Final Review: ODDS AND ENDS by uNq5Ch4a


									Final Review: ODDS AND ENDS

   1. What is the difference between a heterogeneous and homogenous mixture?

   2. Which of the following is not a homogeneous mixture?
      a. Gravel
      b. Sugar water
      c. A solution of copper (II) nitrate
      d. Sea water

   3. What factors affect the rate of a reaction?

                    Properties of acids                        Properties of bases
      Sour                                          bitter
      Proton donor                                  Proton acceptor
      Conducts an electrical charge                 slippery
      Reacts with metals                            Turns red litmus paper blue
      Turns blue litmus paper red

   4. How do you determine the pH of a strong acid or base
   5. What are the pH’s of the following solutions:

       a.   1.5 x 10-8 M
       b.   2.3 x 10-4 M
       c.   3.6x 10-7 M
       d.   1.9 x 10-11M

   6. Which gases contribute to the greenhouse effect and global warming?

   7. Properties of polar compounds ( WILL NEED TO DETERMINE GEOMETRY OF MOLECULES)

      Polar compounds                               Nonpolar compounds
      Conduct electricity in solutions              Do not conduct electricity in solution
      Dissolve in polar solvents like water         Dissolve in nonpolar solvents
      Possess relatively high melting points        Possess relatively low melting points

   8. Remember the definition of equilibrium

   9. Shifting reactions at equilibrium

       Consider the following reaction:   N2(g) + 3H2(g) ↔2NH3(g) + Energy
       How to shift the reaction to the right

        a.   Increase the concentration (or pressure) of N2
        b.   Increase the concentration (or pressure) of H2
        c.   Decrease the concentration (or pressure) of NH3
        d.   Increase the overall pressure of the system
        e.   Decrease the temperature

Some last thoughts about reactions:

Low of conservation of matter: : N2(g) + 3H2(g) ↔2NH3(g) + Energy
  A balanced reaction shows us that matter can neither be created nor destroyed:

Oxidation reduction:

                                       Mg + FeCl2  Fe + MgCl2

         Magnesium goes from a charge of 0 to a charge of 2+ therefore it is being
         oxidized. Oxidized means loss of electrons and Mg  Mg2+ + 2e-

         Fe is being reduced because it is going from a charge of 2+ to a charge of 0.
         Reduced means gain of electrons and Fe2+ + 2e-  Fe

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