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Manual by wuyunyi

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									              A GUIDE FOR EMPLOYER S

Employment and Hearing Loss




Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services
     Office for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing



   Funded by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid,
   Medicaid Infrastructure Grant, CFDA No. 93.768
     Wisconsin Department of Health and Family
         Services/Pathways to Independence
Table of Contents
  INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................... 1
COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES ................................................................................................ 2
  ONE-TO-ONE SITUATIONS ................................................................................................................... 3
  IN GROUP SITUATIONS......................................................................................................................... 5
  WRITTEN MESSAGES ........................................................................................................................... 7
  BASIC SAFETY CONCERNS ................................................................................................................... 8
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ....................................................................................................... 9
  LIVING AND WORKING AS AN ADULT WHO IS DEAF ......................................................................... 10
  METHODS OF COMMUNICATION ........................................................................................................ 10
    Speechreading ............................................................................................................................... 10
    Writing and Sharing Notes ............................................................................................................ 10
    Speech ............................................................................................................................................ 11
    Gestures and Facial Expression .................................................................................................... 11
    Interpreters .................................................................................................................................... 11
  ENVIRONMENTAL AND PERSONAL FACTORS THAT MAY INFLUENCE COMPREHENSION .................... 12
    Speaker .......................................................................................................................................... 12
    Listener .......................................................................................................................................... 12
  REACTIONS FREQUENTLY REPORTED BY CO-WORKERS.................................................................... 13
  DO YOU WORK WITH A DEAF PERSON? ............................................................................................ 14
  TIPS FOR TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION WITH HARD OF HEARING PEOPLE ....................................... 16
  IS YOUR PLACE OF EMPLOYMENT DEAF FRIENDLY? .......................................................................... 17
    TELEPHONE ................................................................................................................................. 17
    TERMINOLOGY ............................................................................................................................ 17
    VIDEOS ......................................................................................................................................... 17
    DIVERSITY AFFAIRS ................................................................................................................... 17
    RECRUITING ................................................................................................................................ 17
    VOICE MAIL/EMAIL .................................................................................................................... 17
    SOCIAL EVENTS .......................................................................................................................... 17
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT ................................................................................... 18
  MEMORANDUM ON THE REFUSAL TO HIRE DEAF EMPLOYEES DUE TO PERCEIVED
  SAFETY RISKS ............................................................................................................................... 19
  MEMORANDUM ON THE RIGHTS OF DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING EMPLOYEES TO
  REASONABLE ACCOMMODATIONS UNDER THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT
  .......................................................................................................................................................... 20
  TITLE I OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT: RIGHTS OF A DEAF WORKER
  WITH A HEARING ASSISTANCE ANIMAL ................................................................................ 22
ACCOMMODATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY .............................................................................. 24
  AMPLIFIED TELEPHONE ..................................................................................................................... 25
  ASSISTIVE LISTENING DEVICES (ALD’S) .......................................................................................... 26
  COMMUNICATION ACCESS REALTIME TRANSLATION (CART) .......................................................... 27
  COMPUTER-ASSISTED NOTE TAKING ................................................................................................ 28
  COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY ................................................................................................................. 29
  C-PRINT............................................................................................................................................. 29
  HANDWRITTEN NOTES....................................................................................................................... 30
  PAGING DEVICES ............................................................................................................................... 31
  SIGN LANGUAGE INTERPRETERS ....................................................................................................... 32
  TTY/TDD ......................................................................................................................................... 33
  VIDEOPHONE ..................................................................................................................................... 34
  VIDEO REMOTE INTERPRETING (VRI) ............................................................................................... 35
  VIDEO RELAY SERVICE (VRS) .......................................................................................................... 36
APPENDIX ......................................................................................................................................... 38
  HOW TO SCHEDULE THE APPROPRIATE INTERPRETER ....................................................................... 38
  USING A SIGN LANGUAGE INTERPRETER ........................................................................................... 38
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................... 40
  EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................................................................... 40
    CDHH—Universalink .................................................................................................................... 40
    Harris Communications................................................................................................................. 40
    Ultratec, Inc. .................................................................................................................................. 40
  RELAY/VRS TELECOMMUNICATIONS SERVICE PROVIDERS .............................................................. 40
    Wisconsin Telecommunications Relay System (TRS) ..................................................................... 40
    Hamilton Internet Relay or Video Relay (VRS) ............................................................................. 40
    CSD-VRS ....................................................................................................................................... 41
    Sorenson VRS ................................................................................................................................ 41
  REAL TIME CAPTIONING RESOURCES ................................................................................................ 41
    A & A Captioning and CART Services .......................................................................................... 41
    Caption It, LLC .............................................................................................................................. 41
    Gramman Reporting, Ltd. .............................................................................................................. 41
    Great Lakes Reporting ................................................................................................................... 41
    Halma-Jilek Reporting, Inc............................................................................................................ 41
    Northwestern Court Reporters/Riverside Captioning Company ................................................... 42
    Colleen Reed Reporting ................................................................................................................. 42
    Quality Reporting Services, LLC ................................................................................................... 42
    Schindhelm-Peppey Reporting, an Eastwood Stein Company ....................................................... 42
    TSS-The Speech Source, Inc. ......................................................................................................... 42
    Verbatim Reporting, Limited ......................................................................................................... 42
  INTERPRETER REFERRAL/COORDINATION AGENCIES ........................................................................ 42
    CommunicationLink ....................................................................................................................... 43
    Coulee Region Interpreting Services ............................................................................................. 43
    Interpreting Solutions, Inc. ............................................................................................................ 43
    Professional Interpreting Enterprise, LLC (PIE) .......................................................................... 43
    TSS-The Speech Source, Inc. ......................................................................................................... 43
  VIDEO REMOTE INTERPRETING (VRI) SERVICE PROVIDERS .............................................................. 43
    Birnbaum Interpreting Service ...................................................................................................... 43
    Communication Services for the Deaf (CSD) ................................................................................ 43
    Sorenson Communications ............................................................................................................ 43
OFFICE FOR THE DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING ............................................................... 44
  SOUTHERN REGIONAL OFFICE - MADISON, WI .................................................................................. 44
  SOUTHEASTERN REGIONAL OFFICE - WAUKESHA, WI ...................................................................... 44
  NORTHEASTERN REGIONAL OFFICE - GREEN BAY, WI...................................................................... 44


                                                                           ii
  NORTHERN REGIONAL OFFICE - WAUSAU, WI .................................................................................. 44
  WESTERN REGIONAL OFFICE - EAU CLAIRE, WI ............................................................................... 44
DISABILITY ACCESS RESOURCES ............................................................................................ 45
     Department of Justice .................................................................................................................... 45
     United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) ........................................... 45
     Great Lakes ADA & Accessible IT Center ..................................................................................... 45
     Job Accommodation Network ........................................................................................................ 45
     Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development (DWD) .......................................................... 45
     Wisconsin Assistive Technology Resource Center ......................................................................... 45
     WorkSource Wisconsin .................................................................................................................. 45
LIST OF ACRONYMS ..................................................................................................................... 46




                                                                       iii
                                                                              i
                                                                          Section i




Introduction




I
     n recent years it has become much more common to see individuals with disabilities
     involved in all areas of community living. The passage of the Americans with
     Disabilities Act (ADA) and the implementation of Titles I, II, and III guarantee the
     influx of individuals with disabilities into mainstream society will continue.

The ADA gives people with disabilities the right to access employment, public services,
transportation, leisure activities, educational opportunities, and telecommunications the same
as anyone else. As society continues to open its doors to people with disabilities, the chance
of encountering a person with a disability also increases.

