How Shall They Hear? by HC120918121810


									        Literates Working
       Among Oral Cultures
              Dr. David Sills
Associate Professor of Christian Missions
      and Cultural Anthropology
       Billy Graham School of Missions,
       Evangelism and Church Growth
The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
              What is a People Group?
• A people group is a “significantly large
  grouping of individuals who perceive
  themselves to have a common affinity for one
  another because of their shared language,
  religion, ethnicity, residence, occupation, class
  or caste, situation, etc. or combinations of
• “The largest group within which an idea can
  spread as a without encountering barriers of
  understanding or acceptance.”
Nigeria by Political Boundaries
Nigeria by Ethnolinguistic Boundaries
    The numbers have faces,
   and the faces have names.
• There are 27,000 ethnic groups in the
• Every day 40,000 children die of hunger
  and starvation-related diseases
• 6,000 persons die from the lack of clean
  drinking water
               Brazil’s kids
• Twelve million children live on the street
• Seven million children work full time
• Half a million girls under sixteen are
  prostitutes, many sold in coastal cities as
  part of a vacation package
• One in three Brazilian children will die
  before the age of fifteen

• 1,945 children died of preventable causes
• 1,625 children were forced to live on the
  streets because of death or abuse ...
• 115 children became child prostitutes ...
• 66 children under age 15 were infected with
  HIV ...
• 23 children were killed in war ...
         Missionary Math
• Of the 6,913 known languages, only 411
  have a Bible, 1,068 have a NT, and many
  have only portions.
• 70% of the Unreached ethnic groups are
• 75% of Evangelical churches are located in
  the 20% of the world that is highly literate.
• Since Gutenberg, Christianity has walked
  on literate feet.
             World Population
• Here's one way to think about our various peoples:
  imagine the planet's entire population as a village
  of 1,000. The breakdown would be:
• 584 from Asia
  124 from Africa
  95 from East and West Europe
  84 from Latin America
  55 from the former Soviet Union
  52 from North America
  6 from Australia and New Zealand
         Nonverbal Communication
“Nonverbal communication is an elaborate code that is written
nowhere, known by none, and understood by all.” –Edward Sapir
• Importance of Nonverbal Communication:
   – Nonverbal Communication is all the types of
   communication that take place without words
   – Mehrabian & Ferris and Mehrabian & Wiener analysis of
   meaning communicated through facial and vocal expressions:
       • Facial Expressions: 55%
       • Paralanguage (the way the words are said): 38%
       • Verbal (the words themselves): 7%
   – Other research suggests that about 2/3 of the meaning in
   an interaction is conveyed by nonverbal communication
          Nonverbal Communication
Importance of Nonverbal Communication: 5 Reasons:
1. Nonverbal communication is present everywhere
2. Nonverbal communication usually comes first
3. Nonverbal communication is especially likely to be
4. Nonverbal communication can lead to
   misunderstanding, especially when verbal messages
   are missing or limited
5. Nonverbal communication is especially important in
   intercultural communication situations
      Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal communication messages may:
– Contradict verbal communication messages
– Complement verbal communication
– Substitute verbal communication messages
– Regulate verbal communication messages
– Accent or moderate verbal communication
         Nonverbal Communication
              Body Movements:
• Four main types of kinesic communication:
  1. Emblems- Body movements that can be
     translated into words that are used to
     intentionally transmit a message (hand
  2. Illustrators- A type of kinesic behavior that
     accompanies what is said verbally (pointing)
  3. Regulators- Kinesic behaviors that control
     turn-taking and other procedural aspects of
     interpersonal communication (gaze)
  4. Affect Displays- Kinesic behaviors that
     express emotions (smile)
           Nonverbal Communication
        Types of Nonverbal Communication
–  Space: Proxemics is nonverbal communication involving space
–  Time:
  • Chronemics is the way in which time affects
  • Organization of time:
      – Technical time- the scientific development of the
         atomic clock (nanoseconds)
      – Formal time- the process of separating units of time
         into days, weeks, and months
      – Informal time- within a culture the more loosely
         defined concepts of approximation
– Touch: Haptics is nonverbal communication involving
            Nonverbal Communication

 Types of Nonverbal Communication
– Voice: Paralanguage is vocal communication other
   than verbal content
– Artifact: An individual’s clothing, wedding ring,
   personal possessions, etc…
– Physical Appearance: Rule-governed cultural
   preferences dictate the elements of appearance that
   are considered physically attractive
        Culture of Language

• Verbal style to impress (Latino, Arabic)
• Verbal styles to assert and control (German, Irish,
  Israeli, Turkish)
• Verbal style that expresses tolerance for ambiguity
  (Swedish, Asian)
• Verbal style that uses tolerance for silence (Japanese
  and many other Asian)
• Verbal style that expects high information (USA,
  other Western countries)
              What Causes Illness?

•   Evil spirits
•   Germs
•   Imbalance of energy
•   Soul fright
•   Curse
•   Broken relationships
•   Bad luck
           What causes good things?

