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  • pg 1
									                                               Nº 11
                                            04 Set 07
                                            Opisyal na lingguhang
                                            pahayagan ng mga
                                            mag-aaral ng Unibersidad
                                            ng Pilipinas - Diliman

                                            news | 04
                                            Ayon sa magkapatid
                                            na nakatakas
                                            mula sa militar

                                            Buhay sina
                                            Karen, She

                                            lathalain | 06
                                            Symptoms of
                                            Diagnosing the decline
                                            of the Philippine
                                            General Hospital

                                            kultura | 08
                                            Deconstructing the
                                            modern Philippine

                                                 On its 85th year, the
                                              Philippine Collegian looks
                                               back at eight decades of
                                               headlines that saw print
                                              on its pages & sent ripples
                                                within and outside the

  Mag-aaral ng public ad,
namatay sa
                                            08 set 1983

                                            Over Aquino slaying

                                            stage rally
                                            in UP
                                            It took the death of
                                            opposition leader
              Sigma Rho hinihinalang nasa   Benigno Aquino Jr. to

              likod ng trahedya             bring U.P. students out

              Balita / 03                   in the streets again.
 PhilippineCollegian Ika-85 taon                                                                                               Blg. 11 Martes 4 Set 2007

       Spiral of violence

                                               ness. By remaining aloof to the
  Editoryal                                    national conditions, fraternities

                                               fail to challenge the prevailing
               he university has be-           system and instead, facilitate its
               come a site of relent-          perpetuation.
               less brutality.                    Indeed, the spiraling violence
                   It was supposed to          can only spawn further violence.
               be a rite of passage               The tradition of brutality is
               to “to u gh e n” t h e          first cultivated in initiation rites,
weak. Yet, in a malevolent turn                where the neophytes’ conscious-
of events, neophyte Cris Mendez                ness is subsequently shaped.  Collegian
was neither strengthened nor                   These hazing practices aim to

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                piya constnatino.
empowered. Instead, news of his                amputate the neophytes from their
death was met with a mixture of                previous connections, as though
disbelief, sorrow and a gnawing                the fraternity is their sole source
anger over the futility of the                 of affiliation. Meanwhile, the
loss.                                          neophytes, disassociated as they
   Clearly, within fraternities                are, willingly subject themselves
thrives a culture incongruous                  to practices they would otherwise
with the logic of justice. Yet, this           reject in normal circumstances.
brutality has virtually become                 The members’ punishing show
an impregnable practice in                     of authority further forces the
the “ brotherhood” – difficult                 neophytes into submission, thus                             lest                arrogant display of power finds
                                                                                                                               the flimsiest excuse to create the
                                                                                                                                                                                concerns seldom extend beyond
                                                                                                                                                                                their narrow alliances. And, as the
to remove, due, in part, to the                reinforcing the fraternities’ strict,                fraternities               most vicious abuse: ambushes                     brothers graduate, they bring with
existing feudal conditions of                  autocratic echelon. In the process,                      develop                that target lone members of a                    them the imprints of the frater -
Philippine society that foster                 neophytes become “slaves” to                             a social               rival fraternity and melees that                 nity into the national arena. With
such violence and to its deep-                 their dominant “masters.”                            conscience                 result from mere eye contact. In                 their propensity for the unre -
s ea te d e n t r e n ch m e n t i n t h e
                                                  Also integral to the brother -
                                               hoods’ collective identity is a
                                                                                                            that               performing these acts, the broth-                pentant abuse of power, it is no

   Juxtapose the unabated spate                warped concept of masculinity,
                                                                                                    transcends                 ers hide their faces behind masks,               longer rival fraternities who are

of fraternity violence with the                which encompasses feudal char -                    the confines                 as if to disavow responsibility for
                                                                                                                               such iniquity.
                                                                                                                                                                                in danger but society itself.
                                                                                                                                                                                   In this sense, fraternities func-
national arena and the escalating              acteristics like strength, power,                of their narrow                   For while fraternities are unre-              tion as a pathological excrescence
human rights violations. Leaders               dominance, aggressiveness                         relations, the                mitting in their attacks, they                   which duplicate a decadent feudal
of militant groups are systemati-              and a twisted sense of bravery.                    death of Cris

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                tUngkOl sa Pabal at disenyo ng pahina: k arl castro.
                                                                                                                               falter at the bar of justice.                    system.
cally eliminated by state elements             Consequently, slaves are expected                   Mendez will                    Despite the prevalence of                        Years after the deaths of Dennis
in broad daylight . Protesting
farmers are shot for demanding
                                               to withstand their masters’ abuse
                                               during initiation, even when the
                                                                                                not be the last                violence and the passing of the                  Venturina, Mark Roland Martin,
                                                                                                                               Anti-Hazing Law, many are still                  Alex Icasiano, Niño Calinao and
their right to land. Journalists are           pain has become unbearable.                                                     attracted to the promises of the                 Marlon Villanueva, the culture
murdered for exposing corrup-                     Through initiation, the spiral of                                            brotherhood. In this country ’s                  of brutality has again claimed
tion. Fellow U P students are                  violence is replicated. Those who                                               feudal system, the network of                    another victim. Lest fraternities
abducted for working in peasant                survive the brotherhoods’ rite of                                               patronage and benefaction                        develop a social conscience that
communities.                                   passage take it upon themselves to                                              assured by the fraternities serve as             transcends the confines of their
   Despite the national blood-                 display their new-found sense of                                                guarantees for self-advancement:                 narrow relations, the death of Cris
shed, violence persists within                 self. The slaves become warlords,                                               employment, resources, promo-                    Mendez will not be the last.
the university. The fraternities’              unafraid of challenging other                                                   tion, business and politics.
dogged acts of brutality speak of              competing fraternities. Often                                                      Thus, for all the brotherhoods’
their glaring lack of social aware-            mistaken for empowerment, this                                                  assertions of collectivity, their

                                   Philippine Collegian Opisyal na lingguhang pahayagan ng mga mag-aaral ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas - Diliman

                                   Punong Patnugot / Jerrie M. Abella • KaPatnugot / Frank Lloyd Tiongson • tagaPamahalang Patnugot / Karl Fredrick M. Castro • Patnugot sa lathalain / Alaysa Tagumpay E. Escandor
                                   • Patnugot sa graPiKs / Ivan Bryan G. Reverente, Alanah M. Torralba • tagaPamahala ng Pinansiya / Melane A . Manalo • mga Kawani / Louise Vincent B. Amante, Piya C. Constantino, Paolo
                                    A . Gonzales, Candice Anne L . Reyes • Pinansiya / Amelyn J. Daga • tagaPamahala sa sirKulasyon / Paul John Alix • sirKulasyon / Gary Gabales, Ricky Icawat, Amelito Jaena, Glenario
                                    Omamalin • mga Katuwang na Kawani / Trinidad Basilan, Gina Villas • Pamuhatan / Silid 401 Bulwagang Vinzons, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas, Diliman, Lungsod Quezon • telefax / 9818500
                                  lokal 4522 • email / kule0708@gmail.com • website / http://philippinecollegian.net, http://kule0708.deviantart.com • KasaPi / Solidaridad - UP System-wide Alliance of Student Publications
                               and Writers’ Organizations, College Editors Guild of the Philippines
                                                                                                                                                 PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007

Mag-aaral ng public ad,
                                                                                                                                                                        sa mga panayam ang inang si Cris-
                                                                                                                                                                        tina dulot ng matinding dalamhati
                                                                                                                                                                        sa pagkamatay ni Cris, ani Andaya,
                                                                                                                                                                        na isa sa mga naging tagapagsalita

namatay sa hazing
                                                                                                                                                                        ng pamilya. Nasaksihang hinimatay
                                                                                                                                                                        si Cristina nang tatlong beses sa pa-
                                                                                                                                                                        glilibing kay Mendez, na dinaluhan
                                                                                                                                                                        ng aabot sa 2,000 tao.
                                                                                                                                                                            “Hindi natin kailanman kailan-
                                                                                                                                                                        gang mawalan ng kaibigan dahil sa
                                                                                                                                                                        walang kasaysayang karahasan…

Sigma Rho                             Huling pagsilay                                                                                                                   Hindi katanggap-tanggap ang gi-
                                                                                                                                                                        nawa sa iyo (Cris) dahil isa kang

hinihinalang nasa                                                                                                                                                       mabuting tao, tunay na kaibigan,
                                                                                                                                                                        mabait na anak at responsableng
likod ng trahedya                                                                                                                                                       estudyante,” ang sabi ni Klein
                                                                                                                                                                        Abejo, kaibigan ni Mendez at kasa-
                                                                                                                                                                        mahan niya sa samahang UP Pag-
Melane a. Manalo                                                                                                                                                        dumala, sa isang martsa noong
                                                                                                                                                                        Agosto 31 upang kundenahin ang