However, unlike physical disabilities, encounters with individuals who are deaf, hard of
hearing or late deafened are frequently fraught with misunderstanding and frustration. The
communication barriers imposed by hearing loss require both the sender and receiver to
modify methods of exchanging information in order for comprehension to occur.
Unfortunately, most individuals are unsure how to proceed when meeting a person with a
hearing loss and stumble their way through the situation. The result is often a dissatisfied
consumer and service provider.

This manual is intended to alleviate the concerns related to communicating with deaf, hard of
hearing, and late deafened adults in the workplace. Hopefully you will find answers to your
questions, gain an understanding of the diversity of individuals with hearing loss, learn what
ADA requires, and discover a variety of ways technology can assist you.

The manual is organized in what is hoped to be an "employer friendly" manner. Important
information regarding communication in a variety of work situations is first with subsequent
sections providing more detailed information.
                                                                          1
                                                                           Section




Communication Strategies

For Employers:

Deaf, hard of hearing and late deafened individuals are employed in a multitude of situations.
When provided with the appropriate accommodations they possess the same ability to
become productive, valued employees as the rest of the general population.

Each individual with a hearing loss is unique and there is no one size fits all solution to
addressing their needs in the work environment. Individuals with hearing loss communicate
in different ways depending on a variety of factors. Some individuals are easily understood,
while others rely on sign language, hearing aids, note writing, speechreading, or a
combination of the preceding to communicate. The key to successfully employing an
individual with a hearing loss is to discover which combination of adaptations works well for
that person.

This section is meant to answer some of your concerns on employing the individual with a
hearing loss and suggests methods to enhance the communication process.




                                              2
One-to-One Situations


GET THE INDIVIDUAL'S ATTENTION BEFORE SPEAKING

The beginning of a conversation often holds a clue to what will be discussed. If you do not
first have the individual's attention they are likely to miss critical information which will then
need to be repeated. Calling the person's name, tapping them on the shoulder, waving your
hand, or some other visual method of gaining their attention prior to speaking is appropriate
and will be appreciated.

DESIGNATE THE TOPIC EARLY IN YOUR DISCUSSION

Many individuals with hearing loss rely to some extent on speechreading. Many words are
invisible on the mouth and can only be comprehended through the context in which they are
spoken. Identifying the topic being discussed enables the individual with a hearing loss to
better follow the conversation. Also, if the topic is changed suddenly, i.e. from business to
last week's football game, it is important to let the individual know.

SPEAK SLOWLY AND CLEARLY

If you tend to speak in a rapid manner it may be necessary to slow the pace of your speech
for the individual trying to speechread you. However, do not over exaggerate or yell. Over
exaggeration distorts speech and makes speechreading more difficult. If the individual utilizes
a hearing aid it is already amplifying your voice therefore yelling can be physically painful to
the individual's ears.

LOOK DIRECTLY TOWARD THE INDIVIDUAL WHEN SPEAKING

Avoid turning your head, writing on a board, or walking away while speaking. Individuals
with hearing loss rely on seeing your face to assist with communication. If they can't see you,
chances are you will not be "heard" either.

Individuals with hearing loss desire the same eye contact as others when communicating.
Even if you are using an interpreter, look at the individual with the hearing loss when
speaking.

AVOID STANDING IN FRONT OF WINDOWS OR LIGHTING WHEN
SPEAKING

The reflection from the sun or lights shining directly into an individual's eyes makes it
difficult for them to see the speaker and/or interpreter.




                                                3
IF YOU ARE NOT UNDERSTOOD, REPEAT ONE TIME AND THEN
REPHRASE IF NECESSARY

Often one word in a sentence or phrase makes it difficult to understand. If you have
repeated once and are still not understood, try saying the same thing but in a different way.
For example, "Do you want to go shopping?" to "Do you want to go to K-Mart?"

USE BODY LANGUAGE AND FACIAL EXPRESSION TO FACILITATE
COMMUNICATION

Often a simple gesture or facial expression can assist the individual with a hearing loss in
understanding. Be sure your body language matches your intentions. One of the most
confusing and frustrating situations for an individual is when a speaker says one thing but
their body language is saying something else.

BE POLITE

If the phone rings, someone knocks on the door, etc., inform the person the phone is ringing
or someone is at the door. NEVER just start conversing with another person as though the
person with a hearing loss were not there.

TO ENSURE COMPREHENSION HAS OCCURRED, ASK QUESTIONS
THAT REQUIRE MORE THAN "YES" OR "NO" RESPONSES

Living with a hearing loss can be extremely frustrating and the opportunities for others to
become frustrated with the communication process are many. As a result, some individuals
will attempt to bluff their way through rather than admit not understanding. To prevent
frustrations and misunderstandings from occurring, it is better to ask open ended questions
which require more than a one word response.




                                             4
In Group Situations


PROVIDE APPROPRIATE SEATING ARRANGEMENTS

Arrange the room in a way that best serves the individual with hearing loss. For a person
who relies on speechreading, seating near the speaker may be best. If an interpreter is being
used, the interpreter normally will stand close to the speaker so both the speaker and
interpreter can be seen at the same time. If a group discussion will take place, a round or
semi-circular table is best as it allows the individual to see each speaker. Make it a practice to
ask the individual with the hearing loss what arrangement(s) will work best.

PROVIDE NEW VOCABULARY AND JARGON BEFORE THE MEETING

New and unfamiliar words or jargon are nearly impossible to speechread or interpret the first
time and spelling a word the individual does not know the meaning of provides little help.
Deaf or Hard of Hearing people, interpreters, or captioners will appreciate this information
before the meeting begins. An explanation of acronyms, brief outlines or notes are also
beneficial to aid in understanding.

AVOID WALKING OR WRITING ON OVERHEADS OR BOARDS
WHILE SPEAKING

It is extremely difficult to watch the speaker who is pacing back and forth, looking down at
an overhead, laptop, or worse, turning her/his back to view a Power Point presentation,
overhead, or to write on a board while speaking. The individual with hearing loss needs to
see the speaker completely. Ensure that anyone relying on an interpreter has a clear sightline
to the interpreter.

USE VISUAL AIDS WHEN POSSIBLE

A picture is worth a thousand words and can often assist in communicating a concept much
easier. Just remember to give the person a chance to look at the visual before it is explained.
It is physically impossible to watch a speaker and look at a visual aid simultaneously.

ESTABLISH A PROCEDUR E FOR TURN TAKING

An individual with a hearing loss can only comprehend one person at a time. All individuals
involved in a meeting need to adhere to appropriate turn taking with only one person
speaking at a time. An example is to ask that anyone wishing to speak raise their hand and
wait for acknowledgement before beginning.

REPEAT QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS

Remember the individual with a hearing loss cannot hear or see questions which are being
asked from behind or out of their sight line. Best practice is to develop the habit of repeating
questions or comments made by members in the audience.
USE HANDS ON TRAINING WHEN POSSIBLE

What sometimes can be difficult to explain on paper can be easily understood by
demonstration. Whenever possible use a hands-on approach to train individuals with hearing
loss.

USE A NOTETAKER OR CAPTIONER

If information shared is of vital importance it is a good idea to arrange for a notetaker or to
provide captioning service for the individual with a hearing loss. What is not apparent to
many people is the physical impossibility of watching a speaker and trying to write notes at
the same time. If captioning services are used, a copy of the text or transcript may be
available to give to the deaf or hard of hearing individual. It is recommended that you consult
with the captioning provider prior to the assignment if you would like a transcript for your
employee(s). Provider services vary and there may be an additional fee for this service.

OFFER FREQUENT BREAKS

To mitigate visual fatigue from watching an interpreter and/or speechreading it is good
practice to offer frequent short breaks.

KNOW WHEN AN INTERPRETER IS NEEDED AND HOW TO
ARRANGE FOR ONE.

For the deaf individual an interpreter may be needed when vital or complex information is to
be shared, i.e. benefit meetings, company restructuring meeting, changes in job
responsibilities, etc. For short, routine information a simple note, email, or instant message
of a few sentences may be an appropriate means of communication.




