Unit 2 by a008Ty


									                                       Unit 2

 The physiology of action potential:

Phases of action potential:

    Depolarization: Na influx
    Repolarization: K efflux
    Hyperpolarization: excess efflux of K
    Absolute refractory period: is a period in which another action potential can’t be
     generated no matter how strong is the stimulus. This is because all Na channels
     are open.
    Relative refractory period: is a period in which another action potential can be
     generated if the stimulus was stronger than threshold.
            Carbohydrates

          Mutarotation conversion: s the con ersion o       onosaccharides ro      β to α or .

          Reducing sugars: are sugars that have an oxygen atom of the anoromic carbon is not

           attached to any other structure. All disaccharides are reducing sugars except

           SUCROSE because the oxygen atom of the anoromic carbon is involved in the

           glycosidic bond (α1- β2)

          Disaccharides:

                   Maltose: Glucose-Glucose (α1-β4)

                   Sucrose: Glucose-Fructose (α1-β2)

                   Lactose: Glucose-Galactose β (1-4)

                   Cellibose: Glucose- Glucose β (1-4)

                   Isomaltose: Glucose- Glucose (α1-β6)

              Polysaccharides:

                   Starch: is made of amylose and amylopectin which can be digested
Found in
 plants            Cellulose: is not branched and not digested

                   Glycogen: highly branched and can digested
             Forms of lipid in the body:

Forms of lipid in the body                                             Types of lipid

Lipid droplet (the main storage form in the body)                      Hydrophobic

Micelles                                                               Amphipathic

Bimembrane                                                             Amphipathic

Surface layer (in the alveoli)                                         Amphipathic

Lipoprotiens (Transport form of lipid in the body)                     Amphipathic and hydrophobic

Liposomes (unilaminall)                                                Amphipathic

Bagosomes (Mutilamminal; which are similar to golgi and nerve          Amphipathic

myline sheath)

                Hydrophobic lipids: - Triglycerides

                                 - cholestrol ester

                                 - wax

                                                      Branched (phenytic acid)

                                                      Un-Branched (palmatic acid)
        Fatty acids:

                                                      Saturated (phenytic acid and palmatic acid)

                                                                                        Unessential: that have
                                                      Unsaturated                       no = in N3, N6,N 9

                                                                                     Essential: that have =
                                                                                     in N3 (Linolenic acid),
                                                                                     N6 (Lineolic acid) and
                                                                                     N9 (oleic acid)
    Cell membrane and components:

Plasma membrane is made of3 main components:

   1. Lipids (Phospholipid, cholesterol, & glycolipid)

   2. Proteins (integral protein or peripheral protein)

   3. Carbohydrates (Glycolipids and glycoprotein that forms cell goat called

Organelles            Structure               Function                 Organelles             Function
1- Cytoskeleton                               Cytoskeleton             5- Lysosomes (are      Digestion of
   A. Microfilament                           1.supports the           characterized by low   unwanted structured,
   B. Intermediate                            cytoplasm 2. Maintain    Ph and degrading       old organelles and
      filaments                               cell shape 3. Cell       enzymes)               phagosomes
   C. Microtubules        (A)           (B)   movement and
                                              organelle movement


2- Mitochondria                               1. ATP synthesis         6- Nucleus             Genetic modification:
                                              2. Citric acid cycle                            transcription, and
                                              3. Urea cycle                                   replication
                                              4. Respiratory chian
                                              5. β Oxidation
3- Endoplasmic                                Protein synthesis by     7- Nucleolus           Ribosome synthesis
reticulum                                     ribosomes and then
                                              proteins are released
                                              to the golgi apparatus
4- Golgi apparatus                            Post translational
                                              modification such as
                                              phosphorylation and

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