                                                                                                                                                                        karahasan ng mga fraternity at
      sang mag-aaral na inaasahang
                                                                                                                                                                        ipanawagan ang katarungan para
      magtatapos sa pag-aaral ng
                                                                                                                                                                        kay Mendez.
      public administration ngay-
      ong taon ang namatay noong                                                                                                                                        Huling pagkakita
Agosto 27 sa hinihinalang hazing sa                                                                                                                                        Bandang ikaapat ng hapon
kamay ng mga miyembro ng Sigma                                                                                                                                          noong Agosto 25 umano huling
Rho (SR) fraternity.                                                                                                                                                    nakitang buhay si Mendez, ayon
   Matapos ang limang araw na                                                                                                                                           kay Gemma Jimenez, may-ari ng
burol, inilibing si Cris Anthony                                                                                                                                        tinitirhan niyang boarding house
Mendez, 20 taong gulang at kon-                                                                                                                                         sa kalyeng V. Francisco sa Brgy.
sehal ng National College of Public                                                                                                                                     Krus na Ligas. Ani Jimenez, nag-
Administration and Governance                                                                                                                                           paalam pa sa kanya bago umalis si
( NCPAG ) Student Council ( SC ),                                                                                                                                       Mendez, na lumipat doon noong
noong Setyembre 2 sa Tiaong,                                                                                                                                            Hunyo matapos magsara ang dor-
Quezon, kung saan siya lumaki.                                                                                                                                          mitoryong Narra ng UP.
   Sa utos ni Vice Chancellor for                                                                                                                                          Dumalo pa si Mendez sa regular
Student Affairs Elizabeth Enriquez                                                                                                                                      na pulong ng konseho bandang
noong Agosto 31, pinatawan na ng                                                                                                                                        ikalawa ng hapon noong Sabadong
30 araw na preventive suspension                                                                                                                                        iyon, ayon sa kanyang mga kasa-
mula Setyembre 3 ang apat na                                                                                                                                            mahan sa NCPAG - SC.
matataas na pinuno ng SR . Dalawa                                                                                                                                          Ani Jimenez, noong gabi ng
sa kanila ang mula sa College of                                                                                                                                        Agosto 27, nanginginig na ipinaalam
Law at dalawa pa ang mula sa mga                                                                                                                                        ng isang lalaking mag-aaral ng
kolehiyo ng Engineering at Social                                                                                                                                       NCPAG na nakatira rin sa kanyang
Sciences and Philosophy.              n Inihatid sa huling hantungan si Cris Mendez ng kanyang pamilya noong Setyembre 2 sa Tiaong, Quezon matapos ang limang araw na   boarding house na nakatanggap
   Hindi pa umano maipalalabas ng     burol. al anah torralba
                                                                                                                                                                        umano siya ng tawag mula sa isang
pamunuan ng UP ang mga nakalap                                                                                                                                          nagngangalang Paolo, na nagsabing
na detalye ukol sa nangyari kay
Mendez habang inaasahang lilitaw
                                      tanda ng panahon                                                                                                                  nasa St. Peter’s Memorial Chapels
                                                                                                                                                                        umano ang bangkay ni Mendez.
pa ang ibang mga mag-aaral at                                                                                                                                              Paliwanag ng mag-aaral, na miy-
saksi na makapagbibigay-linaw sa                                                                                                                                        embro ng SR ayon kay Jimenez,
kaso, paliwanag ni Enriquez.                                                                                                                                            “ Tumawag noon sa akin si Kuya
   Katarungan na ang ipinanawagan                                                                                                                                       Pao (Ariel Paolo Ante). Hindi siya
ng pamilya ni Mendez mula nang                                                                                                                                          makapagsalita noong una, kaya ipi-
makita ang bangkay ng biktima                                                                                                                                           nasa niya sa iba ang telepono. Ang
noong tanghali ng Agosto 28. Ayon                                                                                                                                       sabi, nasa morge nga raw si Cris.”
kay Elly Andaya, tiya ni Mendez,                                                                                                                                           Nang matiyak sa mor ge na
batbat ng mga pasa ang mga braso                                                                                                                                        kay Mendez nga ang bangkay, tu-
at hita niya, may pamumuo ng dugo                                                                                                                                       mawag sina Jimenez sa pamilya ni
sa itaas na bahagi ng katawan, at                                                                                                                                       Mendez.
tanging ulo at mga binti ang walang                                                                                                                                        Bago dalhin sa St. Peter’s ban-
tanda ng pananakit.                                                                                                                                                     dang ikaapat ng umaga noong
                                                                                                                                                                        Agosto 27, naunang dinala si
                                                                                                                                                                        Mendez ng isang Dr. Francisco
   Panganay sa dalawang magkap-
                                                                                                                                                                        Cruz ganap na 1:08 ng umaga sa
atid, katatalaga lamang kay Mendez
                                                                                                                                                                        Veterans Memorial Medical Center
bilang pansamantalang kinatawan
                                                                                                                                                                        (VMMC), kung saan tinangka si-
ng NCPAG sa University Student
                                                                                                                                                                        yang bigyang-lunas, ang pahayag
Council (USC).
                                                                                                                                                                        ni Jonathan Garduce, guwardiyang
   “ Tahimik at mabait na bata si
                                                                                                                                                                        nakatalaga noon sa may emergency
Cris. Umaasa siyang makakapag-
                                                                                                                                                                        ward ng VMMC.
bagong -buhay silang tatlo [ng
kanyang ina at kapatid] pagka-                                                                                                                                          Sasali sa SR
graduate,” ani Rosario de Ocampo,                                                                                                                                         Ayon sa isang opisyal ng NCPAG
tiya ni Mendez. Ayon kay NCPAG                                                                                                                                          na tumangging magpabanggit ng
Dean Alex Brillantes, inaasahang                                                                                                                                        pangalan, sa paunang pakikipag-
magtatapos si Mendez ngayong                                                                                                                                            usap niya sa mga mag-aaral ng
taon nang may honors.                                                                                                                                                   NCPAG, napag-alaman niyang si
                                      n Sanhi ng pagkamatay ni Cris Mendez, ipinrotesta ng mga estudyante ng NCPAG noong Agosto 31 ang laganap na fraternity-related
   Hindi naman makapagpaunlak         violence sa kampus. timothy medrano                                                                                                                        sundan sa p.11
                                                                                                                                             PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007

Ayon sa magkapatid na                                                        leading the search
nakatakas mula sa militar

buhay sina
karen, she
                                      karaang taon sa Hagonoy, Bulacan,
John alliage tinio Morales at         habang nagsasaliksik sila ukol sa
noemi Monterozo gonzales              kalagayan ng mga magsasaka sa

         a paglitaw ng magkapatid
         na magsasaka na biktima
                                      Palparan, itinurong nasa
         ng pagdukot ng militar,
                                      likod ng pagdukot
                                         Ani Cervantes, mahalaga ang
         muling may nagpatotoong
                                      pagtestigo ng magkapatid na
buhay pa sina Karen Empeño at
                                      Manalo sa inihaing motion for
Sherlyn Cadapan, mga mag-aaral
                                      reconsideration ng pamilya nina
ng UP na dinukot umano ng mga
                                      Empeño at Cadapan sa Court of
militar sa Hagonoy, Bulacan ma-
                                      Appeals. Nauna nang ibinasura
higit isang taon na ang nakalipas.
                                      ng korte ang petisyon para sa writ
   Dinukot ng militar ang mag-
                                      of habeas corpus noong Hunyo sa
kapatid na Raymond at Reynaldo
                                      harap ng kawalan ng matibay na
Manalo noong Pebrero ng na-
karaang taon sa Ildefonso, Bulacan
                                         Ang magkapatid na Manalo
at ikinulong sa tatlong kampo at
                                      umano ang mga kauna-unahang
dalawang safehouse ng militar
                                      desaparecido na lumitaw at nag-
bago sila nakatakas noong Agosto
                                      patunay na sangkot si dating Major
13. Pinaghinalaan ng militar na                                              n Hundreds of relatives of missing activists, led by Edita Burgos and Erlynda Cadapan, mothers of abducted agriculturist Jonas and UP
                                      General Jovito Palparan sa pag-        student Sherlyn, respectively, mark the International Day of the Disappeared with a protest action at the Liwasang Bonifacio on August 30.
miyembro ng New People’s Army
                                      dukot at pagpatay sa mga akti-         al anah torralba
sina Manalo.
                                      bista, ani Bayan Muna Rep. Satur
   Sinabi ni Raymond na nakita                                               telebisyon kaya ko siya nakilala at             sa Camp Tecson at Limay, Bataan.”               likod ng mga pagdukot, kabi-
at personal niyang nakausap sina                                             doon sinabi sa akin ni Palparan na                 Pinagbigyan ng Korte Suprema                 lang dito ang kina Empeño at
                                         Ayon sa sulat ni Raymond, “Ha-
Empeño at Cadapan sa dalawang                                                sabihan ko sina nanay na huwag                  noong Agosto 24 ang petisyon ng                 Cadapan.
                                      bang nakakulong ako, kinakausap
magkahiwalay na kampo ng militar                                             nang sumali sa mga rally ng mga                 magkapatid na mabigyang pro -                      Mariin namang itinanggi ni
                                      ako ni [Maj. Gen.] Jovito Palparan.
sa San Miguel, Bulacan at Limay,                                             grupong maka-karapatang tao at                  teksyon ng korte matapos nilang                 Palparan, dating commander ng
                                      Nakita ko na si Palparan dati sa
Bataan. Si Raymond ang pangala-                                              huwag nang dumalo sa mga hearing                kumpirmahin na militar ang nasa                                                sundan sa p.10
wang testigong nagpatunay na

                                      RIPADA: MMDA, walang malinaw na plano
hawak ng militar ang dalawang
   Ayon kay Raymond, “ Sa ku-
lungan nakasama namin ang dala-
wang estudyante ng University of                                             Avenue. Ipinag-utos ni Vice Chan-                  “ Walang saysay ang nangyaring               tulan ang demolisyon sa RIPADA .
                                      kristoffer C. Reyes                    cellor for Community Affairs Cyn-               usapan dahil hindi naman nailatag                  Ayon pa sa mga residente, lum-
the Philippines na sina Sherlyn
Cadapan at Karen Empeño. Napag-                                              thia Grace Gregorio ang pagsusukat              nang maayos ang mga plano ng                    alabas na iniiwasan ng pamaha-

alaman namin kung sino sila dahil                  atapos magsagawa ang      noong Hulyo 27.                                 MMDA ,” ani Noli Anoos, pangala-                laang masagasaan ang lupang
nakakausap namin sila. Nakita                      Metropolitan Manila          Ayon kay Engr. Ramson Ona,                   wang pangulo ng All UP Workers                  kinatitirikan ng mga pag-aari ng
namin kung paano sila sinaktan din                 Development Authority     kinatawan ng DPWH , hindi ma-                   Union (AUPWU) na bahagi ng multi-               mga Ayala. Sa naunang plano ng
ng mga nagkulong sa amin.”                         (MMDA) ng konsultas-      simulan ang proyekto dahil sa                   sektoral na Save RIPADA Move-                   MMDA , dito daraan ang pagapa-
   Natutuwa ang pamilya nina Em-      yon sa mga komunidad ng Ricarte,       kakulangan ng mga datos gaya ng                 ment. Aniya, si MMDA Chair Bayani               palawak ng C -5 at mas kakaunti
peño at Cadapan sa testimonya ng      Palaris at Dagohoy (RIPADA), iginiit   kabuuang sukat ng RIPADA at ang                 Fernando ang kailangang humarap                 ang maaapektuhang kabahayan sa
magkapatid na Manalo na nagpapa-      ng mga residente na hindi pa rin       bilang ng mga taong maaapektuhan                sa kanila upang siya mismo mag-                 RIPADA .
tunay na buhay pa nga ang dalawa,     malinaw ang plano ng pamaha-           nito.                                           paliwanag ng plano.                                Ani Corazon Cruz, tagapama-
ani Ruth Cervantes, tagapagsalita     laan kaugnay ng pagpapalawak ng           “ Para malaman ang mga tata-                    Nanindigan naman si Kap. Isa-                hala sa pagpapaplano ng MMDA ,
ng Karapatan.                         Circumferential Road 5 (C -5), na      maan, kailangan ng topographic                  belita Gravides ng Brgy. UP Campus              walang kinalaman ang Ayala sa
   Nauna nang tumestigo si Oscar      maaaring makaapekto sa kanilang        mapping at census,” ani NHA Un-                 na “ walang galawan hangga’t                    pagbabago sa plano at iginiit ni-
Leuterio, na dinukot noong Abril ng   panirahan.                             dersecretary Froilan Campitan.                  walang proklamasyon o malinaw                   yang hindi pa naman naipatutupad
nakaraang taon, na nakita umano          Sa pakikipagpulong sa mga resi-     Aniya, mahalaga ang nasabing hak-               na plano mula sa MMDA at iba pang               ang proyekto.
niya sina Empeño, Cadapan at ang      dente noong Agosto 25, hiniling ng     bang upang malaman kung ilang                   ahensiya.”                                         “Iniisip po namin ang pinaka-
magkapatid na Manalo nang maku-       mga kinatawan ng MMDA , Depart-        apektadong tao ang gagawaran ng                    Ayon kay Shahana Abdulwahid,                 mura at pinakamadaling paraan
long siya ng limang buwan sa Fort     ment of Public Works and High-         relokasyon.                                     tagapangulo ng University Student               para maisagawa ng gobyerno ang
Bonifacio bago siya pinalaya noong    ways (DPWH) at National Housing           Binigyang-diin ni Campitan na                Council (USC), bagaman magan-                   plano [ng pagpapalawak ng C -5
Setyembre 14.                         Authority (NHA) na maituloy ang        wala pa ring tiyak na malilipatan               dang nakaharap ang mga ahen-                    kaya binago ito],” ani Ona.
   Naiulat din nitong Hulyo na        naantalang pagsusukat sa lugar         ang mga residente at iminungkahi                siyang sangkot sa nakaambang                       “Makakatipid nga ang gobyerno
dumating si Cadapan, kasama ang       upang malaman ang lawak ng sa-         pa lamang niya ang pagbuo ng                    demolisyon, hindi pa rin ito naging             pero kami naman ang madadamay,”
dalawang militar, sa bahay ng kani-   sakupin ng proyekto.                   komiteng kabibilangan ng kina-                  sapat upang matugunan ang alin-                 ani Clodualdo Cabrera, pangulo ng
yang biyenan sa Bulacan ngunit           Hinarang ng mga residente           tawan ng mga residente upang pag-               langan ng mga tao kaugnay ng kati-              AUPWU. Hiniling din ni Cabrera
agad ding umalis matapos kumuha       noong Agosto 11 ang mga kinatawan      aralan ang relokasyon. Matapos                  yakan sa panirahan. Nakatakdang                 sa MMDA na ituloy na lamang ang
ng mga damit.                         ng MMDA na magsasagawa ng              ang pulong, nagsagawa ng isang                  pangungunahan ng USC at mga                     nauna nitong plano dahil higit
   Dinukot ng mga hinihinalang        pagsusukat sa lugar upang simulan      noise barrage ang mga residente                 mag-aaral ng UP ang mga mobil-                  umanong kailangan ng mga mama-
elemento ng militar sina Empeño       ang pagpapalawak ng C -5 na mag-       ng RIPADA upang tuligsain ang                   isasyon at signature campaign sa                mayan ang panirahan at kabuhayan
at Cadapan noong Hunyo 26 ng na-      dudugtong sa Katipunan at Luzon        nakaambang demolisyon.                          mga susunod na araw upang tu-                   kaysa sa proyekto sa kalye.
                                                                                                                                                          PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007

