Intrapersonal Aspects of Suicide Terrorism by a008Ty

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Verified Preparedness
  Developing and Evaluating
Emergency Plans and Capabilities
        with Exercises
     Michael Petrie, EMT-P, MBA, MA
        Visiting Associate Professor
Center for Homeland Defense and Security
        Naval Postgraduate School
                                   Agenda

•   Definition and Purposes of Exercises
•   Outcomes, Inputs, Processes and Outputs
•   Type of Exercises
•   Exercise Considerations
•   Exercise Evaluation
•   Capability Development and Improvement
•   Essential Concepts
•   Questions and Comments
                                             Definition and Purpose


Exercise: An instrument to train for and
practice prevention, vulnerability
reduction, response and recovery
capabilities in a risk-free environment.

                                                 Office for Domestic Preparedness
                                                 US Department of Homeland Security



U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Domestic Preparedness, Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation
Program, Washington D.C.: May, 2004, 11.
                   Definition and Purpose

• Develop, test and validate policies, plans,
  procedures, training, equipment, and
  agreements
• Clarify and train personnel in roles and
  responsibilities
• Improve individual and team performance
• Improve interagency coordination
• Identify gaps in resources
• Strengthen relationships
• Unfreeze personnel and organizations
                           Capability Metrics


 Inputs     Processes      Outputs       Outcomes




Plans        Training     Capabilities    Environment's
Equipment    Drilling     Epidemiological response to
Personnel    Exercising   Surveillance    outputs
                          Decontamination
                                   Outcomes

• Interaction of output with
  environment
• Surveillance, treatment,
  vaccination, isolation of x K
  victims.
• Expensive, medically
  contraindicated, not legal      Capabilities
• Low frequency-high stakes       Environment’s
  events                          response to
• Proxy measures, such as         Epidemiological
  input, processes and outputs    Surveillance
                                  Decontamination
                              Inputs
• Resources used to
  produce outputs
• Assures the presence
  of output precursors
• Simple and
  inexpensive to
  evaluate
• Can diagnose failure
  to achieve output      Plans
                         Equipment
• May mislead-inputs
                         Personnel
  may must be
  supported by
  processes
                            Processes
• Actions taken to
  achieve an output
• Relatively inexpensive
  to evaluate
• More desirable than
  input measures
• Can diagnose failure
  to achieve output
                           Training
• May mislead–             Drilling
  processes must           Exercising
  support the desired
  output
                              Outputs
• Product of input and
  processes
• Best indicator of
  preparedness
• Capture intangibles
  that influence
                          Capabilities
  preparedness            Epidemiological
• Can be expensive,       Surveillance
  time-consuming, or      Decontamination
  difficult to evaluate
                               Types of Exercises
• Discussion-Based
  Exercises
• Operations-Based
  Exercises
• ODP identifies stair
  step approach
   • Complexity
   • Participant stress
   • Expense
• Different Functions
   • Develop or Evaluate
     Preparedness
   • Inputs, Process, Output
                            Types of Exercises
Discussion-Based
Exercises
• Starting point in
  building-block
  approach
• Strategic policy issues
• Used to educate,
  inform and develop
  plans, policies, and
  agreements
• Used to test elements
  of policies, plans, and
  agreements
• Actual resources are
  not used
               Discussion-Based Exercises
    Seminars
•   First tier in building block approach
•   Used to orient participants about plans,
    strategies, policies or concepts
•   Informal discussion led by seminar leader
•   Lack of time constraints by no real-time
    portrayal of events
•   Low-stress environment, using lectures,
    panels, discussion cases, and experts
                Discussion-Based Exercises
  Workshops
• Second tier in building block approach
• Focused on specific issue
• Focus on achieving a product (plan/policy)
    • EOPs, mutual aid agreements, exercise or
      improvement plans
•   Increased participant interaction
•   Train groups in coordinated activities
•   Collect or share information/perspectives
•   Low stress, no fault, non-time constrained
               Discussion-Based Exercises
    Tabletop Exercises (TTXs)
•   Third tier in building block approach
•   Key officials deliberatively discussing
    simulated situations (ConOps Planning)
•   Assess and practice plans, policies,
    systems
•   Troubleshooting problems
•   Basic and advanced TTXs
              Discussion-Based Exercises
  Games
• Competitive simulation involving two or
  more teams in assumed real-life situation
  • Presented with branching scenarios that
    incorporate past decisions
• Tests understanding of interrelated
  processes
• Explore decision making processes and
  consequences of decisions
                           Types of Exercises
Operations-Based
Exercises
• Involves response of
  personnel and assets
• Used to validate
  plans, policies and
  systems
• Determine actual
  capabilities and gaps
• Exercises may
  approximate actual
  conditions
• Components of
  exercise are real-time
             Operations-Based Exercises
• Drills
• Supervised, coordinated activity to test a
  single function in a single agency
• Used to train or test equipment or policies
• Practice and maintain skills
• Performance measured against standards
• Instant feedback in a realistic environment
• Performance in isolation
              Operations-Based Exercises
  Command Post Exercises (CPX)
• Tests individual capabilities, multiple
  functions or interdependent groups of
  functions
• Used to exercise plans, policies and staffs
  in CPs, EOCs, and DOCs
• Simulates reality of operations in a
  functional area
  • Movement of field personnel and assets are
    simulated
• Presents complex and realistic problems in
  a very stressful environment
              Operations-Based Exercises
  Full Scale Exercises (FSEs)
• Most complex step in exercise cycle
  • Validation of elements tested in other exercises
• Comprehensive evaluation of capability
  • Involves Command Post, EOC, and field
    response
  • Interagency, multi-function
  • Evaluates plans, equipment, training, personnel
• Very stressful, real-time play simulating
  actual operation
• Safety, logistic, and control considerations
                            Evaluation

