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                             Industrial microbiology
                                     5/4/12

Industrial microbiology-the use of microbes to synthesize desired product
       Fungi or Streptomyces most common organisms used
       Genetically engineered bacteria are becoming more common

Useful industrial microorganism
       Easy to inoculate
       Requires minimal media to grow
       Fast growth
       Good expression of product
       Not pathogenic

Products-
      Primary metabolites are produced when microbe is growing rapidly
            Typically smaller molecules
      Secondary metabolites are produced during lag phase or stress
            Typically more complex molecules

      Culture is grown in fermentor that maintains optimal conditions
             Can be a few liters or several hundred thousand liters in size


      Antibiotics are most important product
             Most are secondary metabolites

             Test for production of antibiotics with a few known bacteria
                    See if there is zone of clearance around colony of test microbe
             Majority of microbes produce antibiotics, however, only a small
             number are safe and effective for use
                    Takes 15 years and $1 billion to get an antibiotic to market


      Vitamins and supplements are next largest product
            Utilize microbial pathways to produce nutrient
            Purified and tested for purity and safety

      Secreted enzymes are also important
             Grow culture that secretes enzyme into media
             Draw off media and purify desired product
             Septic cleaner, food modifiers, biotech enzymes
Alcohol-first industrial microbiological product
      Wine-Fermented fruit
               Most comes from grapes
               Red wine-red grapes with skin
               White wine-white grapes or red grapes without skin
                       Skin has tannins that are astringent
               Fruit is fermented, strained, then typically aged in barrels
                       Barrels also provide some character of wine
                       Terminology:
                              Dry means less sugar
                                     Dry reds have more tannins
                                     Dry whites are more acidic
                              Range from dry to sweet

              Reds can be aged in barrels much longer than whites due to the
              tannins

Brewing
      Beer is essentially four ingredients: grain, hops, water and yeast
             Two different types of yeast strains
                    Top fermenters produce ales
                    Bottom fermenters produce lagers
             Lambic brewing uses natural microbes in environment

Distilling
        Fermentation of grains or fruit followed by purification of the alcohol
             Use a still to remove alcohol from water and other molecules

       All spirits start out as clear alcohol
               Get color from barrel aging or adding other components

              Example: bourbon is 51% corn by law
                          Aged in new, charred American oak barrels
                          Longer aging produces darker color


       Biofuels-ethanol is biggest in US
                     We use corn starch however, research into other sources
                     In Brazil sugar cane is abundant, so ethanol is much cheaper


Expression of mammalian proteins by bacteria
      Genetic engineering-need to modify DNA
              Produce cDNA from mRNA
              Clone into expression vector with strong promoter

				
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