activists condemn Joma’s arrest
noemi M. gonzales
                                               rested on August 28 in Utrecht, The        ordering from the Netherlands the               rebellion case, which includes the                  Ruth de Leon, executive director
                                               Netherlands on “false charges” of          murder of Rodolfo Kintanar in 2003              allegations of murder that Sison is              of the NDF International Informa-
                                               having ordered the murder of two           and Arturo Tabara in 2004, both                 now being accused of having in-                  tion Office, said the arrest of Sison

       arious groups called for                former political colleagues in the         leaders of the Communist Party of               cited, has already been dismissed                and the ransacking of the NDF of-
       the immediate release of                Philippines.                               the Philippines (CPP) break-away                by the Supreme Court (SC) of the                 fice are grave violations of human
       National Democratic Front                  Lawyer Edre Olalia, member of           group. The widows of the victims                Philippines.                                     rights and are bound to terminate
       (NDF) political consultant              Sison’s legal panel in the Philip-         filed a murder complaint that be-                  In 2007, the SC declared that the             the ongoing peace negotiations be-
Jose Maria Sison after he was ar-              pines, said Sison was accused of           came the basis for Sison’s arrest.              evidence could not be used again                 tween the NDF and the Philippine
                                                                                              In 1992, Kintanar and Tabara                in any court against Sison as it                 government.
                                                                                          broke ties with the CPP due to                  failed to establish probable cause                  NDF, with Sison as one of the

BOR oks new REPS
                                                                                          ideological differences and set up              of rebellion.                                    chief negotiators of the peace pro-
                                                                                          Rebolusyonaryong Partido ng Ma-                    Olalia said that Sison main-                  cess, has been engaged in on-and-
                                                                                          sang Pilipino (RPMP).                           tains he has no power to order the               off peace talks with the Philippine

tenure rule in UPLB                                                                           Sison denied all allegations of
                                                                                          murder during the first indictment
                                                                                          on August 31 but the judge found
                                                                                                                                          murder of Kintanar and Tabara
                                                                                                                                          because he no longer leads the CPP,
                                                                                                                                          which he founded in 1968, and is
                                                                                                                                                                                           government to end the 39-year

                                                                                                                                                                                           Protest actions intensify
                                               an average of 12 units workload            enough evidence against Sison                   simply an adviser.
John alliage tinio Moralesa                                                               to keep him under custody in the                   “ There are no evidences linking                 Meanwhile, progressive groups
                                               per semester for three consecutive
                                                                                          Scheveningen prison in The Hague                Sison to the killings of Kintanar                led by KMU, BAYAN, and Interna-
                                               years prior to being recommended

                                                                                          for further investigation, Michiel              and Tabara. The New People’s Army                tional League of Peoples Struggles
           e s p i te c o n c e r n s o ve r   for tenure.
                                                                                          Pestman, Sison’s lawyer, said in a              ( NPA ) already claimed respon-                  marched towards the Dutch em-
           excessive requirements                 Librarians and guidance coun-
                                                                                          statement.                                      sibility for the executions. These               bassy in Makati on August 29 and
           while getting little privi-         selors are exempt from the pub-
                                                                                              During Sison’s arrest, Dutch                cases were just conveniently used                30 and continued the protests at
           leges afforded to aca-              lication requirement, but instead
                                                                                          police swept through the office of              by the US and the Arroyo govern-                 Welcome Rotonda in Quezon City
demic personnel, a new stringent               should have a valid license from
                                                                                          the NDF and through seven other                 ment to intensify the so-called war              on August 31 for the release of
tenure policy was recently adopted             the Professional Regulatory Com-
                                                                                          apartments of members of the NDF                on terror,” according to Kilusang                Sison.
for the research, extension and                mission, or their appointment will
                                                                                          peace panel, seizing computer hard              Mayo Uno Chair Elmer Labog.                         “Ang nakakatakot kasi dito
professional staff (REPS) in UP Los            be terminated.
                                                                                          drives, discs, files and books.                    In 2004, the NPA admitted in                  sa nangyari [ Sison’s arrest] ay
Banos (UPLB).                                     The old rule states that each
                                                                                              Sison, who left for the Nether -            a statement the killing of Kin-                  maaring gawin din sa mga kritiko
    Aimed at putting the REPS on               position for REPS requires an edu-
                                                                                          lands 20 years ago, had filed po-               tanar and Tabara for alleged crimes              ng gobyerno ang ginawa kay Pro-
equal footing with professors, REPS            cational attainment, but without
                                                                                          litical asylum but his request was              against “the revolution and the                  fessor Sison,” according to Reyes.
would now be required to meet                  prescribing a fixed time to finish
                                                                                          rejected by the Dutch authorities.              people”. Karapatan has also docu-                   Bayan Muna Representatives
the requirements of publication in             graduate degrees. In the absence
                                                                                          They ruled, however, that he could              mented various cases of human                    Satur Ocampo and Teodoro Casiño
refereed journals and completion               of publication, supervisors should
                                                                                          not be sent back to the Philippines             rights violations and criminal ac-               plan to conduct more congressional
of graduate studies before their               provide justification for the tenure-
                                                                                          because his life could be in danger             tivities by the RPMP.                            inquiries on the arrest, its impact
tenure is secured, as affirmed by              ship of the REPS.
                                                                                          in the country.                                    BAYAN Secretary General Renato                on other Filipinos in political exile,
the Board of Regents (BOR), UP ’s                 Temporary appointments, mean-
                                                                                                                                          Reyes Jr. added that the Dutch                   and the Arroyo administration’s
                                               while, will still be renewed yearly
highest decision-making body, in                                                          Baseless allegations                            authorities and the Arroyo regime                alleged role in the incident. Anak-
its July 27 meeting at UP Visayas.             while contractual appointments
                                                                                             In an August 29 press confer -               in Manila have conspired to perse-               pawis Rep. Crispin Beltran said that
    Prof. Judy Taguiwalo, national             will be renewed six months subject
                                                                                          ence at the Bagong Alyansang                    cute Sison and to pursue political               more campaigns will be launched to
president of the All-UP Academic               to the recommendation of their
                                                                                          Makabayan (BAYAN) office, Olalia                agenda meant to seek the surrender               call for Sison’s release.
Employees Union (AUPAEU), con-                 supervisors.
                                                                                          revealed that the case in the Neth-             of revolutionary forces.
tended that the policy, which has
                                               ‘One-sided’ policy                         erlands is without basis since the
not undergone consultation with
                                                  Taguiwalo said that while the
the union, might further disadvan-
                                               administration’s effort to recog-          “Quelling” dissent
tage the REPS.
                                               nize the academic status of REPS
    As of this semester, UPLB has
                                               is laudable, the policy containing
82 REPS comprising researchers,
                                               comparable faculty tenure require-
extension workers, technical spe-
                                               ments is still “one-sided” as it does
cialists, guidance counselors, and
                                               not address the inequalities in
                                               benefits and privileges.
    President Emerlinda Roman en-
                                                  REPS have long been calling for
dorsed the policy to the BOR after
                                               representation in decision-making
the proposal was approved on July
                                               bodies at college unit levels, sab-
26 by the Executive Committee.
                                               batical leaves and automatic pro-
‘Up or out policy’                             motion for REPS with doctoral de-
   The “ Up or Out Policy,” first              grees, privileges currently enjoyed
adopted for professors, states that            by professors.
REPS with temporary appointments                  The union asserted that the BOR
must obtain their master’s degree              decision essentially lengthens the
“within five years” from the date              temporary status of REPS from
of hiring, or their appointment will           six months to five years. Tagui-
not be renewed. After completing               walo added that the new policy
their master or doctoral degrees,              would doubly burden REPS as they
REPS are now required to publish               struggle to meet the requirements
in a refereed journal within three             for employment while doing re-
years from the start of appointment            search and extension work at the
or from getting their degrees.                 same time.
   Likewise, REPS who entered                     “ The BOR decision making re-
UPLB from any UP constituent unit              quirements in par with the faculty,
must show proof of publication                 (but) without addressing inequali-
as basis for tenureship while em-              ties…is an unjust way of dealing
                                                                                          n Policemen strike militants with truncheons and shields as they attempt to march toward the Dutch Embassy in Makati on August 30 to
ployed in UP. Research and exten-              the university’s REPS,” the AUPAEU
                                                                                          protest the recent arrest of Prof. Jose Maria Sison in the Netherlands. The group later decried police harassment and brutality as several
sion personnel should also satisfy                                    continued on p.11   rallyists were injured and materials such as streamers were confiscated. al anah torralba
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 07

