Antimonous, Antimonic

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					Review Ch 2                                                                             Gupta


Essential Questions: You should be able to answer the following essential learning
questions by the end of Chapter 2.
    What was the contribution of J.J. Thompson, Robert Millikan and Ernst
       Rutherford in developing the atomic structure?
    What is the relationship between atomic number/ mass number and number of
       protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom? In an ion?
    How are inorganic compounds named? Why should be able to first identify the
       type of compound before naming it?
    How would your knowledge of development of atomic model help you
       understand the current model of atom?
    Your own question (s)….

Connections to the real-world and other Chemistry Units
   Name any two chemical substances that are used in your kitchen. Write their
      chemical names. Can you guess how many chemical substances are used in your
      kitchen/pantry?
   Where else in Chemistry do you need to know naming of compounds other than
      writing formulas?

Draw a concept map using the key words given below. Be sure to define each key
word ( a simple one line definition will do) !

Key Words: Atom, Cathode Ray Tube, J. J. Thompson, Electron, Charge to mass ratio of
electron, Millikan’s Oil Drop experiment, Nuclear Atom, Rutherford, Gold Foil
Experiment, Subatomic Particles, Cation, Anion, Isotopes, Atomic Number, Mass
Number, Naming of Compounds, Ionic Compounds, Variable Valency Cations,
Molecular Compounds, Prefix Way of Naming, Stock Way of Naming, Acids, Oxyacids,
Complex Compounds, Naming of Complex Compounds

Descriptive Colors (Only memorize the highlighted ones!)

Flame Test Colors
Li+                  Deep red (crimson)
Na+                  Yellow
K+                   Violet
Ca2+                 Orange-red
Sr2+                 Red
Ba2+                 Green
Cu2+                 Blue-green

Aqueous Ion Colors

Cu1+                 Green
Cu2+                 Blue
Fe                   Yellow to red-orange (depending on anion and charge of Fe); in
                      rare cases, can form complex ion with a deep blue color



Gupta                                                                                 6/1/2012
Review Ch 2                                                                                                     Gupta

Fe2+                      yellow-green (depending on the anion)
Fe3+                      orange-red (depending on the anion)
Co2+                      Pink
Cr3+                      Violet (Cr(NO3)3 to Green (CrCl3)
Ni2+                      Green
Mn2+                      Pink
Pb3+                       blue-green (Pb2+ and Pb4+ are colorless)
V2+                       violet
V3+                       blue-green
Zn2+                      Colorless/milky
MnO4-                     Purple (Mn w/ +7 oxidation state is purple)
CrO42-                    Yellow
Cr2O72-                   Orange
Cu(NH3)42+                Dark Blue; produced when ammonia is added to Cu2+ solutions
FeSCN2+                   Red-brown, Wine-red to dark orange
CoCl42-                   Blue (Co2+ with HCl will form a CoCl42- complex that is blue)
Ti(H2O)63+                Purple


       Al, K, Li, Mg, Na, Ca, Ba, Sr, Zn are colorless aqueous ions and most of their solid salts are white.
       Transition element ions with partially filled d orbitals tend to release colored light.

Assorted Compounds
F2                         Pale-yellow gas
Cl2                        Green-yellow gas
Br2                        Red-brown liquid
I2                         Dark-violet vapor & dark metallic looking solid
S8                         Yellow, odorous solid
NO                         Colorless gas; associated with reactions between metals and dilute HNO3
NO2                        Brown gas; associated with reactions between metals and concentrated HNO3
PbI2                       Bright yellow precipitate
Metallic sulfides         Sulfides of transition metals tend to be black
AgX (Silver Halide)       White
AgNO3                     White, turns black in sunlight
CuO                       Green
HgO                        Dark Red
Fe2O3                      Reddish brown (rust)
Metallic oxides           Oxides of colored transition metal ions tend to be colored

Acid-Base Indicators
Phenolphthalein           Colorless (pH<7) to Pink (pH>8 ; when OH- is present)
Red Litmus (paper)        Turns purple in alkaline solution
Blue Litmus (paper)       Turns pink in acidic solution




Ch 2:
Naming Compounds Review for AP Chemistry
Before naming a compound, it is important to know why type of compound it is. There
are ionic compounds, molecular compounds, and acids.
     Ionic Compound can be identified by the presence of a metal in it. (generally
        solids)


Gupta                                                                                                      6/1/2012
Review Ch 2                                                                                   Gupta


      Molecular compound is made up of all non metals. (generally liquids and gases)
      Acids begin with H (generally present as aq solutions or gases)
To name an ionic compound:
         Name metal first, followed by a roman numeral specifying its charge (ONLY if
         variable valency), then name the anion (monoatomic ending in –ide, and
         polyatomic named as such). Ex. MgO (Magnesium Oxide), Na2S (Sodium
         Sulfide), Fe2O3 (Iron (III) Oxide), (NH4)2SO4 (Ammonium Sulfate)
To write the formula of an ionic compound:
         Use criss-cross method (bring valency of one element down as a subscript next to
the other element). Write the formulas of the following: Sodium Sulfide (Na2S),
Potassium Nitrate (KNO3), Ferrous Sulfate Fe (SO4), Ammonium Chloride (NH4Cl)
To name a molecular compound:
         Write name of the first element followed by its oxidation state in parenthesis or
you can use older prefix way.
Example: CO2 can be named as Carbon (IV) Oxide or Carbon dioxide
To name an acid without oxygen:
         Starts with Hydro-followed by the name of anion ending in –ic Acid. Ex. HCl
Hydrochloric acid
To name an acid with Oxygen (Oxyacids):
         Anion ending decides the name of the acid. If anion ends in –ate, then acid is –ic
acid, if anion ends in –its, then acid is –ous acid.
Ex. HClO4 Perchloric Acid (anion perchlorate)
      HClO3 Chloric Acid (anion Chlorate)
To name a complex ion:
         Name cation first followed by anion. Within a complex, transition metal is named
first with its charge listed within parenthesis, followed by ligands and then anion. If
complex is anion, then its name ends in –ate.

