:
WATER QUALITY MONITORING on these precedents are listed in the sidebar. Permitting Official: Carol
Hurst, Alachua County
Quality of both incoming gray water and outgoing reusable water should be continuously monitored to support proper COMMERCIAL PRECEDENT Building Official Alachua
operation and maintenance of the treatment system. Some of the proposed systems have real-time automated water quality The Biscayne project can set a new precedent as the first large-scale gray water project in Florida. Examples of successful systems in other County Codes Enforcement,
states and countries are numerous and will be discussed in the following section. Community scale reclaimed water systems have been
monitoring built in, but if this is not offered, quality should be monitored manually on a monthly basis. Important monitor- 10 SW 2nd Ave. Gainesville,
installed in many sensitive areas like the Florida Keys. Large-scale gray water systems use much the same technology as these full blackwater FL 32601(352) 338-3284
ing parameters vary depending on the system employed. For chemical systems, chemical concentrations and pH need to be treatment systems, and often exceed the same stringent codes that apply to them.
closely controlled. For silver ionization systems, silver ion concentrations should be monitored. The same is true for ozone Permit Applicant: Rhett Cork
levels in ozone ionization systems and UV intensity in UV systems. In all systems, levels of key components such as BOD, (Resident)
AGENCY OVERVIEW o Brevard County Residence (in-home
Nutrients, Suspended Solids Chemicals and Metals, and Bacteria should be monitored frequently for both incoming and exiting Three agencies are primarily responsible for the permitting of gray water systems, the Department of Health (DOH), Department of reuse for flushing):
water. We recommend that the Biscayne design team consider incorporated monitoring capabilities when evaluating system Environmental Protection (DEP), and the Department of Building and Safety. Other departments, such as the Department of Environmental Permitting Official: Unkown,
options. Resource Management (DERM) and the EPA, are sometimes involved, depending on the applications, for example DERM is only involved in Permitting and Enforcement
the land application of gray water, and the EPA, only if the water reuse system is over 10,000 GPD. Most of the applicable codes are housed Department
in the Florida Statutes and Florida Administrative Code (F.A.C.). The Building Codes stand alone, but references the F.A.C. o West Palm Beach County
System approval (not specific
BUILDING & PLUMBING CODE to a particular residence)
Top: examining water samples In 2004, Florida amended the Plumbing Code Section 301.3 to allow for gray water reuse in both landscape applications and toilet flushing. Permit Applicant: Dennis
Bottom: Wastewater before and after Zenon To outline the gray water requirements, Appendix C was added to the plumbing code, and now serves as the primary document for Yasar (BRAC representative)
biological treatment, Cauley Creek, GA permitting grywater systems. In 2007, amendments to this original appendix were proposed and are pending approval. The changes do not
affect the intent of the 2004 Appendix, but provide more detail and specification for designing systems. Like any technology, it is understood
that the gray water recycling system must comply with all relevant building codes. Only the most relevant plumbing codes are addressed
In the case of all of the known Florida permitted gray water projects, officials approved the systems based on their compliance with o Appendix C Gray Water Recycling
Appendix C of the Florida Building Code 2004 edition: Plumbing, Gray Water Recycling Systems. While most of the document addresses Systems. amending Section 301.3 of
landscape application, Section C102 of the gray water code, discusses the requirements for reuse within the building for toilet flushing. The the Plumbing Code.
codes for this system are straightforward and the proposed system for Biscayne will comply with all of them. Some of the critical code
excerpts are listed below and the entire Appendix C is appended to this document for reference and includes schematic diagrams.
FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
When it comes to water quality and health issues, code administration is complex. In 1995, the Department of Environmental Protection
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Health to coordinate the regulation of onsite sewage treatment and referenced for reuse in toilets. In other parts of this section, there are clauses saying “the department may waive or alter the compliance levels” For purposes of the Florida Wastewater Code:
disposal systems (OSTDS) and septage management facilities and disposal sites, to try to coordinate agency overlap in this area. DEP for various reasons, if it is not seen as an environmental concern. The design team would like to work with the DOH to understand what “Domestic Wastewater” includes waste from
became responsible for CHAPTER 62-600 F.A.C Series and local programs under Chapter 403, Florida Statutes (F.S.), while DOH and its appropriate water quality levels are needed for toilet reuse, and assure our system meets these. homes, portable toilets, holding tanks, boats
County Health Department (CHD) offices became responsible for administering Chapter 64E-6, F.A.C. series and Chapter 381, F.S. While and marinas and even wastewater from certain
commercial and industrial establishments.
the DEP is responsible for regulating large-scale treatment systems and municipal water reclamation, the DOH is responsible for health In addition to gray water reuse in the building, Biscayne Landing proposes to reuse air conditioner condensate to irrigate. While the quality of
“Commercial Wastewater” is similar to domestic,
Codes Regulating Gray Water concerns, human contact and traditional residential and commercial onsite wastewater treatment systems (i.e. septic tanks). condensate is extremely high (nearly distilled quality), the water quality and jurisdiction of cooling tower & air conditioner condensate is also only stronger, such as wastewater from food service
unclear. As the project team investigates the reuse of Cooling Tower blowdown and AC condensate for other parts of the project. While operations (e.g., restaurants, school cafeterias,
62-610.451 Minimum System Size: While this effort resolved many conventional onsite reuse questions, it is not clear from these descriptions under which purview the many states consider these sources “domestic wastwater,” some members of DERM believe that it might fall under “industrial wastewater”. etc.), commercial laundries with no more than
While most water reuse systems need to have a
gray water system falls. It is also unclear whether both DOH and DEP water quality standards are required. Because the incorporation If you read the distinction between these from DEP, it is unclear into which section mechanical wastewater from an office building falls four washing machines, animal holding facilities
minimum size of .1 MGD,
Chapter 62-610.451 section (3) states “ A minimum of gray water into the Florida Plumbing Code is so new, a few “gray” areas (not to be confused with gray water), or open ended codes Resolution on this distinction is important to proceeding. Questions include: (e.g., commercial kennels, veterinary hospitals, and
system size is not required if reclaimed water will be leave negotiation up to the permitting agency. Below we list a variety of these outstanding questions, predominatly regarding water quality animal grooming facilities), and beauty salons.
used only for toilet flushing or fire protection” standards and the relevant codes where applicable. We hope this document will initiate collaborative decision-making amongst the What is the appropriate process for verifying the quality of this water for reuse? Please note that “Commercial Wastewater” is
departments and the design team to answer these questions. Which agencies would be involved in review and ultimately approving these rulings? not necessarily synonymous with wastewater
62-610.476 (1) Toilet Flushing and Fire Protection: from commercial businesses. All other wastewater,
Reclaimed water may be used for toilet flushing including those that are toxic and/or hazardous,
in commercial or industrial facilities or buildings. The Interagency Agreement, 2001, goes on to say that “Onsite Sewage Treatment and Disposal System (OSTDS) - shall be as FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH is considered “Industrial Wastewater,” including
Reclaimed water may be used for toilet flushing in defined in Section 381.0065, F.S. This term does not include packaged sewage treatment facilities and other treatment works In Florida, gray water is referenced in many codes, but officially defined under Title XXIX, Florida Statutes, Public Health Chapter 381.0065: wastewater from dairies, food processing plants,
motels, hotels, apartment buildings, and condomini-
regulated under Chapter 403, F.S. Further, the term does not include any system that provides for other than subsurface effluent Onsite Sewage treatment and disposal systems, as “that part of ‘domestic sewage’ that is not blackwater, including the waste from the bath, slaughterhouses, funeral homes, car washes, and
ums where the individual guests or residents do not
have access to the plumbing system for repairs or disposal or which has open tanks or open treatment units”. Is a gray water system classified as a packaged treatment facility lavatory, laundry, and sink, except kitchen sink waste.” In the DOH and DEP, domestic and commercial are not used the same as manor as other commercial laundries with more than four washing
modifications. Reclaimed water pipes shall be color (under the purview of DEP), or is it considered to be an OSTDS (and thus under the purview of DOH)? forms of building [See sidebar wastewater distinctions], so waste water from commercial buildings is actually “domestic waste”. The primary machines. (INTERAGENCY AGREEMENT, 2001)
coded The engineering report shall document cross- code series of the DOH addressing gray water use is CHAPTER 64E-6, FLORIDA ADMINISTRATIVE CODE “STANDARDS FOR ONSITE
connection control measures and controls on facility Rule 64E-6.013(4).