                                              6
Written Messages


The degree to which individuals with hearing loss prefer written communication varies
widely. If utilizing writing as a form of communication you will need to consider the English
reading and writing level of your employee. Although no reflection on intelligence, an
individual's ability to master English correlates highly with the severity of the hearing loss, age
at onset, and type of education. The following suggestions are general guidelines.



KEEP YOUR MESSAGE SIMPLE, SHORT, AND TO THE POINT

Don't use a million dollar word when a simpler one will do. For example, writing "Where do
you work?" versus "What is your occupation?"

IT IS NOT NECESSARY TO WRITE OUT EVERY WORD

Often just a few words or a phrase are enough for the person with a hearing loss to
understand.

FACE THE INDIVIDUAL WITH A HEARING LOSS AFTER YOU HAVE
WRITTEN YOUR MESSAGE

Allowing the person with a hearing loss to see and read your facial expression can help with
comprehension.

HIGHLIGHT OR UNDERLINE WORDS OR PHRASES OF
IMPORTANCE

Words or phrases of importance or those you wish to stress should be underlined or
highlighted in some manner. Remember, the individual with a hearing loss is unlikely to rely
on vocal inflection as a clue to intentions of the speaker.

ASSUME NOTHING!!

The backgrounds of individuals with hearing loss vary greatly! One individual may have
extensive background information to rely on, while another has very limited experience to
draw from. For some individuals this may even mean common work routines, such as when
and how often one may take breaks, might need to be explained. If in doubt, always ask the
person with the hearing loss.

USE VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS

The use of visual representations, charts, or techniques whenever possible will help clarify
and enhance explanations for the individual with a hearing loss.
Basic Safety Concerns


One of the most common concerns in employing people who are deaf or hard of hearing is
safety—for the individual who is deaf or hard of hearing and for other employees and
customers.

An employer may not simply assume that safety risks warrant the refusal to hire workers who
have disabilities. Employment decisions must be made using objective, factual evidence—
not on subjective perceptions. (Refer to “Memorandum on the Refusal to Hire Deaf
Employees Due to Perceived Safety Risks” on page 21 of this manual.)

When considering the safety of an employee with a hearing loss, there are a variety of cost
efficient methods that can be utilized to minimize or eliminate any real or perceived risks.
Some basic solutions will be listed here with the understanding that you will find more
specific information under the section titled "Technology and Accommodations".

       Solicit the input of the employee who is deaf or hard of hearing for information and
        suggestions on accommodation choices.

       Raise awareness of all employees by providing training on hearing loss and safety.

       Review safety procedures with appropriate accommodations.

       Designate a responsible person who works nearby to alert the individual with a
        hearing loss to unanticipated events or emergencies.

       Install and use visual alerting devices.

       Post directional and safety signs.
                         2
                         Section




Additional Information
Living and Working as an Adult Who is Deaf


Deafness is a unique disability. Unlike individuals with physical disabilities, individuals who
are deaf do not view themselves as "disabled." This is due to the fact that any
communication difficulties encountered can be overcome with proper education,
information, or technology. Also, among themselves, where American Sign Language is the
norm, communication is not a problem and thus no disability exists. This leads to the
formation of a separate deaf community and corresponding culture.

The deaf community is not simply camaraderie with others who have similar physical
condition. It is a true culture like any other minority group that shares a common language
and experiences. The majority of people who are deaf have attended residential schools or
special programs for the deaf, learned to rely on vision to access information, use American
Sign Language as their primary mode of communication, and share a culture of jokes,
experiences, and traditions. Deaf culture is not passed down directly from parents to children
since 90% of deaf children are born to hearing parents who have no connection to the deaf
world. Rather, Deaf culture is passed down from the older generation of deaf adults to the
younger generation of deaf people. For many of these individuals deaf friends are as
important, if not more important, than family as a source of support and guidance.

Successfully working with people who are deaf requires respecting and understanding their
culture as well as how it differs from hearing culture.

Methods of Communication

Speechreading
It is a myth that most deaf or hard of hearing people can speechread. The best speechreaders
in an ideal "one-to-one" situation comprehend 25% to 30 % of what is said. Furthermore,
60% of English words can look identical to another word without the benefit of sound, i.e.
baby and maybe or Fridays and fried eggs. When you consider that most deaf individuals
have never heard the language they are being asked to speechread, it is easy to understand
how misunderstandings could result.

Do not assume that a person who is deaf can speechread; some do, some don't. The ability
to speechread has no correlation with intelligence. It is rather a skill that some individuals
master but the majority finds frustrating at best.

If you are relying on this method of communication, please refer to other sections of this
manual for techniques that may enhance the process.

Writing and Sharing Notes
Some people who are deaf may feel comfortable using written notes for some
communications. They may respond either in writing or by speaking. However, for many
deaf individuals English is their second language. American Sign Language is their "native"
language, and as different from English as night is to day. For these individuals reading or
writing English may be difficult or nearly impossible. If the situation requires use of notes,
short, simple, direct sentences should be utilized.

Reading material (training manuals, assembly directions, etc.) written for a general audience is
often difficult for individuals with a hearing loss to comprehend. In these situations, it may
be necessary to seek the services of a qualified interpreter. Remember if the material being
presented is important or complex it is vital it be in the person's native language! An analogy:
Would you want to read critical information regarding your health in your second language,
French, or in your native language, English? Which would you understand better? Which
would be less likely to lead to a misunderstanding? The same holds true when working with a
deaf person and American Sign Language.

Speech
The majority of individuals who grew up deaf have had years of speech therapy. However,
due to the fact that they cannot monitor their own voices, many are not proficient in this
area. Their speech is often perceived as loud, distorted, unintelligible, or otherwise not
appropriate. As a result, though many deaf can “speak” they choose not to, preferring to rely
on other methods of communication. This choice should be respected and never viewed as a
reflection of intelligence. Speech or lack thereof, is not an indication of intelligence.

Gestures and Facial Expression
We all use gestures and facial expressions every day. Deaf people have learned to depend on
them for clues to meaning when communicating. Do not be afraid to use gestures, body
language, or facial expression when communicating with a deaf person. Often a simple
gesture can be worth a thousand words: pointing to an object you are discussing, shrugging
your shoulders when you "don't know,” etc.

Also, make an effort to have your body language and facial expression match the intent of
your words. Remember, deaf individuals do not hear vocal inflection and will depend on
facial expression to assist them in deciding if it was meant to be serious or a joke. One of the
most confusing experiences a deaf person encounters is when an individual’s words are
“polite” or “pleasant” but their face and body language displays they are “frightened” or
“upset,” etc. If a deaf person is forced to choose, they will often believe your facial
expression and body language before your words.

Interpreters
Interpreting is discussed in another portion of the manual. However, please remember if the
information being exchanged will be lengthy, complex, or of vital importance to the
individual's well being, it is imperative a qualified interpreter be arranged. For these reasons,
most other methods of communication will not allow for sufficient comprehension by a
person       whose         native      language       is      American       Sign      Language.




                                               11
     Environmental and
 Personal Factors That May
 Influence Comprehension
Speaker                                        Listener
       voice intensity                               level of hearing loss
       voice projection                              type of hearing loss
       rate of speech                                use of hearing aid
       clarity of speech                             use of assistive
       facial expression                              listening device
       body language                                 attention level
       foreign accent                                motivation to hear
       facing listener                               expectations
       monotonous tone                               emotional state
       beard/mustache                                fatigue
       emotionality                                  distracting sensations
       mannerisms                                    distracting thoughts
       objects in mouth                              speechreading skill
       interest of message                           tinnitus
       relationship to listener                      tension level
       quality of interpreter                        manual
       quality of typist                              communication


These are some of the factors that people with hearing loss must deal with in communication
environments with others who are hearing. You can begin to understand why it is possible,
for example, that an individual who is hard of hearing may have little difficulty conversing in
a quiet office but have greater difficulty with more people present and/or in a larger room
with other distractions or background noise. Therefore, one must be careful not to use labels
such as “selective hearing” or make assumptions that the person with hearing loss is not
paying attention.
Reactions Frequently Reported by Co-Workers
Various emotions and reactions have been reported by hearing co-workers interacting with their deaf
colleagues. Providing your employees with an understanding of the cause of the emotion/reaction
through awareness training or small focus group discussions will often resolve misunderstandings
and/or diffuse situations before they become problematic for the hearing person, the deaf individual,
or the employer.