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          *                  House Bill 5369 in 2006 for a separate au-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tonomous region for Sulu, Tawi Tawi and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Basilan met opposition from the MILF and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             several Islamic groups for allegedly being
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             backed by American interest for Sulu oil.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             They also condemned the presence of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             American troops in the region, pointing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             that the real motives of the US is not to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             end the ongoing war but to safeguard for-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             eign interests. However, former Defense
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Secretary Angelo Reyes justified the entry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of up to two thousand American soldiers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             for the Balikatan military exercise as a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             necessary move in the elimination of the
  Diagnosing the Decline of the PhiliPPine general hosPital                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                local positions in ARMM are generally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ASG. Five years later, however, the ASG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            filled by the elite or national govern-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             remains active with kidnap-for-ransom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ment representatives acting as interim
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and hostage-taking activities.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              officials. Consequently, the programs
                                                    the PGH as a provider of af-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Meanwhile, the US ’ “war on terror”
larissa Mae R. suarez                               fordable, quality health care
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                and policies of the regional gov-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             has emphasized Mindanao’s strategic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ernment mirror the priorities of
                                                    is well-established. Such im-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            location – at the center of Southeast Asia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    the national regime. Ramos’
         osa Santos* emerged from the Emer-         portance, however, seems lost                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and in close proximity to Middle East and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       “ Philippines 2000” saw the
         gency Room (ER) of the Philippine          in the government’s continued                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Northeast Asia, where Iraq and China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          majority of public spending
         General Hospital (PGH). She hurried        abandonment of the hospital                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              are located respectively. The proscrip-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           in ARMM geared towards
         past the long queue of charity pa-         as reflected in the allocation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tion of separatist groups as “terrorists”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            commercial infrastruc-
tients, her path decorated with the colorful        it receives.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             therefore carries monetary gains for the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ture, to the detriment of
streamers and flags celebrating PGH’s 100                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Arroyo administration. Her “all-out-war”
                                                    Examination                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                education, health care,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             against “rebel groups” is largely funded
years of existence. Her husband, Virgilio, had                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and other basic social
                                                       The budget for PGH is P1                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              by the American government, receiving
met an accident, and she needed to buy his                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     services.
                                                    billion, and has been since                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              approximately $2 billion as military aid
prescribed pills. He had been in pain since
                                                    1993 — this stagnancy is in
they arrived from Parañaque, where the first
                                                    itself a budget slash, because                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 territories and is em-                                                     Hidden Agenda                  in 2002 alone.
hospital they had gone to, lacking the proper                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Micaela Papa                                       bodied by the MNLF,                                                          The neo - colonial              Despite talks of a drastic cut in US aid
                                                    the cost of annual operations                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            due to the Arroyo administration’s track
equipment, referred them to PGH.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MILF and the early ASG                                                  condition is perhaps even
                                                    has risen today to P3 billion.

   At the PGH pharmacy, the medicine Rosa                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                more magnified in Mindanao          of human rights violations, Texas Rep.
                                                       To address the deficit, PGH                                                                                                                                                                                                                       n eight-hour skirmish ensued on           (see sidebar).
needed – sold at a discount to charity patients                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      than the rest of the country.           Silvestre Reyes, chair of the US House of
                                                    Director Carmelo Alfiler dis-                                                                                                                                                                                                                        July 10 after government troops
– was out of stock, forcing her to buy it at full
                                                    tributed on December 14, 2006                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in search of the Abu Sayyaf Group
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Land of Broken                                               The region is home to numerous               Representatives’ armed services com-
price elsewhere. At the ER , Virgilio’s X-ray,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (ASG) stepped onto Moro Islamic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Promises                                                transnational plantations like those              mittee, assures that US military aid to
                                                    a memorandum on increased                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                the Philippines will not be reduced due
which had a user fee, indicated the neces-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The growing force of the Bangsamoro             of DOLE and Del Monte Incorporation, as
                                                    rates, without proper con-                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Liberation Front (MILF) territory. The MILF                                                                                                                  to Arroyo’s commitment and “good track
sity of surgery, made expensive by the new                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         movement eventually compelled the govern-          well as foreign mining companies and other
                                                    sultation with the PGH com-                                                                                                                                                                                                                 suffered four fatalities while the marines 14.                                                                                                               record” in the war against terror. This
Operating Room (OR) fee of P1,500. However,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ment to enter into peace talks and reconcilia-     similar business corporations. The Arroyo
                                                    munity. The cost of blue cards                                                                                                                                                                                                              Of the 14 dead, 10 were found beheaded.                                                                                                                      after the administration sent out five
Virgilio is the family’s sole breadwinner. His                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     tory agreements with the separatist groups.        administration itself claimed that the nation
                                                    from the medical records divi-                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Thus began President Gloria Macapagal-                                                                                                                    additional battalions against the ASG in
income as a tricycle driver scarcely covers                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        But an evaluation of the actions undertaken        has over $1 trillion in unexplored copper, gold
                                                    sion was raised from P7 to P15;                                                                                                                                                                                                             Arroyo’s renewed orders for “punitive” ac-                                                                                                                   an alleged attempt to preempt the pur-
the expenses incurred at PGH.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      by various presidencies suggests a half-baked      and nickel. With so much money at stake, the
                                                    the use of the OR , previously                                                                                                                                                                                                              tions against Moro rebel groups, deploying                                                                                                                   ported cut.
   Such predicament has now become a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               attempt at genuinely answering the demands         government is under pressure from both for-
                                                    granted freely to patients, now                                                                                                                                                                                                             five extra battalions to Basilan on July 27. The                                                                                                                    In light of the government’s pro-
common scenario in the corridors of the                                                              as PGH officials tout “self-sufficiency in                                                                                                                                                                                                    of the Muslims. History reveals that it is often   eign and local investors to keep its hold on
                                                    costs P1,500.                                                                                        “ The government should institution-                                                                                                   incursion of soldiers in Mindanao, however,
hospital, a dismal truth no streamer or flag                                                         resources” as a solution to fiscal prob-                                                                                                                                                                                                      the government that endorses peace only               the “goldmine” of the south.                              tracted and deliberate failure to
                                                       Various sectors criticized the move,                                                          alize the allocation, instead of releasing                                                                                                 has only heightened the clashes against the
could gloss over.                                                                                    lems. “‘ Self-sufficiency ’ is a term often                                                                                                                                                                                                   to start the war anew.                                                      The proposed                          uplift the Muslims’ condition, the
                                                    and Alfiler deferred the rates increase                                                          it based on our President’s whims,” notes                                                                                                  Moro National Liberation Front
                                                                                                     used to conceal financial abandonment by                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Tripoli Agreement                                                                                      rebel groups insist
                                                                                                                                                     Dr. Nisperos. “ The PGH implemented a
Case Presentation
   Infrastructure projects, new equipment,
                                                    pending further discussion. On March 29
                                                    this year, however, the Board of Regents
                                                                                                     the government,” says Dr. Gene Nisperos,        rates increase knowing that the govern-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                (MNLF), MILF and ASG.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Consequently, the uncer -
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the rebel groups            of 1976 between the Marcos                                                                                       that there is little

extended services, and a miscellany of              (BOR) authorized the collection of OR fees
                                                                                                     secretary-general of the non-government
                                                                                                     organization Health Alliance for Democracy.
                                                                                                                                                     ment can afford a P100 million increase,                                                                                                   tainty and poverty that fueled       insist that there           administration and the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 MNLF was supposed to grant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  reason for them to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  give up their bid for
activities, like a fund-raising concert and         from charity patients, to generate an ad-
                                                    ditional P16 million annually. “ Up to 70%
                                                                                                     “Another euphemism is ‘fiscal autonomy.’”
                                                                                                                                                     in effect ceding to the government’s ab-
                                                                                                                                                     dication of its responsibilities, instead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                the Muslims’ rebellion have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                escalated due to the crisis. Al-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     is little reason            autonomy to 13 Muslim areas. To                                                                                 autonomy. It is with
a time capsule, serve as markers for the
PGH in commemoration of “100 years of               of patients undergoing charity surgery,”
                                                                                                        Instead of fighting for greater state sub-   of holding it accountable.”                                                                                                                ready, unarmed civilians have        for them to give            the MNLF’s frustration, however,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the territory of the resulting Au-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     misguided policies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      that the Arroyo
                                                    announced the BOR , justifying its deci-
                                                                                                     sidy, the PGH has channeled its efforts into        More than an apparent lack of political                                                                                                been caught in the crossfire;        up their bid for

                                                                                                                                                                                                     photo: timothy medrano. art work: ar chie oclos. page design: mark angelo ching and ivan
excellence.”                                                                                         increasing its rates. A smokescreen used                                                                                                                                                                                                                    tonomous Region in Muslim                                                                                            administration
                                                                                                                                                     will on the part of the PGH administra-
   The PGH was born on August 17, 1907              sion, “are covered by the Philippine Health
                                                    Insurance, Inc (PhilHealth).”
                                                                                                     is “modernization”: new equip-                           tion, the rates increase only abets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                more than 40 towns in Basilan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                and Sulu have been vacated;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     autonomy                    Mindanao (ARMM) as pro-                                                                                             has virtually guar-
through the passage of Act 1688 by the Phil-
ippine Commission. Construction began in                Jossel Ebesate, head nurse at PGH
                                                                                                     ment comes with new fees. For
                                                                                                     instance, after the “moderniza-
                                                                                                                                        the rates             the growing neglect of social                                                                                                     thousands of families have been
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 vided by the Organic Act was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 reduced to four provinces:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    anteed the persis-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   tence of the war in
Manila, and the hospital officially opened on       and president of the Manila chapter of
                                                                                                     tion” of the Sentro Oftalmologico  increase              services by the government, to
                                                                                                                                                              the detriment of disadvantaged
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                displaced. The casualties are expected to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                increase along with the mounting violence of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Sulu, Maguindanao, Tawi Tawi and Lanao                                                                                          Mindanao.
September 10, 1910. It underwent numerous
reorganizations and emerged in the 1950s
                                                    the All-UP Workers Union, challenged the
                                                    accuracy of BOR’s defense. “A survey that
                                                                                                     Jose Rizal, almost everything      only abets            Filipinos like Rose and Virgilio,                                                                                                 the three-decade Mindanao conflict.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   del Sur.                                                                                                                           REfERENCES:

as an administratively autonomous unit of           we conducted showed the opposite. 70
                                                                                                     from cardiac monitors to anes-
                                                                                                     thesia machines had new user
                                                                                                                                        the growing           whose financial status should
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Continuing Colonization
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Various attempts have been made for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the expansion of the ARMM . However,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Abubakar, Carmen (1999). Ang
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hijrah ng MNLf: 1974-1996.
the University of the Philippines-Manila            percent of charity patients don’t have Phil-
                                                    Health coverage. Only 30 percent do.”
                                                                                                     fees. “Ironically,” said Ebesate,  neglect               have made them the primary
                                                                                                                                                              beneficiaries of accessible health                                                                                                   The roots of the Moro rebellion can be          Simeon Ilago, director of the UP Center for                                                                                        Tan, Samuel (2003). History of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        the Mindanao Problem.
(UPM) College of Medicine. Accordingly, the
PGH became a venue for the learning and                Meanwhile, Marikris de Guzman, a
                                                                                                     “after upgrading the Sentro
                                                                                                     Oftalmologico’s facilities, less
                                                                                                                                        of social             care from PGH.                                                                                                                    traced to as far back as the American oc-          Local and Regional Governance, comments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   that the system of inclusion through plebi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jacinto, Al (2003). Mindanao

practicing of the profession by the best and        councilor of the UPM student council from
                                                                                                     patients have been able to make    services                 After a hundred years of ex-
                                                                                                                                                              istence, the PGH has failed to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cupation, when the colonizers prevented
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                the Muslims’ democratic participation in           scites is problematic. The city of Cotabato, for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Peace Process timeline.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wadi, Julkipli (2003). They’ve
brightest minds, imbuing them with a com-
mitment to serve the underprivileged.
                                                    the party Alternative Students Alliance for
                                                    Progress–Katipunan ng mga Progresibong
                                                                                                     use of them.”                      by the                ensure that enough of the un-                                                                                                     local administration. Instead, it allowed only     example, remains the administrative capital                                                                                          Come So far.