CHAPTER 62-600 F.A.C. - Reuse of reclaimed water and land application SEWAGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS” [See Sidebar for specific code language]. In addition to the Appendix C, CHAPTER 64E-6
operation sufficient to ensure reliable production of When a separate system is installed to dispose
reclaimed water of suitable quality. While there are many codes and limitations pertaining to the reuse on land application in 62-610 series (DEP), only one sub- serves as the primary gray water code, and the Biscyane project will be designed to meet all of these codes.
of graywater, the retention tank for such systems
section of this chapter addresses indoor reuse: “62-610.476 Toilet Flushing and Fire Protection.” Critical code criteria are listed in
shall meet certain design standards as specified
62-610.476 F.A.C.: Toilet Flushing and Fire Protection: the sidebar and the proposed system for Biscayne will need to comply with all of them. The design team needs to know which DERM (Department of Environmental Resources)
1(b): If reclaimed water will be used only for toilet in Rule 64E-6.008(3): The minimum effective
DOH department and officials we would work with to develop the level of reliability and operation controls needed for the The primary concerns of DERM include the exposure and contact of gray water with the natural environment. If gray water is used in a capacity of the graywater retention tank shall
flushing, the Department shall approve alternative
levels of reliability, operation controls, and operator toilet flushing system. “closed loop” system within the building and ultimately discharged to the sewer, there are little or no concerns from the standpoint of DERM. be 250 gallons, with such system receiving not
attendance if the applicant provides an affirmative Because our system will discharge to the sewer, we have omitted a review of the DERM codes related to gray water reuse. more than 75 gallons of flow per day.
demonstration in the engineering report that alterna- CHAPTER 403.086 F.A.C.: Sewage disposal facilities; advanced and secondary waste treatment. This section pertains to the
tive controls will provide controls on reclaimed water Where separate gray water and blackwater
quality of water required of onsite waste treatment systems to discharge to the environment under varying conditions. The water PeRmitting PRoceSS
production equivalent to the full requirements of Part systems are used, the size of the blackwater
III of Chapter 62-610, F.A.C., and the engineering re- quality standards established in Section 4 of this chapter define “advanced waste treatment” as that treatment which will provide
a reclaimed water product that: system can be reduced by not more than 25%.
port presents reasonable assurances that public health PROGRESS TO DATE
will be protected. 10D-6.055
The project team has hired Rana Creek, an Ecological Design and Water Conservation consulting firm from California, to help facilitate
- Contains not more, on a permitted annual average basis, than the following concentrations: the design and permitting of the gray water system. Rana Creek, along with William Gonzalez, the plumbing engineer, and members of the (k) All gray water tanks distributed by the state
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (CBOD5) 5mg/l architecture team, met with various permitting officials the week of August 20th. The team introduced officials to the Biscayne project, assess shall be approved for use by the department
Suspended Solids 5mg/l the feasibility of gray water reuse within the building, and gain initial feedback from permitting agencies. Below is a recap of those first meetings. prior to being installed. Such approval shall
Total Nitrogen, expressed as N 3mg/l be obtained only after the manufacturer of
Total Phosphorus, expressed as P 1mg/l DOH Conference Call: On August 20nd, Brent Bucknum from Rana Creek spoke with Samir Elmir. While the could not meet in person, Elmir a specific model has submitted engineering
gave his support to the gray water project, provided it meets all relevant codes, and said he would help raise awareness for the project, and designs of the tank.