Frustration

        not knowing what to do to be understood

Irritation

        at having to repeat so often

Guilt feelings

        misunderstandings are my fault

Embarrassment

        when he/she obviously doesn't understand someone

Feeling burdened

        he/she is becoming too dependent on me

Feeling isolated

        not seeing friends and family very often

Experiencing loss of connection in the work relationship because of language barrier

Feeling somewhat bored

        restricted shared activities
        low expectations of the person

Being confused

        by the inconsistency in his/her understanding

Annoyed at having to elaborate and clarify a lot

Distressed

        when having to repeat in difficult situations

Uncertainty

        about whether or not he/she has understood me
Do You Work With a Deaf Person?
   Consider using signaling devices. They can be used to flash a light for the deaf
     person to alert them to doorbells, phones, warning systems, machines, etc. And,
     visual signaling devices may have benefits for hearing employees as well!

      Use visual cues when communicating. Using a round or oval table during meetings
       or a semi-circular arrangement is helpful. Reduce visual distractions by closing drapes
       or blinds, shutting the door, removing clutter, etc.

      Use tactile pagers to contact deaf employees.

      Use instant messaging if you have this capability.

      Include the deaf employee in social activities. Help this person to become part of the
       group during breaks, lunch, office "gossip," etc.

      Create a clear sightline for the deaf or hard of hearing person so he/she can see the
       speaker and/or interpreter. Seat the deaf person to his/her best advantage - e.g., near
       the speaker.

      Provide agenda and new vocabulary in advance of meetings. If this is not possible,
       write the terms on a chalkboard or overhead projector. If film or video is to be
       shown, make sure it is captioned or give the deaf person a brief outline in advance.

      Don't pace back and forth and/or cover your mouth while addressing a group when
       a deaf person is included. If using an interpreter, be careful not to block the deaf
       person’s view of the interpreter.

      Remember that a deaf person can only attend to one thing at a time. Do not expect
       the person to watch an interpreter, look at the speaker, and look at a transparency all
       at the same time!

      Use visual aids if possible. Make full use of charts, diagrams, visual presentations, etc.
       Give the deaf person time to read the information before starting to speak again.
       (This also benefits anyone, with or without a hearing loss, who may be a visual
       learner.)

      Slow the pace of communication slightly to facilitate understanding.

      Repeat questions and statements from people in the audience so the deaf person has
       access to that information.

      Remember it is difficult for deaf people to participate in group meetings because
       they are never sure of when other speakers have finished talking. Try to recognize
       the deaf person from time to time to give him/her an opportunity for questions or
       input.
   When training a deaf person for a new job, make it a "hands-on" experience if at all
    possible. Many individuals learn best by “doing.”

   Provide an interpreter whenever possible if that is the deaf person's preference. It
    will make the meeting easier for everyone.

   Provide a notetaker when possible to record information.




                                        15
Tips for Telephone Communication with Hard of Hearing People

     Eliminate background noise, speak slowly and clearly

     Begin call with a comment or two to allow the individual with a hearing loss to adjust
      to the sound of your voice

     Use short simple sentences but be careful not to patronize

     When asked to repeat, assume person has some hearing loss

     Repeat by rephrasing

     If the connection is bad, hang up and redial

     Check for understanding more than once during call

     Code words using a word that starts with the letter for difficult names

     Say each digit of a number (i.e. if giving an address, it may be clearer to say “three
      two nine one Main Street” instead of “thirty-two ninety-one Main Street”).

     Ask person to repeat back important information

     Hard of hearing people need special help with

          o High pitched voices - try to speak at a lower level

          o Speech accents - slow, slow, slow
Is your place of employment Deaf Friendly?


TELEPHONE
If your company lists a TTY number in the telephone book, in its corporate brochure, on
company letterhead, in promotional materials, or in paid advertisements are calls answered
by a receptionist who knows how to use a TTY correctly?

Do callers always get a TTY answering machine rather than a live body? If they leave a TTY
message, is the call returned in a timely manner?

Does staff responsible for call-handling know how to accept and/or use Relay?

TERMINOLOGY
In your company's brochures and other printed materials, is the term "hearing impaired" still
being used instead of the preferred term “deaf or hard of hearing?”

VIDEOS
Are corporate videos (e.g., training videos, recruiting videos) routinely produced with open
or closed captioning?

If not captioned, are scripts made available or interpreted?

DIVERSITY AFFAIRS
If your company has a Diversity Affairs/Diversity Recruiting Department, does it have a
TTY?

Does staff know how to use a TTY and/or the Relay Service?

Has Diversity Affairs ever produced a "Celebrate Diversity" type of videotape? Was it
captioned?

If your company offers "diversity training" to management and employees, is "deaf
awareness" ever included?

RECRUITING
Does your company ever hold "Open Houses" to recruit new employees?

If "YES," do announcements advertising the event mention that accommodations are
available upon request?

VOICE MAIL/EMAIL
Are important messages and broadcast announcements sent via voice mail, via email, or both
at your company?

SOCIAL EVENTS
When your company sponsors a social event, i.e., the annual holiday party or the company
picnic,   are    accommodations,         such         as      interpreters,     provided?
                                  3
                                  Section




Americans with Disabilities Act
The Americans with Disabilities Act-Communication Accommodations Project
             A Resource for Voluntary Compliance with the ADA

                                  A JOINT PROGRAM OF

The American Foundation for the Blind             National Center for Law and Deafness
Governmental Relations Department                  Gallaudet University
1615 M Street N.W., Suite 250                      800 Florida Avenue, N.E.
Washington, DC 20036                               Washington, DC 20002
(202) 223-0101                                     (202) 651-5343


MEMORANDUM ON THE REFUSAL TO HIRE DEAF EMPLOYEES
DUE TO PERCEIVED SAFETY RISKS
Thank you for your call and your interest in the employment rights of deaf people. As of
July 26, 1992, employers will be prohibited from discriminating against people with
disabilities under Title I of the new Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 42 U.S.C. 12111
et seq. Title I of the ADA extends this prohibition to virtually every employer in the United
States that employs 15 or more workers. (Employers with 25 or more workers must comply
by July 26, 1992; those with 15 to 24 employees will be covered two years later).

It is clear under the ADA that an employer may not simply assume that safety risks warrant
the refusal to hire disabled workers. The employer must be able to establish through
objective, medically supportable methods that there is genuine risk that substantial harm
could occur in the work place. 29 C.F.R 1630.2(r). The U.S. Department of Justice and the
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission have made it clear that any alleged threat
posed by a disabled applicant must be substantiated by the employer:

An employer . . . is not permitted to deny an employment opportunity to an Individual with a
disability merely because of a slightly increased risk. The risk can only be considered when it
poses a significant risk, i.e., high probability, of substantial harm; a speculative or remote risk
is insufficient . . . Determining whether an individual poses a significant risk of substantial
harm to others must be made on a case by case basis. The employer should identify the
specific risk posed by the individual.

        *   * *

Such consideration must rely on objective, factual evidence -- not on subjective perceptions,
irrational fears, patronizing attitudes, or stereotypes -- about the nature or effect of a
particular disability, or of disability generally.



