Chapters 1 2 Notes Guide by bsN2jI5X

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									                                               Name_________________
                                                           Hour_____

                  Chapter 1 Notes: The Science of Biology

I.    What is Science?
      A. The goal of science:




      B.    Science is:
           1.
               a. evidence 
               b. from evidence, we form a _____________________

           2.
                a. scientific ideas are not:
                b. from new evidence we can:



           3.
                a. scientific ideas are open to:
                b. as a result, scientists work together to:

II.   The Scientific Method
      A.
         - focus on things that can be ___________
      B.
         - “educated guess” based upon:
      C.
         1. Variable:
          2. Controlled Experiment: tests the effect of _______
             _______________________ by changing it while
             keeping:
             * some investigations called ______________________
             examine organisms in ___________________________
             —as a result, it is virtually impossible to control all
             variables
     D.
     E.
        1. Was the hypothesis correct?
        2. What can you conclude?
     F. Theory vs. Law
        1. Theory:



          2. Law:



III. Studying Life
     A. Characteristics of Living Things
         1. Made up of one or more:
            a. cell:
            b. unicellular:
            c. multicellular:
         2.
            a. asexual:
            b. sexual:
         3. Based on a:
            - _______ determines the inherited traits of almost
               every living organism on Earth
         4.
            a. ____________: change in size
            b. ____________: change in form
    5.
         a. metabolism: building up or breaking down materials to:

         b. source of energy for all life on Earth:
            - plants use sun to make energy:

            - animals must eat organisms to gain energy:

    6.
         a. environment is constantly changing
         b. ____________ causes _______________
    7.
         - homeostasis: process by which:



    8.
         a. when the environment changes, organisms have 3
            choices:
            1. __________________ - inherited trait that helps
               organisms survive in a particular environment
            2. __________________ – move to another area
            3. __________________ – die out
         b. evolution:



B. Organization Levels –
    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.
         5.

         6.

         7.

         8.

         9.

         10.

         11.

IV.   Tools and Procedures in Science
      A.
         1. length =
         2. mass =
         3. volume =
         4. temperature =
      B.
         - used to:
      C. Microscopes:



         - Types of microscopes
             a. light microscope
                1. uses beams of _____________ passing through
                    _________ to magnify an object
                2. can magnify objects about _________ times
                3. stain used to:
       b. electron microscope
          1. uses a beam of _______________ focused by
              ____________________
          2. advantages
              - greater magnification (up to __________ times
                 greater than light microscopes)
          3. disadvantages
              -
              - cannot study:
          4. types
              a. transmission electron microscope (______)
                  -
              b. scanning electron microscope (______)
                  -

D. Laboratory Techniques
   1.
      - used to grow large amounts of:
   2.
      - used to:
   3.
      - molecules are separated according to:

   4.
   - used to separate components of a:
                   Chapter 2 Notes: The Chemistry of Life

V. The Nature of Matter

       A. Atom:

       B .Element:

              1. Represented by a:
                 (example:                                  )
              2. Most common elements in living things:

             Compound:

VI.   pH Scale
       A.    Used to measure:

              1.      more H+ than water =

              2.      less H+ than water =

              3.      equal H+ to water =

       B.     pH Scale




               Acids get ____________ as numbers get

                   _____________

               Bases get ____________ as numbers get
                   _____________

         C.   Each number on the scale is a factor of ______
              example:
                   pH 5 is ______ times more acidic than pH 6

                    pH 4 is ______ times more acidic than pH 6

                    pH 3 is ______ times more acidic than pH 6




VII. Carbon Compounds

     A. 4 major groups of organic compounds

                     1.

                     2.

                     3.

                     4.

    B.    Carbohydrates
             1.   Main source of:

              2.     Monosaccharides

                     -    examples:
      3.    Disaccharides

            -   examples:



      4.    Polysaccharides

            -   examples:

                a.   Glycogen:

                b.   Starch:

                c.   Cellulose:

                d.   Chitin:



C. Lipids

     1. Fats:

      2. Phospholipids

      3. Steroids
           a.    examples:

      4. Waxes
          b.   used for waterproofing:
D.   Nucleic acids: 2 kinds of nucleic acid:

     1. Deoxyribonucleic acid (______)

                   - stores:

                   - codes for instructions on how to make

                   ________________

     2. Ribonucleic acid ( __________ )

                   - carries out:



E.   Proteins

     1.   functions of proteins:

          a.    structural:



          b.    movement:



          c.    transport:



          d.    storage:



          e.    defense:
                     f.     regulation:

                     g.     biochemical control:



VIII. Enzymes

      A.   Catalyst: a substance that:



      B.   Enzyme: _____________ that acts as a catalyst

      C.   Substrate:

      D.   How do enzymes work?

           - ________________________ Hypothesis

                1.        enzyme attaches to ______________ at a

                          place called an ______________________

                2.        enzymes are specific –



                3.        enzyme-substrate complex causes:



                4.        once the reaction is complete,

								
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