- Has received high-level disinfection, as defined by rule of the department. (4) Gray water retention tanks - when a
help organize meetings with the Perkins if needed. In further investigation, we discovered we needed to be working with the City of North
separate system is installed to dispose of gray
Miami to drive the permitting process rather than the County.
While the strict water quality requirements are understood for onsite system which will eventually discharge to water bodies,
aquifer or ground application, these standards ultra-low nutrient standards are not necessary for gray water that will be DERM Meeting: On August 21nd we met with DERM officials, Harvey Koetki and Agustin Socarras.
discharged into the public sewer. While complete disinfection is understood, it is unclear which water quality standard should be In the meeting, we gained an understanding of the different DERM concerns regarding gray water reuse, predominately regarding
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
water, the retention tank for such system shall land application. Koetki, wellfield protection specialist, addressed the groundwater contamination concerns, brownfield concerns INVOLVED OFFICIALS (NOT A COMPLETE LIST)
meet the following minimum design standards: and wetland habitat concerns. Socarras addressed the issues with cross-contamination of gray water, septic, sewer and/or potable
a) the minimum effective capacity shall be as Maribel Balbin Jorge Gamoneda
specified in Rule 10D-6.048(3). Liquid depth
Water Conservation Manager Code Compliance Specialist - Plumbing
shall be at least 30 inches; and b) retention
Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department. Miami-Dade County
tanks shall be baffled and vented as specified City of North Miami Meeting: On August 22nd, Brent Bucknum, William Gonzalez, and Anne Cotter, project manager from
in the septic tank construction standards found Tel: (786) 552-8149 140 W. Flagler Street, Suite 1603
Arquitectonica, met with John Jackson Chief Building Inspector & Robert Hernandez, Chief Plumbing Inspector. While Jackson BALBIN@miamidade.gov Miami, Florida 33130
elsewhere in the section provided that an inlet
had not yet encountered gray water systems, he was intrigued by the goals of water conservation and wanted more information, Phone: (305) 375-2901, ext. 4671
tee, ell, or baffle shall be provided for gray water
tanks. case studies and examples of built systems in Florida and other states to understand their viability. Jackson’s request was the Department of Environmental Resources Management Fax: (305) 375-2908
motivation for this document. Jackson stated that while the permitting process would be handled through the North Miami (305) 372-6500 Jg045@miamidade.gov
10D-6.048(3) – Retention Tank Building Department, alternative systems such as this gray water system would be taken to the county level for review and
When a separate system is installed to dispose approval, most likely George Gamoneda, Chief Building Code Compliance Official. Harvey Koetki City of North Miami
of gray water, the retention tank for such Pollution Control, DERM 776 NE 125 Street.
system shall meet the following minimum design
Plumbers Union Hall Meeting: On August 23nd , following our meeting in North Miami, design team members met with George (305) 372-6516 (or 6789) North Miami, FL 33161
a) the minimum effective capacity shall be as Gamoneda, before a monthly meeting with all of the Plumbing Inspector’s from the un-incorporated cities of Miami-Dade County.
specified in Rule 10D-6.048(3). Agustin Socarras, P.E. Robert Hernandez, P.E.
Brent Bucknum, then presented the state of gray water technology to the Inspector’s meeting and fielded questions. While
Liquid depth shall be at least 30 inches; Water and Wastewater Engineering Section, DERM Chief Plumbing Inspector
Gamoneda supported the gray water system, his primary concern was the discrepancy between the Appendix C, acceptance Telephone (305) 372-6899 305-893-6511
Retention tanks shall be baffled and vented
as specified in the septic tank construction of the gray water for flushing and restrictions in the Florida Administrative Code limiting the use of gay water indoors where
standards found elsewhere in the section occupants had access to the plumbing. In reviewing the 64E-6, F.A.C. this was resolved, in that the restriction was from residential Samir Elmir, P.E. John H. Jackson, P.E.
provided that an inlet tee, ell, or baffle shall be facilities, not commercial facilities (see sidebar for code language). During the plumbing inspectors meeting, gray water system Environmental Administrator Building Official
provided for graywater tanks. concepts were received well and the growing demand was discussed. Most questions and concerns pertained to the verification Miami-Dade County Health Dept./Environmental Health 305-893-6511
Source: State of Florida, Department of Health.