Funded by a Grant from the U.S. Department of Justice
The Americans with Disabilities Act-Communication Accommodations Project
             A Resource for Voluntary Compliance with the ADA

                                A JOINT PROGRAM OF

The American Foundation for the Blind               National Center for Law and Deafness
Governmental Relations Department                   Gallaudet University
1615 M Street N.W., Suite 250                       800 Florida Avenue, N.E.
Washington, DC 20036                                Washington, DC 20002
(202) 223-0101                                      (202) 651-5343


MEMORANDUM ON THE RIGHTS OF DEAF AND HARD OF HEARING
EMPLOYEES TO REASONABLE ACCOMMODATIONS UNDER THE
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT

Thank you for your interest in the legal rights of deaf and hard of hearing employees under
the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), 42 U.S.C. 12101 et sec., prohibits most
employers from discriminating against persons with disabilities. These obligations are placed
upon all employers of 15 or more persons. These obligations will go into effect July 26,
1992, for employers with twenty-five or more employees and on July 26, 1994 for employers
with fifteen to twenty-four employees.

Under Title I of the ADA, employers are required to make reasonable accommodation to
the physical or mental limitations of an employee:

        It is unlawful for a covered entity not to make reasonable accommodation to the
        known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified applicant or employee
        with a disability, unless such covered entity can demonstrate the accommodation
        would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its business.

29 C.F.R. 1630.9 (a).

It is clear that reasonable accommodations include a provision of telecommunication devices
for the deaf (TDDs), and visual alarms and other accommodations to communicate audible
alarms and messages. There is also a provision for deaf employees who rely on sign
language, that a qualified sign language interpreter be present at any time important
communication is taking place. The ADA also requires reasonable transfer of nonessential
job duties to enable, for example, a deaf individual to perform work in which there is a small
amount of telephone responsibility. The regulation specifically list these accommodations in
its definition of reasonable accommodations:

Job restructuring; part-time or modified work schedules; reassignment to a vacant position;
acquisition or modifications of equipment or devices; appropriate adjustment or
modifications of examinations, training materials, or policies; the provision of qualified
readers or interpreters; and other similar accommodations for individuals with disabilities.
29 C.F.R. 1630.2 (o) (2) (ii).

We hope this information is of assistance to you in your efforts. Please let us know if you
have any questions, or if there is any further information or assistance we can provide.




                                            21
The Americans with Disabilities Act-Communication Accommodations Project
             A Resource for Voluntary Compliance with the ADA

                                 A JOINT PROGRAM OF

The American Foundation for the Blind                National Center for Law and Deafness
Governmental Relations Department                    Gallaudet University
1615 M Street N.W., Suite 250                        800 Florida Avenue, N.E.
Washington, DC 20036                                 Washington, DC 20002
(202) 223-0101                                       (202) 651-5343


TITLE I OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT: RIGHTS OF
A DEAF WORKER WITH A HEARING ASSISTANCE ANIMAL
Thank you for your recent request for information on the Americans with Disabilities Act,
specifically as it relates to the use of hearing assistance animals in the workplace. Title I of
the Americans with Disabilities Act, 42 U.S.C. 12111 et seq. (Title I), which goes into effect
July 26, 1992, for employers of twenty-five or more persons, prohibits employers from
discriminating against workers with disabilities. The U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission
regulation to Title I, 29 C.F.R. Part 1630, and the EEOC Interpretative Guidance published
thereto, 56 Fed. Reg. 35726 (July 26, 1991), outline the requirements this law places on
employers. Among other requirements, the regulations mandate that employers provide
reasonable accommodations to the disability of an employee, 29 C.F.R. 1630.9(a).



The protections afforded by Title I and its regulation clearly protect a deaf worker's right to
accompaniment by a hearing ear dog. The EEOC's Interpretive Guidance to this regulation
makes it clear that the definition of reasonable accommodation may include permission for a
worker to be accompanied by an assistance animal:

        It may also be a reasonable accommodation to permit an individual with a disability
        the opportunity to provide and utilize equipment, aids or services that an employer is
        not required to provide as a reasonable accommodation. For example, it would be a
        reasonable accommodation for an employer to permit an individual who is
        blind to use a guide dog at work, even though the employer would not be
        required to provide a guide dog for the employee.

56 Fed. Reg. at 35744.

It is clear from other sections of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) that hearing ear
dogs are recognized and protected by this law. For example, the U.S. Department of Justice
Regulation to Title III of the ADA requires public accommodations to admit service animals
for persons with disabilities, and defines service animals as follows:
Service animal means any guide dog, signal dog, or other animal individually trained to do
work or perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability, including, but not
limited to . . . alerting individuals with impaired hearing to intruders or sounds . . .

28 C.F.R. 36.104.



In its Analysis of this regulation, the Department of Justice has noted:

        This [rule] reflects the general intent of Congress that public accommodations take
        the necessary steps to accommodate service animals and to ensure that individuals
        with disabilities are not separated from their service animals. It is intended that the
        broadest feasible access be provided to service animals in all places of public
        accommodations, including movie theaters, restaurants, hotels, retail stores,
        hospitals, and nursing homes.

U.S. Department of Justice Analysis to its Regulation pursuant to Title III of the Americans
with Disabilities Act, 56 Fed. Reg. 35544 (July 26, 1991), at 35565.

Although hearing assistance dogs are generally not required to assist a deaf person directly in
his or her work, the dogs at the workplace are available to alert deaf workers to emergencies,
such as fire alarms. When a deaf worker is in an area without others present, the worker
would be unaware of the alarm without the dog. The deaf worker may also utilize the dog in
travel to and from the employment site. Due to the minimal burden the presence of the dog
places on the employer, the accommodation of keeping a hearing assistance dog at work is
reasonable and required under the federal law, and also under many state laws.

Central to these rights, of course, is the professionalism of the animal. The dog must be
trained specifically to the tasks required by the deaf person, and also must be a professional
and obedient animal. The employer may place reasonable restrictions on the behavior and
placement of the assistance animal at the job site.



We hope this information has been of assistance. If you have further questions, or if you
require further assistance, please do not hesitate to contact us.




                                              23
                                                                          4
                                                                           Section




Accommodations and Technology
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a federal civil rights law passed in 1990 created
to protect people with disabilities from discrimination in employment (Title I), in programs
and activities offered by state and local governments (Title II), and in accessing goods and
services offered in places of public accommodation, i.e. stores, hotels, restaurants, medical
facilities, etc. (Title III). Employers having 15 or more employees, employment agencies,
labor organizations, and joint labor-management committees must comply with Title I of the
ADA.

The Wisconsin Fair Employment Law (WFEL) is contained in Section 111.31 of the
Wisconsin Statutes. The purpose of WFEL is to protect the rights of people to employment
free of unlawful discrimination. People with disabilities, including those who may be deaf or
hard of hearing, are protected. All Wisconsin employers, public and private, employment
agencies, licensing agencies, and unions are covered regardless of the number of employees.

This section of the manual includes various accommodations that may be made for
individuals with a hearing loss, suggestions for use of the different accommodations, what
equipment may be necessary, where to find equipment, and funding assistance, if available. It
is strongly recommended to make it a practice to consult with the individual about how
he/she best communicates and what accommodation(s) work best for that individual and in
what situations.
Amplified Telephone
Sound is amplified as it comes into the receiver.

USE

     One-to-One telephone communication
     Hard of hearing individuals

BENEFITS

       Hearing aid/CI compatible
       Reasonable cost for telephones
       Corded and cordless models available
       Speakerphone models available
       Some models include ring alert flashing light

BARRIERS

     Can only be used for telephone communication (no text)
     May not be compatible with existing telephone system

EQUIPMENT NEEDED
     Amplified telephone model

SOURCE/COST

     Obtain from specialty vendors
     Costs range from $80 to $400 for Remote Control Speakerphone

Tax credits and deductions for ADA accommodations may be available for eligible
businesses through the IRS.