   One of them, Honorato Quisumbing,                Mag-aaral, points out the parallelism be-
                                                                                                        More glaring irony is the fact
                                                                                                                                        government            derprivileged can avail of the                                                                                                    foreign and Filipino elites to participate in      of the ARMM although it is not part of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   region’s jurisdiction. Meanwhile, Basilan is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       a R M E D        C O n f l i C t
worked at PGH during World War II even              tween the PGH’s rates increase and UP ’s
                                                    tuition hike. “In both cases, the institu-
                                                                                                     that, for lack of space, most pa-
                                                                                                     tients are refused a room in the
                                                                                                                                                              topnotch medical services it can
                                                                                                                                                              provide. For the PGH to continue
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                the region’s politics. Americans also crafted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                policies and programs that sequestered             now included in the region even though one         •Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) – created       over the 1976 Tripoli. The MILF contested that the
after many of his colleagues left the area.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of the province’s municipalities, Isabela, is      in March 1968 after the Jabidah Massacre, in which     agreement only provided for regional autonomy
                                                                                                     hospital unless they offer to pay               its legacy of service to the poor, it must                                                                                                 ancestral lands, voided Sultanate property,
He was shot in 1945 by soldiers as he at-           tions suffered from inadequate budget                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             government troops gunned down about 28 recruited       instead of the separate Islamic republic originally
                                                                                                     — indicating that in the PGH, “service to the                                                                                                                                              and awarded deeds to landless families from        not. The factions within the region creates
                                                    given by the national government. Both re-                                                       first cure the symptoms of its own deteri-                                                                                                                                                                                                       Muslims to cover up military operations in Sabah.      advocated by MNLF.
tempted to secure medical supplies for the
sick. Another was Johnny Escandor, chief            sorted to fee increases to offset the deficit,
                                                                                                     poor” has taken a back seat to revenues.        oration. It must reaffirm its integrity as an                                                                                              Luzon and Visayas.                                 problems with governance as well as politics.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ilago adds that, despite the “autonomy” of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The MNLF later relinquished its goal of independence   •  Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) – collapse of peace
                                                                                                                                                     establishment which “seeks only to serve                                                                                                      During the Commonwealth period, the                                                                after the 1976 Tripoli agreement and RA 6734 or        talks between the MNLF and the government in
of a research department at the PGH, who            in spite of opposition by their communi-         Prescription                                                                                                                                                                               Filipino administration still adhered to the       the ARMM, its politics is largely determined       Organic Act, which created the Autonomous Region       1988 aggravated Muslim youth to revolt under
                                                    ties; both are victims of administrations                                                        the Filipino, for whom it exists.”
offered free medical services to poor bar -                                                             In 2006, as the PGH geared for its cen-                                                                                                                                                                                                    by outside influence. According to Prof. Mu-       in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Leader Nur Misuari is       Janjalani Abubakar, a veteran of the war against
                                                    with mistaken priorities.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                  previous colonizers’ system, further ne-
rios and indigenous peoples. He was killed                                                           tennial celebration, President Gloria Ma-                                                                                                                                                                                                     hammad Abdulnazeir Matli of the Institute of       currently detained with charges of rebellion.          Soviet Forces in Afghanistan. Both the MNLF and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                glecting the plight of the Muslims. This ig-
in 1983, after going underground to lead the
                                                    Diagnosis                                        capagal- Arroyo pledged to release P100
                                                                                                                                                                          *Not her real name
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                nited the Bangsamoro separatist movement,          Islamic Studies, although Muslims are already      •  Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) – created in   MILF have denied affiliation with the ASG, which
resistance against the dictatorial regime.                                                           million annually to PGH until her term’s                                                                                                                                                                                                      under -represented in national government,         1977, when Sheikh Salamat Hashim led the separa-       employ extreme methods such as beheading and
                                                       These mistaken priorities are evident                                                                                                                                                                                                    which sought to regain control over ancestral
   In light of its history, the importance of                                                        end in 2010.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     tion from the MNLF after an internal disagreement      mutilation.
                                                                                                                                       PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007

                                                     If, indeed, much of the West thinks physi-                                                         to a mall, you are expected to spend. And
glenn l. Diaz                                    cally shopping for goods is already a thing of                                                         contrary to how the concept of the malling
                                                 the past with the advent of online commerce,                                                           experience is advertised, it does not come

        erico just came from a grueling three-   it is the exact opposite for the East. Fourteen                                                        for free.
        hour class. He gets on a jeepney and     of the twenty biggest malls in the world are in                                                           As with most modern capitalist prod-
        heads for the newly opened mall          Asia. Half of this are in China alone, in what               What used to be a                         ucts, malling is easily an archetypal es-
        fronting his former favorite. Huffing    appears to be a showcase of the country ’s
                                                 recent economic expansion. In the Philip-
                                                                                                              largely theocratic                        capist practice. It offers a retreat, no matter
                                                                                                                                                        how fleeting and artificial, to people living
and puffing, he negotiates several layers
of people, some smartly dressed, others          pines, the case is no less different. Trinoma,               social order has                          in dire conditions. It appears that going
quite disheveled. He notices the façade          for instance, rose directly in front of a hugely             been transformed                          to parks to relax is no longer enough.
first. While the typical concrete and metal-
lic interior tell him this is indeed a mall,
                                                 popular rival mall, indicative that the market
                                                 has yet to be fully satiated.
                                                                                                              to a communal                             The stresses of modern living have con-
                                                                                                                                                        sequently formed these new needs to
oases of exotic flora and foggy streams of
                                                 We’ve got it all for you
                                                                                                              reverence toward                          satisfy.
water, with fountains that wet the adjacent
                                                     Tolentino likewise commented on the                      consumerism                               Love ‘em all
pavement, make him feel weird somehow.
                                                 illusory sense of refuge that malls offer. Ac-                                                             The modern mall has likewise been
Like how the mall has encroached on the
                                                 cording to him, “sa loob ng mall, maaliwalas                                                           touted as the new center of the localities
territory of parks in terms of scenery.
                                                 ang kapaligiran, maliwanag kahit saan,                                                                 today. From it, many high-rise condo-
    Still everybody competes for a piece
                                                 parang parating tanghaling tapat, malinis,                                                             miniums have risen with the promise of
of the air-conditioning inside, hordes of                                                            starts choosing this sheltered existence over
                                                 walang basura sa kalye, malamig, may mga                                                               putting all of modern man’s needs, such
people pour into the lone metal detector by                                                          the harsher conditions outside. The more a
                                                 puno rin naman, nagpa-flush ang toilet,                                                                as shelter, dining, and leisure, under one
the entrance. When he finally gets in, his                                                           mall beautifies its inside premises to con-
                                                 maayos ang serbisyo, at walang krimen.”                                                                roof. It has replaced the plaza, which used
body quickly notices the change in temper-                                                           trast the bleak appearance of the outside,
                                                     Such pockets of first world in a third world                                                       to flank the church and the town hall,
ature and begins to relax. He inhales the                                                            the more successful it is in reinforcing this
                                                 country are enough to drive hordes of people                                                           as a town’s nucleus. The malls of today
perfumed air and drags his feet along the                                                            dichotomy.
                                                 into these places day in and day out. Inside,                                                          have gone beyond offering the customary
tiled floor. He clutches his backpack and                                                               Some factors, though, suggest that this
                                                 time stops being a factor as one loses sight                                                           trades like food and clothing. One can go
embarks to explore, the sweat that dripped                                                           altered “reality” comes with a price. After a
                                                 of the outside. The enclosed space is crucial                                                          to a mall to hear mass, view art exhibits,
down his back now a thing of the past.                                                               long day of roaming around its shiny inte-
                                                 in maintaining this artificial reality. Filipinos                                                      get a perm, buy a book, go to school, even
                                                                                                     riors, admiring the high-end goods for sale,
Like no other mall in the world                  get a taste of the first world - they finally
                                                                                                     and using its first-rate facilities, one will
                                                                                                                                                        breast feed one’s baby. Indeed, one can go
   The first mall in the country was the         experience winter via skating rinks, eat                                                               to a mall to undergo minor surgery such
                                                 American doughnuts through Krispy Krème,            notice that there are hardly any seats for tired   as liposuction.
Ali Mall, named after Muhammad Ali,
                                                 wear British apparel thanks to Debenhams.           shoppers. The mall forces its customers to be          And the change is not literal alone. It
and inaugurated during his visit to Ma-
                                                 The maller becomes enamored with his                constantly on their feet. The message that         also implies a shift in the prevailing value
nila in 1975. Today, the mall still stands,
                                                 current surroundings and, at some point,            such arrangement sends is simple: if you go        system. What used to be a largely theo-
although its former grandeur now vastly
overshadowed by the supposedly posh                                                                                                                     cratic social order has been transformed
malls of late.                                                                                                                                          to a communal reverence toward con-
   From less than ten malls in the 1980s,                                                                                                               sumerism, a culture that emphasizes the
today there are more than 250. Among the                                                                                                                power of money in acquiring goods and
ten biggest malls in the world in terms of                                                                                                              services. In so doing, these malls are stra-
gross leasable area, three are located in                                                                                                               tegically placed where volumes of people
the Philippines. In fourth place is the SM                                                                                                              predictably amass, such as routes of public
Mall of Asia. Opened in 2006, the imposing                                                                                                              transportation systems. They have stopped
structure occupies a sprawling 4.1 mil-                                                                                                                 being mere optional conveniences. The
lion square feet of leasable space by the                                                                                                               goal is to make them vital.
bay. The other two in the top ten, SM City                                                                                                                  Weary from walking all day, he decides
North EDSA and SM Megamall, take up                                                                                                                     it is time to go. And as he steps outside,
some additional 7.5 million square feet.                                                                                                                his body quickly notices the sharp change
Another four Philippine malls land in the                                                                                                               in temperature. At once, black noxious
top thirty.                                                                                                                                             fumes from a passing dump truck block
   The recently opened Triangle North of                                                                                                                his vision, offend his nostrils. At once, he
Manila (Trinoma), Ayala Malls’ answer to                                                                                                                feels beads of sweat form on his back. He
                                                                                                                                                        walks a few distance and hails a decrepit

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     photos: candice anne reyes. page design: mark angelo ching and k arl castro.
SM City North EDSA , is already at number
25. According to pop culture theorist                                                                                                                   jeepney. He squeezes in between an overly
Rolando Tolentino, the shopping mall                                                                                                                    made up mall employee and a middle-aged
boom, which has gathered renewed steam                                                                                                                  man in rags. He craves for the elbow room
in recent years with the opening of the                                                                                                                 he earlier had but for now he knows he has
colossal SM Mall of Asia and Trinoma, is                                                                                                                this harshness to confront. The jeepney
indicative of the Philippines’ faith in these                                                                                                           speeds through, and the proud mall lights
structures. “Sobra ang kompyansa sa mall                                                                                                                get dimmer by the second until they are
bilang tanda ng pagkaunlad ng bansa na                                                                                                                  completely out of sight.
ang mismong bansa ay nilalayong maging                                                                                                                  REfERENCE
isang hypermall,” he said.                                                                                                                              Rolando Tolentino, Kulturang Mall, Anvil Publishing, 2004.
                                                                                                                                         PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007