of certified installation of the systems by qualified professionals, the operation and maintenance of systems and the ability for Business Address: 1725 NW 167 St. Miami, FL 33056
3 March 1998. Standards for on-site sewage occupants in residential applications to have access to the system. The first two concerns can be addressed in the development Business: (305) 623-3500 Gary Perkins
treatment and disposal systems. Chapter 64E–6, of stringent experience standards in the final specifications for the assembly of the system and a detailed Operations and Business 2: (305) 623-3595 Plumbing Division Director
p. 31. Florida Administrative Code. Maintenance Manual, which are both intended to be in the project documentation. The residential concern, while valid, does not Business Fax: (305) 623-3502 Building Dept. Permitting and Inspection Center
and http://www.epa.gov/waterscience/standards/ samir_elmir@DOH.state.fl.us 11805 SW 26 St. Room 137
apply to this commercial application, where the gray water treatment system will be contained and accessed only by a licensed
wqslibrary/fl/fl-403.086.html Miami, FL 33175-2474
maintenance contractor. (786) 315-2084
Mayors Meeting: On September 12th, team members from Arquitectonica met with the Executive Assistant to the County
Manager, Henry F. Sori, to discuss green measures including water conservation. Sori assigned Suzanne Troner and Maribel
Balbin as the primary agency contacts for negotiating gray water reuse questions between departments and spearheading the
coordination with the Biscayne Landing project team. Brent Bucknum of Rana Creek and Anne Cotter of Arquitectonica will be
meeting with these contacts to further discuss permitting the project.
Project Documentation, Outstanding Code Questions and Approval Process: The project team is now developing the
construction drawings and engineering specifications for the system. We are working with the manufacturers to ensure
compliance with code and will need to be in contact with the permitting agencies to resolve the open-ended questions in the
code discussed above. Brent Bucknum will work with Anne Cotter to develop a roadmap to permitting and approval.
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
RESOURCES COMPANY OVER VIEW
Rana Creek, located in Carmel Valley, California, has been incorporated since April 1, 1997. We have a staff of twenty
Brac Systems professional ecologists, biologists, landscape designers, civil engineers, researchers, contractors, horticulturalists, and
Website: http://bracsystems.com/home.html habitat restoration specialists that is augmented by a network of expert consultants. Our firm is rooted in the tradi-
tions of science and ecology, offering a broad range of environmental planning, ecological design/build and AEC services
dedicated to sustainability.
Lokus RANA CREEK LIVING ARCHITECTURE
Website: http://www.graywater.com/e_index.html Rana Creek Living Architecture is redefining the built environment by encouraging biodiversity as part of site and struc-
ture. Our innovative models for habitat restoration focus on the purification and reuse of water. We design for the
GE Zenon biodiversity of site and foster ecological systems that engage vegetated surfaces as protective, breathing, and water pro-
Website: http://www.zenon.com/ cessing membranes. Rana Creek’s project involvement ranges from conceptual design to the complete development
of construction documents, the propagation of plants, living roof installation and ecological maintenance and monitor-
Doug Thompson, Cory Schneider, Mark Murphy, ZENON Environmental Inc: Immersed Membrane Bioreactors for Water ing. Rana Creek’s unique and considered approach ensures ecological integration and produces quality solutions and
Reuse: Summary of Five Years’ Experience, 2003 results for both landscapes and built environments.