        Amplified Telephone—Corded Model                Amplified   Telephone—Cordless
                                                        Model




                                              25
Assistive Listening Devices (ALD’s)
ALD’s are amplification systems designed to help people hear better by improving signal to
noise ratio; speaker uses a microphone or transmitter; listener uses either a hearing aid switch
or a receiver compatible with the system.

SYSTEMS AVAILABLE

       Personal amplifiers (i.e. Pocketalker)
       FM systems—transmit sound via radio waves
       Infrared technology—transmit sound by invisible light beams
       Induction loop technology—based on electromagnetics

USES

       One-to-One communication
       Classroom/meeting use

BENEFITS

       Allows access for hearing aid or cochlear implant (CI) user
       One system can be used by multiple individuals
       Listener able to focus directly on sound source thereby reducing distractions from
        background noise

BARRIERS

       Individual must have hearing aid/CI compatibility or use receiver provided with
        system
       If multiple speakers, microphone must be passed
       Possibly limited range
       Infrared systems for indoor use only

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

       Personal amplifier—not wireless
       Portable FM, Infrared, or Loop systems
       Large area FM systems (installed)
       Loop system (installed)
       Infrared system (installed)



SOURCE/COST

       Obtain through specialty vendors
                                              26
      Costs can range from $150 for a personal amplifier to $2000 for a large area system
       (plus installation costs)

Tax credits and deductions for ADA accommodations may be available for eligible
businesses through the IRS.

       Personal FM—“Pocketalker”         Large Area FM System w/Receivers     Neckloop




Communication Access Realtime Translation (CART)
Realtime captioning—the instant translation of the spoken word into English text projected
to a large screen or other display using a stenotype machine, notebook computer, and real-
time software.

USES

      Small and large group meetings/conferences/trainings/workshops
      Use when verbatim conversation is essential to effective communication
      Primarily used by people who are hard of hearing and deaf who are fluent in English
       or do not use ASL

BENEFITS

      Word for word translation
      Skilled, professional providers

BARRIERS

      Advance scheduling necessary
      Requires provider trained in use of stenographic equipment
      Relies on fluency in the written language used

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

      LCD projector
      Screen or other visual display

Note: captioners usually provide their own steno machine and may provide a projector
and/or display

                                            27
SOURCE/COST

      List of CART providers available on ODHH website at
       http://www.dhfs.wisconsin.gov/sensory/CART/CARTFfrontPage.htm
      Contact individual or agency for fees

Tax credits and deductions for ADA accommodations may be available for eligible
businesses through the IRS.

Computer-Assisted Note Taking
A typist participates in a group activity and acts as note taker typing summaries of the
communication while the person who is deaf or hard of hearing either watches the computer
monitor or looks at the text projected on a wall or screen if a PC projector is used.

USES

      Group meetings/conferences/trainings/workshops

BENEFITS

      Relatively inexpensive (compared to CART)
      Does not require stenotype machine
      Current qualified staff may be available as typists

BARRIERS

      Information is not word for word
      Relies on fluency in the written language used

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

      Laptop or personal computer
      Word processing software
      Possibly PC projector

SOURCE/COST

      Current qualified staff
      Salary for existing staff

Wages for current staff to provide communication access may be eligible for ADA
accommodation tax credits and deductions through the IRS. Consult with a business tax
expert.



                                              28
Computer Technology
E-mail, Instant Messaging (IM), Internet Chat

USES

       One-to-One communication—take turns typing at same computer
       Group communication—i.e. email, Instant Messaging

BENEFITS

       E-mail common in many work environments
       Access multiple users

BARRIERS

       Relies on fluency in the written language used
       May not be real-time communication
       IM blocked by some systems

EQUIPMENT NEEDED
       Computer terminal or laptop
       Internet access
       E-mail capability and/or messaging software

C-Print
Computer based speech-to-text system using software application called C-Print Pro.
Captionists are trained in text-condensing strategies and in typing using an abbreviation
system requiring fewer keystrokes. Text can be displayed simultaneously to one or more
individuals in different ways, including additional computers (laptops) or display monitors.
Input can also be accomplished using voice.



USES

       Educational settings
       Business and community settings
       Professional development activities/workshops

BENEFITS

       Uses standard keyboarding (not steno machine)
       Text can be displayed to multiple users simultaneously
       Can be used interactively (captionist able to voice for deaf individual using C-Print)
                                              29
       Meaning-for-meaning translation
       Text can be printed out for reference
       C-Print training available online

BARRIERS

       Relies on fluency in the written language used
       Access to C-Print skill training may be limited

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

       Laptop available for each user with software installed
       Visual display (optional)
       Carrying case (if applicable)
       Automatic Speech Recognition software if voice input used

SOURCE/COST

       C-Print developed and distributed by National Technical Institute for the Deaf,
        Rochester, New York
       Cost considerations include hardware, software, captionist training
       Wages of current staff trained in C-Print captioning

Wages for current staff to provide communication access may be eligible for ADA
accommodation tax credits and deductions through the IRS. Consult with a business tax
expert.

Some equipment expenses may also be eligible for Small Business tax credits and deductions.

Handwritten Notes
USES

       Short, simpler communications

BENEFITS

       Readily achievable
       Inexpensive

BARRIERS

       Relies on fluency in the written language used



                                                30
EQUIPMENT NEEDED

      Pen/paper
      Dry erase board
      Chalkboard
      Text device or computer

Paging Devices
A personal on-site paging device transmits a signal from the base transmitter to a receiver
(the pager) through vibration and/or a numerical code display. These are local paging
systems that work within a specified area.

Text communication is available through cellular service providers. Devices models include
the T-Mobile Sidekick, Blackberry, Motorola My2Way, Palm Treo, etc.

USES

      One-to-One communication

BENEFITS

      Devices are readily available
      Employers and employees are able to access each other quickly in most instances

BARRIERS

      Limited service area with local paging systems
      Cellular service coverage may be limited in some areas

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

      Varies depending on type of system

SOURCE/COST

      Local Paging Systems Transmitters available from specialty vendors and
       communication service providers.
      Text communication/devices available through cellular service providers.
       (Illustration on next page.)




                                            31
    Blackberry Model Text Device                   Sidekick Model Text Device




Sign Language Interpreters
Qualified individuals who can both sign what is said in the language/mode best understood
by the deaf individual(s) and voice what is signed to the hearing individual(s). Qualified
interpreters will be familiar with any specialized vocabulary used during communication. The
majority of deaf individuals use American Sign Language (ASL). Interpreters are self-
employed service providers or employees of an interpreter referral agency or video remote
interpreting service. (Video remote interpreting will be discussed later.)

USES

       One-to-One communication, i.e. interviews, job reviews, job training
       Large or small group meetings/conferences/trainings/workshops

BENEFITS

       Communication is conducted in language best understood by deaf employee

BARRIERS

       Interpreter availability may be limited in some areas
       Qualifications vary
       Can be difficult to secure with short notice

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

       None (except as will be discussed under Video Remote Interpreting)

SOURCE/COST

       Fees will vary depending on qualifications—contact provider
       Interpreter referral agency fees include administrative costs
       ODHH Regional Offices maintain and distribute list of area interpreters.
       Statewide list of individual interpreters (by County) and interpreter referral agencies
        available on ODHH website at
        http://www.dhfs.wisconsin.gov/sensory/Interpreting/InterpreterDirectory.htm
       Consult with employee for interpreter preferences

                                              32
      Refer to Appendix for more information on scheduling and using Sign Language
       Interpreters

Tax credits and deductions for ADA accommodations may be available for eligible
businesses through the IRS.

TTY/TDD
A method of text communication usually over the telephone either direct (TTY to TTY) or
through Relay Service (TTY to Voice or Voice to TTY).