•   God (gods) favor you
•   Blessed because you did something good
•   Good karma
•   Fate
•   Good luck
•   Natural outcome of hard work
           What causes hardships?
•   Punishment for doing wrong
•   Part of life to be expected
•   God trying to get someone’s attention
•   Fate
•   Don’t exist unless you think they do
•   Natural outcome of one’s lifestyle
         What is the purpose of life?
•   Serve others
•   Make your next life better
•   Make your ancestors’ lives better
•   Be self-fulfilled
•   Serve God, give God glory
•   No purpose other than pleasure
•   Reproduce
                  Cause of Illness &
• Evil spirits                • Appease or rid yourself
                                of evil spirits
• Biology/germs               • Medicine, surgery
• Imbalance of energy         • Balance energy
• A curse                     • Remove the curse
• Broken relationships with   • Restore relationships
  people, nature, gods
• Soul fright                 • Have the soul returned
The 10/40 Window
                   Countries in 10/40
Afghanistan   Egypt       Japan        Morocco        Syria
Algeria       Eritrea     Jordan       Myanmar        Taiwan
Bahrain       Ethiopia    Korea,       (Burma)        Tajikistan
Bangladesh    Gambia      North        Nepal          Thailand
Benin         Gibraltar   Korea,       Niger          Tunisia
Bhutan        Greece      South        Oman           Turkey
Burkina       Guinea      Kuwait       Pakistan       Turkmenistan
Faso          Guinea-     Laos         Philippines    United Arab
Cambodia      Bissau      Lebanon      Portugal       Emirates
Chad          India       Libya        Qatar          Vietnam
China         Iran        Macau        Saudi Arabia   Western Sahara
Cyprus        Iraq        Mali         Senegal        Yemen
Djibouti      Israel      Malta        Sudan
          10/40 Window Statistics

• Unreached and unevangelized: 95% of the people
  living in the 10/40 Window are unevangelized.
  Many have never heard the Gospel message even
• Poverty: 85% of those living in the 10/40
  window are the poorest of the world's poor.
• Population: 2/3 of the World’s population lives
  here in 1/3 of World’s land mass.
• World religions: Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism
  are centered in the 10/40 Window.
            The Physical Need . . .

• ...There are over 400 mega cities (cities with more
  than 1 million people) in the world today. 300 of
  these cities lie within the Window.
• ...The Window contains the majority of the world's
  least evangelized mega cities. Of the top 50 cities on
  this list, all 50 cities are in the 10/40 Window
• ...More than 97% out the poorest of the poor live in
  the Window.
• ...On average, people living in the 10/40 Window
  exist on less than $500 per person per year.
              The Challenge
• Throwing a stone in a pond ripples that
  pond only. To impact another means
  moving out of your comfort zone.
• Languages must be learned
• Cultures must be learned
• Non-verbal communication
• Literates have to learn how to
  communicate with oral culture peoples.
           Translation Needs

• There are 6,913 languages cataloged in the world.
• To learn a language that has not been reduced to
  writing, develop a system, teach it to the people,
  translate and present a Bible takes 20-30 years
  depending on the language.
• Over 2,700 languages have been identified as
  priority languages and it is estimated that it will
  take 287 years to get them a Bible.
• Oral methods are essential for reaching 70% of the
  unreached peoples of the world today.
                 It’s not wrong, it’s not
                         stupid, it’s
                       just different!
• Ethnocentrism – is the practice of judging the
  values, languages, standards, characteristics, etc.
  of another culture against one’s home culture.
   – The other culture is usually seen as inferior.
   – Intercultural workers should recognize their own
     ethnocentric tendencies.
   – The ugly American is alive and well!
•   Okay!
•   Victory or peace
•   Pointing with index finger
•   How tall?
•   Come here
•   Giving the back
•   Pointing with feet
          The twelve signal systems
• Verbal – speech             • Kinesics – body motions,
• Written – symbols             facial expressions, posture
  representing speech         • Optical – light and color
• Numeric – numbers and       • Tactile – touch and the
  number systems                sense of feel
• Pictorial – 2 dimensional   • Spatial – utilization of
  representations               space
• Artifactual – 3             • Temporal – utilization of
  dimensional                   time
  representations and         • Olfactory – taste and
  objects                       smell
• Audio – use of nonverbal
  sounds and silence
          CULTURE SHOCK!!!
• It is inevitable but is rarely fatal.
• Occurs when two or more cultures collide.
   – Oriental students in Costa Rica.
   – Hot climate cultures vs. Cold climate cultures.
• Learned worldview cues no longer function
• Multilevel, multifaceted, & goes both ways.
• Many have tried to define but it’s primarily an
      emotional reaction to a shaken world.
         Culture Shock Stages
• Culture Surprise (Tourist/Honeymoon)
  –   Sights
  –   Sounds
  –   Smells
  –   Money
  –   Customs
• Lasts from a few weeks to a few months
  – How long you will be there
  – Why you are there
         Culture Shock Stages
• Rejection Stage
   – Islands of the home culture
   – “Us” and “We” vs. “Them” and “They.”
   – Caricature and ridicule of nationals

• This stage can last from a few months to a
  couple of years. It depends on:
   – How quickly you bond with the culture.
   – How quickly you learn the language.
   – How well you can remember why you are there.
         Culture Shock Stages
• Recovery
  – Cultural assimilation (going native)
     • Sounds great but not healthy
     • God made you who you are
  – Cultural acceptance and adaptation
     • Bonding with the culture, humor, friends
     • It’s not wrong, it’s not stupid, it’s just different.
  – Culture tension/stress
     • Always on a slow burn.
     • Nationals are never accepted as equals
          Culture Shock!!!
• Reverse culture shock sets in when you
  return home.
• USA is parents’ home, not the kids’.
• Prices, options, waste, wealth.
• Priorities and preferences.
• Phrases, clothing styles, dangers, etc.
• Not fatal either, forewarned is forearmed!

To top