Diana Isliefson, University of Manitoba: Protocols for Pre-design Assessment of Greywater Reuse Retrofit in Urban Rede-
BUILDING INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT
velopment: An Opportunity/Constraint Analysis Method for Existing Buildings, 1998
Inherent in all our designs is an understanding of the ecological and economic value of water. As a part of the growing
Interagency Agreement Between the Department of Environmental Protection and the Department of Health for Onsite field of onsite water reuse, Rana Creek has helped to form a BIWM committee between the National Onsite Waste-
Sewage Treatment and Disposal Systems, September 10, 2001 water Recycling Association (NOWRA) and Green Roofs for Healthy Cities, two industry organizations, to conduct
research and develop national policy for Building Integrated Water Management. Our vegetated and engineered
U.S. EPA Design Manual: : Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems 1980 solutions to water management minimize the impact of the built environment by integrating it with natural hydrologic
cycles as well as building function. Storm and gray water collection, storage, and reuse systems are integrated into the
Vinita Chanan et al, Institute for Sustainable Futures and Sydney Water Corporation: Sustainable Water Management in project design to close the loop of water flow throughout each site. Rana Creek staff have designed multiple permit-
Commercial Office Buildings: http://www.isf.uts.edu.au/publications/VC_SW_CH_MJ_2003.pdf ted gray water, black water and constructed wetland systems including the first permitted systems in several counties
in California. We are designing or have designed additional projects in Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Boston,
Water Resources Engineering, Inc. (prepared for the Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing, US Department of and Vancouver. We have experience with high-tech mechanical treatment systems, low-tech gravity flow and branched
Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research): Water Conservation: Overview
drain systems, and innovative solutions such as treatment wetlands built on roofs. Issues of soil percolation rates, sewer
of Retrofit Strategies, A Guide for Apartment Owners and Managers, 2002
backup fail-safes, pre-filtration, storage, pumping, and irrigation applications are within our expertise and experience.
Water Quality Guideline and Water Monitoring Tools for Residential Water Reuse Systems, 1999 We have designed projects ranging from small residential to large municipal building scale, and will customize solutions
to fit into the program of each project. Beyond providing technical support and system design services, we are well-
Wilson: Using Greywater for Landscape Irrigation, 1995, cited in Isliefson, 1998 equipped to guide projects through the permitting process.
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
II. Recommended Treatment by Variable
I. Gray Water Characteristics by Source Types of Treatment Variable
Water Source Characteristics
___________________________________________________________________________________________ Aeration Odor, Organic matter, Oxygen
demand, and pH
Automatic Clothes Washer Bleach, Foam, High pH, Hot water, Nitrate, Oil and Grease, Oxygen demand,
Phosphate, Salinity, Soaps, Sodium, Suspended solids, and Turbidity Alum Soaps, and Turbidity
Carbon filtration Odor
Automatic Dish Washer Bacteria, Foam, Food particles, High pH, Hot water, Odor, Oil and grease, Chlorination Bacteria, and Odor
Organic matter, Oxygen demand, Salinity, Soaps, Suspended solids, and Turbidity
Crop filtration Bacteria, Food particles, Suspended
solids, and Turbidity
Bath tub and shower Bacteria, Hair, Hot water, Odor, Oil and grease, Oxygen demand,
Soaps, Suspended solids, and Turbidity Crop uptake Nitrate, Phosphate, Soaps,
Evaporative Cooler Salinity Dilution Hot water, Nitrate, pH, Phosphate,
Salinity, and Sodium
Sinks, including kitchen Bacteria, Food particles, Hot water, Odor, Oil and grease, Organic matter,
Oxygen demand, Soaps, Suspended solids, and Turbidity Filtration Food particles, Oil and grease,
Organic matter, Soaps, Suspended
solids, and Turbidity
Swimming Pool Chlorine, and Salinity
Flotation Oil and grease
Hydrogen peroxide Bacteria, and Odor
Lime Bacteria, Odor, and Sodium
Settling Foam, Food particles, Hot water,
Organic matter, Oxygen demand,
and Suspended solids
Soil filtration Bacteria, Bleach, Chlorine, Foam,
Food particles, Organic matter, Oxygen
demand, Suspended solids, and Turbidity
Soil uptake Nitrate, Phosphate, Soaps, and Sodium
Storage Foam, Food particles, Hot water, Organic
matter, Oxygen demand, pH, and
Suspended solids 25
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
V. Appendix C of the Florida Plumbing Code
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER
MIAMI GRAY WATER PRIMER