Pamamaalam                                                                                                                      ivan Rerente

         agod na ‘ko.                           na ginusto kong muling magmakaawa                      Alam ko, kaya nga ayoko na, dahil pagod
            Wala na akong ibang masabi          sayo, pero libong ulit ko ring naiisip ang          na ‘kong umasang babalik ka pa. Pagod na
         pa. Naubos na ang mga salitang         sinabi mong masaya ka ngayon. Masaya                ‘kong lagi na lang lumuha. Pagod na ‘kong
         dapat kong bitawan at tila pagal na    ka na ngayon, kaya kailangan ko nang                magtago sa mga panaginip kong kapiling
ang aking isipan sa pagtatanong at sa pag-      magpatuloy nang mag-isa.
                                                   Sa ngayon ay natatapos na lang ang
                                                                                                    ka. Pagod na ‘kong unawain ka pa. Pagod                                               Chris S.
unawa sa mga bagay na nangyari sa atin.
Paano tayo nakarating dito? Ang sabi mo ay      bawat araw ko sa mga di-mabilang na
                                                                                                    na ‘kong kalabanin ang sarili ko. Pagod na
                                                                                                    ‘ko na lagi na lang ganito. Pagod na kong
ayaw mo na kaya ka nagpaalam. Kasunod           buntong-hininga. Panay ang dalaw ng                 unawain pa ang mga nangyari at wala na
                                                                         masasaya nating

                                                                                                                                                    News of a death
nito ay sinabi mong mahal mo pa rin ako                                                             kong mabibigay pa. Pagod na kong magdusa
pero di na tulad ng dati. Sinabi mong kai-          kElan kaya           alaala kasunod ng          nang dahil lang sayo. Ayoko na, kelan kaya
                                                  DaRating ang

langan mong maging mag-isa. Nagulat                                      napakasakit mong           darating ang panahong ako naman ang
na lang ako nang bigla kang naghanap ng              PanaHOng            pamamaalam. Ma-            sasaya? Kailangan ko nang bumitaw, kai-
bagong daan at kasabay nito ang pagkaka-            akO naMan            hirap ang unti-            langan na kitang palayain. Kailangan ko                          eath has become trite, at least
roon mo ng ibang kasama. Iniwan mo kong
                                                    ang sasaya           u n t i n g p a g b u ra   nang magsimulang muli para muli ko na-                           for me. The newspaper headlines
kulang sa pagpapaliwanag, iniwan mo                                      sa mga text mo sa          mang mahanap ang sarili ko. Matagal-tagal                        scream of activists murdered by
kong walang laban. Iniwan mo na ‘ko.            cellphone ko, habang patuloy ang pagpa-             na kong nagbababad sa aking kalungkutan,                         the government on a daily basis.
   Nagdaan na ang isang taon pagkatapos         padala ng mga “moving-on quotes” ng mga             panahon na para lisanin ko ang parteng ito                       The recent spate of typhoons left
ng iyong paglisan, akala ko noon magiging       kaibigan ko. Ang istorya natin ay naging            ng sarili ko.                                                    a number of people dead, mostly
madali lang ang paglimot sayo, nagkamali        paboritong usapan ng ating mga kakilala at             Pagod na ‘ko at wala na akong ibang ma-      from the countryside. Closer to home, a student
ako. Sa anim na taon na naging tayo hindi       sa mga pagkakataong nakakasalubong ko               sabi pa. Naubos na ang mga salitang dapat       was beaten to death in yet another sequence
ko inakalang hindi pa rin pala kita lubu-       sila sa daan ay naging napakahirap sagutin          kong bitawan at tila pagal na ang aking         of bloodshed in that vicious cycle of fraternity
sang kilala. Aaminin kong mahirap takasan       ng tanong nilang “kumusta ka na?” Paulit            isipan. Mahal kita pero ngayon sa huling        violence.
ang mga alaala mo at mahirap magpatuloy         ulit na lang na ganito, pero oo, alam ko...         pagkakataon… mahal ko, paalam na.                  He could have been a classmate. I swear I
nang wala ka. Dumaan na ang libong saglit       wala ka na kaya talagang ganito.                                                                    could have seated beside him in one of the banal
                                                                                                                                                    rooms in AS. Or I could have rubbed elbows with
                                                                                                                                                    him in a Toki jeepney on the way to Math. He

                                                                                                                                                    could have been in that UAAP game, cheering
                                                                                                                                                    the Maroons on to no avail. We could have been
                                                                                                                                                    in the same line to borrow a book from the Main
                                                                                                                           Piya Constantino         Library.
                                                                                                                                                       It’s futile, this attempt at trying to remember

                                                                                                                                                    him other than that lifeless mass of flesh. The
         he first few weeks, you’d want to      the places in other countries that she has          the road, all of whom were cheering and
                                                                                                                                                    blue marks and broken bones were haunting
         either jump out the window or          been to, and always her stories would re-           running after him, the American with the
                                                                                                                                                    reminders of the violence he went through, the
         pack your bags and go home. But        volve around how clean and beautiful they           video camera riding the tricycle which,
                                                                                                                                                    extent of which I will never fully fathom. I took
         then you see the growing figures in    are; how nice and honest the people there           according to him, was rather tight but oth-
                                                                                                                                                    photos of his limp body; the specter will forever
your bank book, and you’ll decide that it’s     are. Always, of course, in comparison to this       erwise fun to ride in. He got the same treat-
                                                                                                                                                    assault me.
worth the loneliness and the ingratitude        place where, according to her, people have          ment everywhere; people would turn their
                                                                                                                                                       I am tempted to call for an end to all of this,
and all the other crap that will be thrown      no discipline and would, given the chance,          heads to look at and watch the American,
                                                                                                                                                    but we’ve been doing the same for decades
at your face. This was what I gathered from     try to cheat or steal from you. And of course,      and would smile and wave at the camera
                                                                                                                                                    now. The slogan “End fraternity violence” rings
my sister’s musings after she received a        you would never hear of that kind of be-            he always carried. Filipinos are so nice
                                                                                                                                                    empty; it never halted the deaths of Lenny Villa,
message from a colleague who had just           havior in ________ [insert First World              and friendly, he would say while reviewing
                                                                                                                                                    or Dennis Venturina, or Mark Martin, or Alex
accepted a work contract as a doctor in         country ’s name here], where she stayed             the footages.
                                                                                                                                                    Icasiano, or Niño Calinao or Daniel Reyes. Cer-
Singapore, and was already dying to return      a few days and took                                    He concluded, before returning home
                                                                                                                                                    tainly, it never saved Cris Mendez.
home. She was right, though. He didn’t          p h o to s o f a l l t h e HOw                      after a three-week stay, that he didn’t
                                                                                                                                                       For slogans leave much unsaid. It doesn’t say
come home. Neither did my sister when           beautiful places and       COUlD                    believe that poverty existed in the Philip-
                                                                                                                                                    that Cris is expected to graduate this year, or
she signed a similar contract.                  beautiful people she       anyOnE gO                pines. For how could anyone go hungry
                                                                                                                                                    that he leaves behind a mother and a younger
   She packs cans of Purefoods Sisig and        encountered.               HUngRy                   when there is so much food being sold on
                                                                                                                                                    brother, or that his frail body was beaten black
packets of Boy Bawang after every vacation         I have a half-          wHEn tHERE               the streets? We pointed out to him people
                                                                                                                                                    and blue, his left wrist broken, and the only parts
here, and during her stay would eat Rodic’s     brother, too, who          is sO MUCH               sleeping on cardboard flaps by the side of
Tapsilog or fishballs and isaw. Yet she would   lives in America; who      fOOD bEing               the road. He pretended not to see. He didn’t
                                                                                                                                                    of him that looked normal were his head and his
shake her head at the ugliness or filthiness    has almost always          sOlD On tHE              videotape them either.
                                                                                                                                                    legs. It doesn’t capture the brutality of it all.
of the places I would take her, and would       lived in America .         stREEts?                    You could make postcards from photos
                                                                                                                                                       I may not have known or met him, after all,
                                                                                                                                                    but the thought of him having once walked
watch the news or read the newspaper and        During his last visit                               my sister took of the countries she has been
                                                                                                                                                    the streets of UP somehow brings solace. The
shake her head in contempt. “Mga Pilipino       here, he came to see the ‘real’ Philippines.        to, and those that my brother took of the
                                                                                                                                                    memory of a person persists through the images
talaga…” she would always start, and            And so he went to Banaue to live, for a             Philippines. Tourists bank on the perfec-
                                                                                                                                                    we conjure of him, as if the loss of him never
would not finish the sentence. As though        night, in an ‘authentic, native’ hut. It was        tion of places and countries as advertised
                                                                                                                                                    happened, as if lifelessness were just a dream-
those three words were self-explanatory. As     the real thing, he boasted. The tarpaulin           on posters of travel agencies; the shortness
                                                                                                                                                    like phase. We so abhor death precisely because
though we weren’t part of her generaliza-       advertising it said so.                             of their visits ensures that they would not
                                                                                                                                                    of its permanence.
tion. As though she were not.                      He wanted to see the ‘real’ Manila as            see beyond the polished surface. Pictures
                                                                                                                                                       But deaths are never the same. I was never
   She works, she says, not for the money       well, so he tried the ‘exotic’ street foods         deceive, for they are dependent on the eyes
                                                                                                                                                    hysterical when my grandmother died of old
itself but for the money to be able to travel   such as buko juice and taho, and rode a             behind the lens.
                                                                                                                                                    age. More than grief, rage took hold of me
and see the world. She would tell us of all     tricycle while videotaping workers along
                                                                                                                                                    upon receiving news that my aunt was stabbed
                                                                                                                                                    dead. If GMA were to die right now no matter

  Justice for Cris Mendez.
                                                                                                                                                    the cause, not a few of us will find reasons to
                                                                                                                                                    celebrate. More lasting than death itself are the
                                                                                                                                                    circumstances that made such death peaceful or
                                                                                                                                                    violent, worthy or senseless.