• Players’ Hotwash
• Facilitator/Controller/
  Evaluator Debrief
• After Action Analysis
  and Report
• Improvement Plan
• Improvement Tracking
• Deficiencies identified
  in exercises must be
  corrected in future
  agency practices
                    Capability Development-
                        Improvement Cycle
          ConOps
          Development/       Policy and Procedure
          Revision           Development/Revision


Improvement Plan

                                    Training

     Evaluation


                              Discussion-Based
          Operations-Based    Exercises
          Exercises
                        Exercise Considerations

• Exercise Planning and Scheduling
  •   Controllers
  •   Evaluators
  •   Simulation Cell
  •   Logistics
• Safety Oversight
• Training is perishable: Initial and recurring
  training
                          Essential Concepts
• All exercises can orient, inform, and train
• Most inputs and processes can be
  evaluated by the correct combination of
  discussion and operationally-based
  exercises
• Only drills or full scale exercises can
  evaluate outputs
  • To determine real capability, a full scale
    exercise must sufficiently approximate real-
    world conditions
                           Essential Concepts
• Exercises should be based on pre-defined
  scenarios
  • Based upon specific scenarios from NPS 15
    scenarios.
• Self assessment may be inaccurate.
  • Different interpretation of same metrics
  • Politically-based “spin control” reporting
• Exercises without evaluation are
  meaningless
                         Essential Concepts
    Exercising to Train
•   A process, not an action
•   “Precious Time” Training
    24 hours before attack—the time to train
    everyone
•   “People do not rise to the occasion,
    they sink to their lowest
    common level of training”
•   Displace “lore” with fact
                                    Review

•   Definition and Purposes of Exercises
•   Outcomes, Inputs, Processes and Outputs
•   Type of Exercises
•   Exercise Considerations
•   Exercise Evaluation
•   Capability Development and Improvement
•   Essential Concepts
•   Questions and Comments
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Comments and Questions
      Michael Petrie
     mgpetrie@nps.edu

								
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