USES

      One-to-One communication via telephone
      Face-to-Face communication using turn taking on one device or using TTY trainer
       to connect two TTY devices without connection to telephone line
      Persons who are Deaf or Speech Impaired
      May be a preferred accommodation for person who is hard of hearing

BENEFITS

      Reasonable cost for TTY device(s)
      Relay services are free (regular long-distance charges would apply if applicable)
      Connects to regular phone line—does not require Internet access or DSL
      Real-time communication
      Possible to have printout of conversation depending on TTY model used

BARRIERS

      Relies on fluency in the written language used
      Must have TTY device or use Relay service
      Takes up space in work area
      TTY printouts (if applicable) can be used in court as evidence

EQUIPMENT NEEDED
      TTY device(s) or software program to use personal computer as TTY

SOURCE/COST

      Obtain through specialty vendors
      Costs range from about $200 for non-printing model to about $900 for printing
       model with large visual display for persons with low vision
      Accessories available for most models



                                             33
Tax credits and deductions for ADA accommodations may be available for eligible
businesses through the IRS.

TTY                             TTY w/Printer




Videophone
Stand alone video telephone (no computer required) that enables users to videoconference
using an Ethernet network cable, broadband cable, DSL or Ethernet Internet connection.
Monitor can be a standard television. Sign language users are able to make and receive calls
through Video Relay (VRS) services (see Video Relay Service). If each person has
videophone access and can communicate with each other without using an interpreter, they
can call directly to each other—using a Relay Service would not be required.

USES

       One-to-One communication
       Conferencing depending on access to equipment available

BENEFITS

       No computer required
       Communication between hearing and deaf employees can be conducted in language
        best understood by deaf employee
       Ideal for short communications
       Works with phone signalers for flashing lamp notification

BARRIERS

       Calls made through VRS must be between two different telephone numbers (users
        cannot be in adjoining workspaces or same room)
       Internet connection required

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

       High speed Internet connection
       Videophone, i.e. D-Link DVC-1000 or DVC-1100 i2Eye
       Monitor, i.e. standard television



                                            34
SOURCE/COST

      D-Link can be purchased through specialty vendors or retail outlets
      Price of D-Link varies based on model starting at approximately $200
      Internet service

               D-Link for Videophone




Video Remote Interpreting (VRI)
The use of video-conferencing equipment to provide sign language interpreting services
from a remote site. Deaf and hearing persons are in the same room. Interpreter is at a call
center, possibly in another city. VRI is also known as “Interpreting Online” or “IO.”

USES

      One-to-One communication
      Group meetings/conferences

BENEFITS

      Potential cost-savings--billing is for interpreter service only—not charged for indirect
       billable activities, i.e. administrative service coordination, portal time, travel expenses
      24/7 interpreter access
      Available in rural/remote areas where physical interpreter may be difficult to find
      Professionally trained—most will hold National Certification
      Meets consumer/client preference for communication accommodation

BARRIERS

      Requires access to video-conferencing equipment
      May not be as effective in very large conference/workshop situations

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

      DSL/High-speed Internet access
      Video-conferencing equipment, i.e. NetMeeting, Eye to Eye videophones,
       ohphonex, smithmicro Videolink, other equivalent videophones

                                              35
SOURCE/COST

       Fees for interpreting services vary—consult provider
       Cost of securing video-conferencing equipment

Tax credits and deductions for ADA accommodations may be available for eligible
businesses through the IRS.

Video-conferencing equipment may be eligible for tax credit/deduction based on reason for
installation and primary use.




Video Relay Service (VRS)
Free relay service enabling anyone to conduct video relay calls with family, friends, business
associates through certified ASL interpreters via high-speed Internet connection and
videophone.

USES

       One-to-One communication

BENEFITS

       Free (used through Internet Relay Service providers)
       Communication is conducted in language best understood by deaf employee
       Relay services available 24/7
       Can be used office-to-office or building-to-building (users cannot be in same
        room/adjoining workspace)
       Ideal for short communications



                                             36
BARRIERS

     Specialized equipment and Internet access required
     Cannot be used for persons in same room or adjoining workspaces (FCC regulations
      require calls are placed between two separate phone numbers)

EQUIPMENT NEEDED

     Videophone or webcam for deaf user
     Hearing user can use regular telephone

SOURCE/COST

     Various VRS providers, i.e. Sorenson VRS, Hamilton Relay VRS, Sprint
     No cost to use service




                                          37
Appendix

How to Schedule the Appropriate Interpreter
     Consult first with the employee to determine his/her preference for a particular
      interpreter and language preference.
     If employee has no preference, begin by contacting interpreters on the list who are
      Nationally Certified.
     If a Nationally Certified interpreter cannot be secured, contact Wisconsin State
      Verified interpreters from the list.
     State verified interpreters will have two levels
          o Interpreting (I)—used most often by/for people who are deaf whose first
              language is American Sign Language (ASL).
          o Transliterating (T)—a form of English signing used more often by/for
              people whose first language is English.
          o Level 1 indicates a higher level of skill than level 2. Only Level I2/T2 or
              above are eligible for placement on the ODHH distribution lists.
     ONLY interpreters who are Nationally Certified should be considered for serious,
      complex communications, i.e. medical, mental health, or any legal situation.

Using a Sign Language Interpreter
     Interpreters are bound by a Code of Professional Conduct (formerly, Code of
      Ethics) including strict confidentiality.
     Interpreters are there to facilitate communication—they should not add or delete
      information at any time.
     Do not ask the interpreter for his/her opinion or to perform any tasks other than
      interpreting.
     Attempt to secure the employee’s preferred interpreter if applicable.
     Interpreters generally work as independent contractors and establish his/her own fee
      schedule and billing practices. Interpreters may work through an interpreter referral
      agency. The agency then has an established fee schedule and billing procedure.
     Schedule an interpreter as far in advance as possible. An exception might be using
      Video Remote Interpreting (VRI).
     Look directly at the deaf person when speaking not at the interpreter.
     Speak in a normal tone and speed.
     Speak in first and second persons only not in third person. Example: Correct: “Did
      you have any trouble finding us today?” Incorrect: “Ask him if he had any trouble
      finding us today.”
     Allow for some lag time because the interpreter will be a least a few words or
      sentences behind the speaker. Allow the interpreter to finish signing before
      expecting a response.
     If the interpreter misses something or has trouble keeping up, it is the interpreter’s
      responsibility to ask for clarification or repetition.
   It is generally best to seat the interpreter next to the speaker. Defer to the preference
    of the deaf individual(s).
   For meetings lasting more than two hours, two interpreters will be necessary to
    ensure that the communication is continuous and not affected by fatigue.
   A person who is watching an interpreter cannot attend to the interpreter and to any
    visuals at the same time. Allow time for the deaf individual to watch the interpreter
    then the visuals sequentially.
   Solicit feedback about the interpreter from the deaf employee to be sure the service
    was satisfactory.
   If you are dissatisfied in any way with a particular interpreter’s performance or
    actions, be sure to discuss your concerns with the interpreter and/or the referral
    service. Remember the interpreter is present to facilitate communication between the
    hearing individual(s) and the deaf individual(s).




                                          39
References
Equipment
The following is a partial list of vendors. Contact your regional Office for the Deaf and Hard
of Hearing (ODHH) office if you have questions or need more information.

CDHH—Universalink
800.755.7994 Voice
262.790.9200 Voice
800.755.1553 TTY
262.790.1940 TTY
www.cdhh.org

Harris Communications
800.825.6758 Voice
952.906.1180 Voice
800.825.9187 TTY
952.906.1198 TTY
www.harriscomm.com

Ultratec, Inc.
800.482.2424 Voice/TTY
608.238.5400 Voice/TTY
www.ultratec.com

Relay/VRS Telecommunications Service Providers
The following is a partial list of providers. Contact your regional Office for the Deaf and
Hard of Hearing (ODHH) office if you have questions or need more information.
Additional Relay/VRS providers throughout the United States are available through
Telecommunications       for      the     Deaf,    Inc.     (TDI)    at     http://www.tdi-
online.org/tdi/fs_videorelayservices.html.