  End fraternity violence.
                                                                                                                                                       Death has become trite. I am tempted to
                                                                                                                                                    weave moving narratives of denunciation, but
                                                                                                                                                    when death so confronts us, we can only look
                                                                                                                                                    askance to heavens, seething with rage at such
                                                                                                                                                                       PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007

Contact us!                      write to us via snail mail or submit a soft copy to Rm. 401, Vinzons Hall, UP Diliman, Quezon City. ••• email us kule0708@gmail.com. Save Word attachments in Rich Text Format, with INBOX ,
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Justice for Cris                                                                                                                                        Send in your opinions and feedback via SMS! Type:
                                                                                                                                                        KULE <space> YOUR MESSAGE <space> STUDENT
Mendez                                                                                                                                                  NUMBER (required), NAME and COURSE (optional)
                                                                                                                                                        and send them to
       he Student Alliance for the Ad-
       vancement of Democratic Rights                                                                                                                   Non-UP students must indicate any school, organi-
                                                                                                                                                        zational or sectoral affiliation. WARNING: We don’t
       in UP (STAND UP) joins the family,                                                                                                               entertain textmates.
friends, and colleagues of UP student
                                                We welcome questions, constructive criticism,
Cris Anthony Mendez in the pursuit for
                                                opinions, stands on relevant issues, and other                                                        sa tingin MO, nakatUtUlOng                              lng tlga ang manunulat. 06-78766 phile
justice of his most unwanted death.             reactions. Letters may be edited for brevity or                                                       ba ang “HOliDay ECOnOMiCs”                                   astig tlga ung “For chris s. a.” hehe.hrap-
    STAND UP, as the largest student            clarity. Due to space constraints, letters must                                                       ni glORia aRROyO?                                       hrapang bwelthan n to tsong! miss ko n tlga
alliance in UP Diliman, recognizes Cris’        have only 400 words or less.                                                                              ok lng.prmkpgphnga ang mga manggagawa.              “system of a down” mas nk2-relate kc ako dun
contribution to his fellow iskolars ng                                                                                                                pro in a way ayw q rn kc wlng mggng pasahero            eh.. 06-31599
                                                  Fraternities, together with the rest                                                                ang tatay q..06-45935                                        para kay chris s. agrava,ang sinusulat mo
bayan as an active College and University
                                                                                                  Get free publicity! Email us your press releases,       anng 2l0ng nagawa nun?!nagkasabay                   ay tila nagku2wento skin ng buhay mo..hgt
Student Council member.                       of the studentry, should unite against              invitations, etc. DON’T TYPE IN ALL CAPS and,       sabay exams ko..tsaka ala na k0ng na222nan              s lhat,nr2mdaman q ang bwat slita..inspire
    His death is allegedly due to frater-     the true killers and oppressors of their            go easy on... the punctuation!? Complete            sa mga subjects ko pag m0nday.. 04-13896                more!! 06-29276
nity hazing, but decisive investigations      ranks. Amidst intensified state terrorism,          sentences only. Dnt use txt lnguage pls.                                                                         tnung ko lng.. hndi kya mgkapatayan n
                                                                                                  Please provide a short title. Be concise, 100           holiday econ?bwiset,panira s sked! wla ng
should be accomplished by the police          fee increases and commercialization of                                                                  ntu3hn ung students, nli2to p kng kelan tlg mga         yng cna chris agrava at noel hernaiz? tg0s 2
                                                                                                  words maximum.
and the UP administration to bring light      education, issues which may have been                                                                   celebration. tpos nun mg-mke up clas p! waah!           d b0nes ung bira ni n0el ah! haha.. pero prang
his case.                                     actively fought by Cris, a unified and                                                                  06-31599                                                kampi ako ky n0el.. may hal0ng sh0wbiz nrin
                                              progressive student body is demanded
                                                                                                  kalayaan DORM REnOVatiOn                                holidays were set so that we could celebrate        pla kule! hehe.. 0l in 0ne baga..:) 06-27393
    STAND UP, having 13 member-frater-
                                                                                                     UP Space Innovations and Lifestyles by           it on that day. matakot na lang tayo kung pati               to chris s. agrava and noel pacis hernaiz,
nities and sororities, pose a reminder to     to engage.
                                                                                                  Interior Design (SILID), the graduating Inte-       pasko,i-move nya. naguguluhan lang ako sa               nagkakaangasan lng kayo. parehong walng
such brotherhoods of their progressive            We call on all fraternities, students,          rior Design Majors of the College of Home           sense ng pag-move ng no classes. 06-07372               kwenta mga columns nyo. 05-78011
history and orientation, which commonly       faculty, and general public to extend               Economics has chosen Kalayaan Resi-                     0o nman!ang sya kya nun lalo n s mga                     w0w! praise 2 anonimo! u rily gv names 2
adhere to the service of the nation and       greatest possible support for the im-               dence Hall to be this year’s beneficiary of         estudyante!haha.. wla kyang ps0k!kelan nga              pip0l ho r tkn 4 grntd nd th0se who thnk they
of the people. Living up to these ideals      mediate resolution and justice of Cris’             their free interior design service.                 b ung nxt holiday? haha.. 07-04466                      hav d0ne n0thing sgnfcnt nd ds w0rld. thanks
will not only avert fraternities from the     death, as well as its solemn and valuable              The aim is to entrance their interior                holiday economics?haller hnd cla ngwork             4 gvng us s2ries of dr lives! paper trail article’s
deeply embedded culture of violence,          remembrance.                                        design skills by providing first-hand ex-           for a day.m0st filipinos daily wage earners.no          1 of d best article i’v read! kip on inspiring us!
                                                                     Vanessa Faye Bolibol
                                                                                                  perience on the field of design and con-            work=no money=no pnggastos 07-19330                     06-25674, breccia ba el
but will also mark their significant place-
                                                                                                  struction and at the same time develop                  ok lng nman ang holiday ec0n0mics ni glo..               sana mgkar0n kau ng segment s paper ny0
ment in society.                                                 STAND UP Chairperson
                                                                                                  solidarity through service.                         dirediretso ang trabaho s mga opisina.. wlang           kung san ung student eh maka2pasa ng article
                                                                                                     Help us fund this renovation project. Let        hassle,hba pa bkasy0n..”, 06-02735 jumpps,              kht hndi nmn xa member ng kule. t0pic can be
                                                                                                  us make the residence hall the Iskolar’s            eng’g                                                   anythng. mas masaya sna un. para pg tinupak
                                                                                                  home away from home. For inquiries, con-                para sa akin oo. nagkakaroon ako ng pana-           ako,msu2lat k0h sa kule pti nrin ibng isko ung
                                                                                                  tact: Melissa Manzo 0916.456.2270                   hong habulin ang tambak na plates, mag-ipon             th0ughts nmn, kht wla p kmng komitment.
 bOR       frOm P.5
                                                                                                  UP JPia’s CaRniValE
                                                                                                                                                      ng energy,bonding kasama ang mga mahal sa
                                                                                                                                                      buhay,at magmuni-muni hanggang sumayad
                                                                                                                                                                                                              please! para hndi lng png txtback ang msu2lat
                                                                                                                                                                                                              nmin! 06-27393
                                                                                                     Party with UP JPIA as we bring CARNI-            sa utak na ang oras ay mahalaga at dapat gina-               ang liit ng mga letra ng mga kule! mskit s
                                                                                                  VALE– a breathtaking night filled with ac-          gamit ng wasto para maging produktibo, mas              mata! ndi b pwdng i-edit ang mga article 2
                                                                                                  robatics, magical illusions, belly dancin,          gugustuhin mong pumasok nang muli kaysa                 mke it short,concise & brief? in a way, mggng
                                                                                                  capoeira arts and energy-pumping dance              tumunganga lang sa isang tabi.wow. nakatutu-            magaan ang kule.. un lng, 06-02735
                                                                                                  showdowns on Sept. 7, Friday 7:30pm at              long nga. 04-61750                                           wow, saktong-sakto yung collegian chron-
                                                                                                  Warehouse 135, Yakal St., Makati. Pro-                  uhm, in a way, nkktulong naman xa lalu              icles nitong linggo a. hazing. sana next issue
                                                                                                  ceeds will be for the Hotchkiss Learning            na if type mu ang long vacation, haha, at least,        may linaw na sa nangyari kay mr. cris mendez.
                                                                                                  Center in Surigao del Sur. Free-flowing             dre-dretso phnga mu. but d bad syd is, nwwla            06-03962 mamon
                                                                                                  drinks for 1 hour. Purchase tickets before          n ung sgnfcance nung mism0ng holiday. 07-                    c0ngrats to pup!buti pa kau...natalo nio ang
                                                                                                  11pm on Sept.7 at P250, just contact Cha-           78013 music                                             tofi!smantalang sa up...p2l0y n nghhrap ang
                                                                                                  rie @ 0916.405.9337                                                                                         mga estudytante!sna mgng sintapang din ng
                                                                                                                                                      anO’ng Masasabi MO                                      mga taga pup ang mga upians...b0ycotttau!.
                                                                                                  DUP’s “as yOU likE it”                              sa Pagbabalikan nina                                    haha! 07-30923
                                                                                                      Dulaang UP, on its 32nd theatre season,         RUffa at yilMaZ?                                             sna po ndi mgmintis ang pgddliver ng kule
                                                                                                  stages William Shakespeare’s “As You Like                their reconcliation s nevitable..they hav          s kalai ze mnsn ndi kme nka2kuha, we l0ve
                                                                                                  It” as well as its Filipino translation by the      kids kc, nd wen ther r kids nvolvd, ms mhrap            kule!kulang ang week pg ndi aq nkpgbsa n2,
                                                                                                  late National Artist for Literature Rolando         maging selfish. their marriage brawl ws just            07-46665
                                                                                                  Tinio, “Paano Man Ang Ibig.” Directed by            too publiszd kya lumaki ng sobra. nd to anabel
                                                                                                  José Estrella, the romantic comedy fea-             rama, stay out of it! she’s s nytmare, honest-          sagUtan
                                                                                                  tures Richard Cunanan, Gary Lim, Mailes             ly..03-28574                                                to 03-21181: ang point ko lng naman, kai-
                                                                                                  Kanapi, Paolo O’Hara, Randy Villarama and                s tngin ko drma lng nla yn.. showbiz tlga!         langan na mag mit hafway ung rich at poor para
                                                                                                  Nathasia Garrucha. The play runs Aug 29-            ikanga ni annabel, ‘wg nu ng guluhn ang anak            magdcyd regrdng sa tofi.dba, kaya dapat merng
                                                                                                  Sep 16 at the Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero Theater,        kong c rowpah!’..hehe..07-76207 sisa                    unity para maadres ang tofi…06-07841 popito
                                                                                                  2/F Palma Hall. For more info, please con-               nagbalikan pala cla. well, godbless po sana            to 06-55312: its a gud thng 2 feel dprssed
                                                                                                  tact the DUP office 926.1349 or 433.7840,           s kanila. para n rin s mga anak nila iyang gna-         wen u read kule.it means u still feel 4 wat is hap-
                                                                                                  or Sir Anril Tiatco 0917.858.0734.                  gawa nila. 04-11599, nana bsce                          pening arnd u.d nxt step,i hope,wud b 2 act on
                                                                                                                                                           hwahaha! c ylmaz at rufa na2man?!nak0w,            dem. 99-15413
                                                                                                                                                      cgurad0ng masayang masaya nanaman c                         kng cno man nagsbng puro nega ang kule:

 buhay          mUla P.4
                                                                                                                                                      anabelramz dhl marami na naman xang gin2.
                                                                                                                                                      (getz?) haha. 07-10761,d0ng
                                                                                                                                                                                                              un lng nman po ang 22ong nangyayari.ano png
                                                                                                                                                                                                              sense kng puro positve lng nkadyaryo? un nga
                                                                                                                                                           oh?ngkblikan na cla?ala nk0ng blita dhl            nagbbunga ng “indignation” dat mkes us act.
                                                                                                                                                      1 month nk0ng alang tv,.nwei,mlmang 4 pub-              pro d nman ibg sbhng ineexaggerate nla issues.
                                                                                                                                                      licity purposes lng yan.. 07-48221                      d i2 gya ng pngkraniwng tabloid n puro pacute
                                                                                                                                                           keber qng ngkblikan cna ruffa at yilmaz,wla        lng.07-38848 ba psych
                                                                                                                                                      nmn aqng mpa2la s knila..mas mbuti qng mg-                  to 06-57162: hahaha! wild nman pla c mir-
                                                                                                                                                      ptayan n lng cla,pra mbwasa mga pa2ncn d2 s             iam santiago. no wonder ‘ganun’ ang mga labi
                                                                                                                                                      mundo. 04-46643 stat                                    niya. 06-02806