              Common Cations with Variable Valency (Must Memorize)
          Cuprous, Cupric     Copper             Cu     Cu +   Cu 2+
                                                            2+
          Cobaltous, Cobatic  Cobalt             Co     Co     Co 3+
          Chromous, Chromic   Chromium           Cr     Cr 2+  Cr 3+
          Ferrous, Ferric     Iron               Fe     Fe 2+  Fe 3+
                                                           2+
          Plumbous, Plumbic   Lead               Pb     Pb     Pb 4+
          Mercurous, Mercuric Mercury            Hg     Hg2 2+ Hg 2+
          Stannous, Stannic   Tin                Sn     Sn 2+  Sn 4+




Gupta                                                                                     6/1/2012
Review Ch 2                                                              Gupta



                      Common Ions (Must Memorize)

Ammonium      NH4+ Chlorate           ClO3-     Thiosulfate   S2O32-
Nitrate       NO3-    Perchlorate     ClO4-     Thiocynate    SCN-
Phosphate     PO43-   Chlorite        ClO2-     Peroxide      O22-
Hydroxide     OH-     Hypochlorite    ClO-      Sulfite       SO32-
Sulfate       SO42-   Permanganate    MnO4-     Nitrite       NO2-
Carbonate     CO32-   Acetate         C2H3O2-   Phosphite     PO33-
                                      CH3COO-
Chromate      CrO42- Bicarbonate      HCO3-     Bisulfate     HSO4-
                      (hydrogen                 (hydrogen
                      carbonate)                sulfate)
Dichromate    Cr2O7   Cyanide         CN-       Oxide         O2-
              2-



Now some practice:
   1. Mg3P2
   2. NaF
   3. Sr(MnO4)2
   4. Cr3(PO4)2
   5. Al2Se3
   6. FeCl2
   7. HNO3
   8. Ferrous Sulfate
   9. Ammonium Carbonate
   10. Copper(II) Chloride
   11. Dinitrogen Monoxide
   12. Sulfuric Acid
Answers:
   1. Magnesium Phosphide
   2. Sodium Fluoride
   3. Strontium Permanganate
   4. Chromium (II) Phosphate
   5. Aluminum Selenide
   6. Iron(II) Chloride, Ferrous Chloride
   7. Nitric Acid
   8. FeSO4
   9. (NH4)2CO3
   10. CuCl2
   11. N2O
   12. H2SO4




Gupta                                                                  6/1/2012
Review Ch 2                                                                            Gupta




Problem Set
Level 1: 6, 8, 12, 32, 35, 40, 43, 45, 30, 31, 41, 42, 44, 46, 64
Level 2 WS
   1. Complete the table below using the clues provided.
                                     39                             33 2-
        Symbol                          K                            S
        Protons                                      26
        Neutrons                                     30                      136
        Electrons                                    24
        Atomic no.                                                           87
        Mass no.
        Net charge                                                           +1

   2. Provide the name of chemical formula (as needed) of the following compounds.
         a. Ba(OH)2*(H2O)8        ______________________________
         b. N2                           ______________________________
         c. HClO                  ______________________________
         d. K2HPO4                       ______________________________
         e. AgH                          ______________________________
         f. CsO2                  ______________________________
         g. Pb(OH)2                      ______________________________
         h. NH4NO3                       ______________________________
         i. ZnO                          ______________________________
         j. Hydrobromic acid      ______________________________
         k. Bromic acid           ______________________________
         l. Perchloric acid       ______________________________
         m. Chloric acid ______________________________
         n. Hydrochloric acid     ______________________________
         o. Aluminum nitrite      ______________________________
         p. Aluminum nitride      ______________________________
         q. Potassium sulfite     ______________________________
         r. Potassium bisulfite ______________________________
         s. Periodic acid         ______________________________

   1. Complete the table below using the clues provided.
                                39           56 2+                  33 2-   223
      Symbol                       K           Fe                     S        Fr+
      Protons                    19            26                    16       87
      Neutrons                   20            30                    17      136
      Electrons                  19            24                    18       86
      Atomic no.                 19            26                    16       87
      Mass no.                   39            56                    33      223
      Net charge                  0            2+                    2-      1+

   2. Provide the name of chemical formula (as needed) of the following compounds.
         a. Ba(OH)2*(H2O)8        barium hydroxide octahydrate


Gupta                                                                                6/1/2012
Review Ch 2                                                                   Gupta


         b.   N2                          nitrogen (molecular)
         c.   HClO                hypochlorous acid
         d.   K2HPO4                      potassium hydrogen phosphate
         e.   AgH                         silver hydride
         f.   Cs2O                cesium oxide
         g.   Pb(OH)2                     lead (II) or plumbous hydroxide
         h.   NH4NO3                      ammonium nitrate
         i.   ZnO                         zinc oxide
         j.   Hydrobromic acid    HBr
         k.   Bromic acid         HBrO3
         l.   Perchloric acid     HClO4
         m.   Chloric acid HClO3
         n.   Hydrochloric acid   HCl
         o.   Aluminum nitrite    Al(NO2)3
         p.   Aluminum nitride    AlN
         q.   Potassium sulfite   K2SO3
         r.   Potassium bisulfite (or potassium hydrogen sulfite) KHSO3
         s.   Periodic acid       HIO4




Gupta                                                                       6/1/2012

				
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