Wisconsin Telecommunications Relay System (TRS)
Dial 711 to access Relay Services—Voice or TTY
800.947.3529 TTY
800.947.6644 Voice
800.833.7637 Speech to Speech

Hamilton Internet Relay or Video Relay (VRS)
www.hamiltonrelay.com

Follow links/instructions on Home Page
CSD-VRS
For hearing callers: Using a standard telephone, dial 1-800-538-9881. At menu prompt
provide one of three options: Name of registered CSDVRS user, CSDVRS Mail extension
number, ISDN Number, or IP address. When Video Interpreter confirms the videophone
user is online, you may start speaking.

Sorenson VRS
For hearing callers: Using a standard telephone, call 1-866-327-8877. Have the contact
information of the deaf or hard-of-hearing individual (i.e. name, videophone number or IP
address) ready. The call will be answered by the next available interpreter.

Real Time Captioning Resources
The following is a partial list of provider agencies. A list of captioners in private practice is
available    at    http://www.dhfs.wisconsin.gov/sensory/CART/CARTFfrontPage.htm.
Contact your regional Office for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (ODHH) office if you have
questions or need more information.

A & A Captioning and CART Services
Kenosha, WI
262.657.7777

Caption It, LLC
DePere, WI
920.336.7232
www.captionit.net

Gramman Reporting, Ltd.
Milwaukee, WI
800.899.7222 Voice
414.272.7878 Voice
414.272.1806 Fax

Great Lakes Reporting
Milwaukee, WI
800.893.5831 Voice
414.272.4007 Voice
414.893.5831 Fax

Halma-Jilek Reporting, Inc.
Milwaukee, WI
800.827.4455 Voice
414.271.4466 Voice
414.271.0106 Fax
www.halmajilek.com

                                               41
Northwestern Court Reporters/Riverside Captioning Company
Hudson and Eau Claire, WI
800.628.7551 Voice Main Office
715.386.5157 Voice Main Office
715.386.6584 Fax Main Office
715.835.7581 Voice Eau Claire Office
www.nwcourtreporters.com
www.closed-captioning.com

Colleen Reed Reporting
Milwaukee, WI
877.453.4777 Voice
414.967.0368 Voice
414.967.0557 Fax
www.colleenreed.com

Quality Reporting Services, LLC
South Milwaukee, WI
414.779.0064 Voice
414.762.4995 Fax

Schindhelm-Peppey Reporting, an Eastwood Stein Company
Milwaukee, WI
414.271.0566 Voice
414.271.8230 Fax

TSS-The Speech Source, Inc.
Milwaukee, WI
888.811.3497 Voice/TTY Toll Free
414.964.3497 Voice
414.964.5697 Fax

Verbatim Reporting, Limited
Madison, WI
800.255.7710 Voice
608.255.7700 Voice
608.255.7749 Fax
www.verbatim-madison.com

Interpreter Referral/Coordination Agencies
The following is a partial list of provider agencies. Contact your regional Office for the Deaf
and Hard of Hearing (ODHH) office if you have questions or need more information.



                                              42
CommunicationLink
Brookfield, WI
800.542.9838 Voice/TTY Toll Free
262.790.7188 Voice/TTY
262.790.0580 Fax

Coulee Region Interpreting Services
La Crosse, WI
608.782.7340 Voice

Interpreting Solutions, Inc.
Milwaukee, WI
414.727.8778 Voice
414.727.8773 Fax
www.interpretingsolutionsinc.com

Professional Interpreting Enterprise, LLC (PIE)
Greenfield, WI
888.801.9393 Voice/TTY Toll Free
414.282.8115 Voice/TTY
414.282.8117 Fax
www.pieinc-wi.com

TSS-The Speech Source, Inc.
Milwaukee, WI
888.811.3497 Voice Toll Free
414.964.3497 Voice
414.964.5897 TTY
414.964.5697 Fax
www.thespeechsource.com

Video Remote Interpreting (VRI) Service Providers
This is only a partial list of providers. There are VRI providers located in many areas of the
U.S. Enter “Video Remote Interpreting” in your search engine to access other providers.

Birnbaum Interpreting Service
www.bisworld.com/services/technology.htm

Communication Services for the Deaf (CSD)
http://www.csdinterpretingonline.com/

Sorenson Communications
www.sorensonvri.com


                                             43
Office for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Southern Regional Office - Madison, WI
Counties Served: Columbia, Dane, Grant, Green, Iowa, Jefferson, LaFayette, Richland,
Rock, Sauk, Walworth

888.241.9428 TTY
608.444.0335 Voice
608.264.9899 Fax
mentzbj@dhfs.state.wi.us

Southeastern Regional Office - Waukesha, WI
Counties Served: Kenosha, Milwaukee, Racine, Waukesha

888.701.1246 TTY
262.548.5858 Videophone
262.521.5314 Fax
altmajr@dhfs.state.wi.us

Northeastern Regional Office - Green Bay, WI
Counties Served: Brown, Calumet, Dodge, Door, Fond du Lac, Green Lake, Kewaunee,
Manitowoc, Marinette, Menominee, Oconto, Outagamie, Ozaukee, Shawano, Sheboygan,
Washington, Waupaca, Winnebago

888.241.9430 TTY
920.490.8270 Videophone
920.490.0500 or 888.465.1515Voice
liberma@dhfs.state.wi.us

Northern Regional Office - Wausau, WI
Counties Served: Adams, Ashland, Florence, Forest, Iron, Juneau, Langlade, Lincoln,
Marathon, Marquette, Oneida, Portage, Price, Taylor, Vilas, Waushara, Wood

888.241.9431 TTY
715.842.7693 Videophone
715.842.1211 Fax
connoma@dhfs.state.wi.us

Western Regional Office - Eau Claire, WI
Counties Served: Barron, Bayfield, Buffalo, Burnett, Chippewa, Clark, Crawford, Douglas,
Dunn, Eau Claire, Jackson, La Crosse, Monroe, Pepin, Pierce, Polk, Rusk, Sawyer, St. Croix,
Trempealeau, Vernon, Washburn

888.701.1254 TTY
715.836.2107 Voice
715.836.2535 Fax
smallcm@dhfs.state.wi.us
Disability Access Resources
Department of Justice
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT HOME PAGE

http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm

United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
http://www.eeoc.gov/

Great Lakes ADA & Accessible IT Center
DISABILITY AND BUSINESS TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE CENTER

http://www.adagreatlakes.org/

Job Accommodation Network
http://www.jan.wvu.edu/

Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development (DWD)
http://www.dwd.state.wi.us

Wisconsin Assistive Technology Resource Center
http://www.wiatrc.org

WorkSource Wisconsin
http://www.worksourcewi.com
List of Acronyms
ADA     Americans with Disabilities Act

ALD     Assistive Listening Device

ASL     American Sign Language

CART    Communication Access Real-Time Translation

DBTAC   Disability Technical Assistance Center

DHFS    Department of Health and Family Services

DOJ     Department of Justice

DVR     Division of Vocational Rehabilitation

DWD     Department of Workforce Development

JAN     Job Accommodation Network

ODHH    Office for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing

OSHA    Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U. S. Government

TDD     Telecommunication Device for the Deaf (refers to same device as TTY)

TDI     Telecommunications for the Deaf, Inc.

TRS     Telecommunications Relay System

TTY     Teletypewriter (refers to same device as TDD; this is term preferred and
        most commonly used by people who are deaf)

VP      Videophone

VRI     Video Remote Interpreting

VRS     Video Relay Service

WFEL    Wisconsin Fair Employment Law




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