                                                                                                                                                      COMMEnts                                                Panawagan
                                                                                                                                                          lagi akong dprsd 2wng nagb2sa ng kule dhl              ung nkuha ng buk n elmntary principle of
                                                                                                                                                      naa2wa ako s klgayan ng atng pamantasan at              chem procss by felder (green,hrdbound) n gling
                                                                                                                                                      ng atng bansa n prehong pnmu2nuan ng mga                eng’g lib, pls pkibalik, tx me sa 09064684972.
                                                                                                                                                      ganid s pera at mga walang pakialam s edu-              thnx! 05-12473 engg
                                                                                                                                                      kayon. hay kule,ipagp2loy ang pagl2had ng                  ung freshie shirts nmin n bnyaran nung
                                                                                                                                                      k22hnan 2 kip me dprsd. amen. 05-12890                  Fopc wla p rn sembreak n. sbi s block handler
                                                                                                                                                          ganda ng komiks. napakaprofound. Finally.           dw kunin wla nman. 07-38848 ba psych
                                                                                                                                                      something worth reading and sending a mes-
                                                                                                                                                      sage for. 05-10934                                      nEXt wEEk’s QUEstiOns
                                                                                                                                                          kay noel pacis hernaiz, inaabngan ko dn dti             1. paano mawawakasan ang fraternity-
                                                                                                                                                      ang system of a down, at relevant dn nmn mga            related violence?
                                                                                                                                                      columns m. okay dn yung style ni chris s. a. n              2. ano’ng masasabi mo sa “hello papi”
                                                                                                                                                      mgsulat s column nya ng tungkol kung saan               scandal at ang umano’y pandaraya sa mga tv
                                                                                                                                                      saan, pra ibng tikim nmn. may iba’t ibng atake          gameshow?
                                                                                                 PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007

Mag-aaral   mUla P.3

                                                                                                                         alanah torralba

                       bUkas Pa Rin ang kUlê PaRa
                       sa Mga bagOng layOUt aRtist,
                       ilUstRaDOR, wEb staff, at Mga
                       ManUnUlat sa balita, latHalain
                       at kUltURa
                       [ W r i t e r S ] Bring two bluebooks, a pen, and a
                       portfolio of sample works (may be submitted later). You may join
                       News, features, or Kultura. filipino and/or English writers welcome.
                       [ a r t i S t S ] Submit a portfolio of your works. illustrators,
                       bring bond paper and art materials of your choice. Web staff and layout
                       artists, bring 2 bluebooks and a pen. exams may be taken anytime at
                       the Kulê office, room 401, Vinzons Hall. freshies are most welcome! for
                       questions, text Jerrie 0920.308.2303 or email kule0708@gmail.com
                                                                                                                                                                         Philippine Collegian nº 11

                                                                                                                                                                                 Martes 4 set 2007

Michael francis C. andrada                        MMDA at ang Salawikain ng                                                                          na kapital bilang pinansiyal na kapital
                                                                                                                                                     na isinusubo ng International Monetary

                                                  Naghihingalong Siyudad
                                                                                                                                                     Fund, Asian Development Bank, at iba pang

         a Maynila, ang Metropolitan Manila                                                                                                          institusyon.
         Development Authority (MMDA)
         ang pangunahing tagapagtakip
                                                                                                                                                     Walang Pagbabago
                                                                                                                                                        Ito mismo ang masasaludsod na tunay
         ng krisis at kabulukan ng estado.                                                       makatuwid, ipinagpapatuloy ng MMDA ang
                                                                                                                                                     na layunin ng urbanisasyon ng MMDA
Sa samu’t saring proyekto ng MMDA sa                                                             ganitong operasyon para sa akumulasyon ng
                                                                                                                                                     – ang paghikayat ng pamumuhunang da-
pamumuno ni Bayani Fernando, makikita                                                               pribadong pagmamay-ari ng estado. At
                                                                                                                                                     yuhan, ng pagpasok ng global na kapital sa
ang lisyang urbanisasyon ng estado.                                                                    mananatili ang ganitong operasyon sa
                                                                                                                                                     pamamagitan ng turismo. Kung kaya hindi
Kabilang sa mga proyektong ito ang                                                                        pamamagitan ng pagsaid sa murang
                                                                                                                                                     nakapagtataka na dalawang pangunahing
mga patakaran ng MMDA na mistu-                                                                             lakas-paggawa na kalakhan ay
                                                                                                                                                     proyekto ng MMDA ang inihingi ng pondo
lang “salawikain” o “kasabihang ”                                                                               nagmumula sa kanayunan at
                                                                                                                                                     mula sa dalawang higanteng imperyalistang
nakapaskil bilang istiker sa dyip o                                                                               maralita ng lungsod.
                                                                                                                                                     institusyong pinansiyal. Ang “Metro Manila
metalikong pink/blue na poster sa                                                                                       Upang ipalaganap ang
                                                                                                                                                     Urban Transport Integration Project” ay
kalsada. Nakapakete bilang “Metro                                                                                     mantrang ito ng MMDA ,
                                                                                                                                                     pinopondohan ng World Bank, habang ang
Gwapo / Tao Ganado / Sukatan ng                                                                                         nakatutok ang na-
                                                                                                                                                     “ Metro Manila Air Quality Improvement
Kalidad ng Pamayanan,” lantad na                                                                                          turang awtoridad sa
                                                                                                                                                     Sector Development Program” naman ay
ipinatatalos ng mga panitikang ito                                                                                         paglilinis at pagsa-
                                                                                                                                                     pinopondohan ng Asian Development Bank.
ang nomenklatura ng urbanisasyong                                                                                           saayos ng siyudad.
                                                                                                                                                     Ang ganito ring iskema ang siyang tiyak
nakahulma sa layaw ng gobyerno at                                                                                           Kabilang sa “Metro
                                                                                                                                                     na magpapanatili ng kronikong krisis sa
ng mga dayuhang korporasyon:                                                                                                 G wa p o” a n g ( 1 )
                                                                                                                                                     Maynila at sa buong bansa.
   1.) Walang Sagabal.                                                                                                       Street Nomads
                                                                                                                                                        Sa gitna at ilalim ng itinatambol na
   Lansangan ay ligtas, mabilis,                                                                                             Care Program, (2)
                                                                                                                                                     proyekto ng urbanisasyon ng MMDA ,
walang nakakainis.                                                                                                           Sidewalk Dwellers
                                                                                                                                                     hindi ang mga pagbabago sa pisikal na
   2.) Walang Kalat.                                                                                                          Inventory and Al-
                                                                                                                                                     heyograpiya ng kalakhang Maynila ang
   Wa l a n g k u ya g o t , wa l a n g                                                                                       location, (3) Wa-
                                                                                                                                                     mas pumaimbulog. Bagkus, naranasan ang
basura.                                                                                                                        terways Dwellers
                                                                                                                                                     intensipikasyon ng kahirapan, ang pagrami
   3.) Walang pook na bulok.                                                                                                   Relocation, (4)
                                                                                                                                                     ng taong lansangan, ang pagsulpot ng mga
   Maganda, hindi nakakatakot.                                                                                                  Pook na Bulok,
                                                                                                                                                     karitong-tindahan-tahanan sa mga bang-
   4.) Walang sakit.                                                                                                            Negosyo Di Pa-
                                                                                                                                                     keta, ang paglala ng trapiko, ang pagrami ng
   Ha n g i n , t u b i g a t p a g k a i n a y                                                                                pasok, (5) PGMA
                                                                                                                                                     mga iskwater na bunga ng rural-urban na
malinis.                                                                                                                    Workers’ Inn-
                                                                                                                                                     migrasyon, at ang paglabas ng mamamayan
   5.) Walang mabaho.                                                                                                    bed-bath and Shop,
                                                                                                                                                     sa lansangan para sa demonstrasyon tulad
   Kanal at sapa, malinis.                                                                                           ( 5) Metro Padyakan, (6)
                                                                                                                                                     ng rali at mobilisasyon. Sa katunayan, ayon
   6.) Walang bastos.                                                                                             EDSA Organized Bus Route
                                                                                                                                                     kay Neferti Tadiar, ang ganitong sitwasyon
   May urbanindad.                                                                                             Project o OBR , (7) Seven Major
                                                                                                                                                     ng metropolis ay bunga ng pagbalikwas at
   7.) Kaisa. THE METRO WAY.                                                                               Roads, (8) New Modern Southrail
                                                                                                                                                     antagonismo. Ang paglobo ng populasyon
                                                  na bumuo                                             System, (9) Flood Mitigation in Metro
The Metro Way: Siyudad                            ng “pinal na                                     Manila, at (10) Metro Safe (Protecting Lives
                                                                                                                                                     sa siyudad ay ang pagsasakatawang-tao ng
ng Kamay na Bakal                                                                                and Properties).
                                                                                                                                                     pang-ekonomiyang kalabisan.
                                                  awtoridad para sa Ka-                l -                                                              Samakatuwid, ang lantad na balintuna
    Noong Nobyembre 7, 1975, pinirmahan
                                                  akhang Maynila,” ang MMDA . Simula noon,
ni Ferdinand Marcos ang Presidential
                                                  ang MMDA na ang nagpapatakbo ng “serbi-
                                                                                                 Walang Bulok, Walang Bastos                         ng “naghihingalong siyudad” ng Maynila ay
Decree No. 824 at pinag-isa ang 17 lokal                                                            Inaasinta ng proyekto ng urbanisasyon ng         matingkad na manipestasyon ng tunggalian
                                                  syong urban” sa kalakhang Maynila.                                                                 ng mga puwersang panlipunan. Maging
na gobyerno ng kalakhang Maynila bi-                                                             MMDA ang mga itinuturing na manipesta-
lang Metropolitan Manila Commission               Walang Kuyagot, Walang                         syon ng krisis ng siyudad – ang “marurungis”        ang pagpapangalan sa mga penomenon ng
(MMC). Si Imelda Marcos ang itinalagang           Pangit sa Paningin                             at “marurumi” ng lungsod: ang mga iskwater          krisis na ito ay nakatali sa pangunahing
gobernador at general manager ng MMC.                Sa kasalukuyan, makikita ang bisyon ng      sa tulay, railway at waterway, mga batang lan-      daluyan ng urbanisasyon ng lungsod: ang
Nakaayon ang pagtataguyod ng MMC sa               MMDA ayon sa dikta ng malakolonyal at          sangan, sidewalk vendors, at pulubi. Ang la-        lansangan. Kaya maging ang nomenkla-
“Bagong Lipunan” na siyang politikal na           malapyudal na gobyernong Arroyo. Ayon kay      yunin ng MMDA ay protektahan ang lungsod            tura ng mga krisis-lansangan (batang lan-
mantra ng Batas Militar. Ani Manuel Caoili,       Fernando, nilalayon ng MMDA na gawing          mula sa lahat ng uri ng obstruksyon. Upang          sangan, putang kalye, illegal street vendor,
ang pagtataguyod sa Maynila bilang “Si-           “makatao at world class” ang Kalakhang         maisagawa ito, kaugnay na layunin ng MMDA           krimeng-lansangan) ay masisipat bilang
yudad ng Tao” ay upang mang-engganyo ng           Maynila. Malinaw sa bisyon ng MMDA na ang      ang tanggalin ang lahat ng iligal na istruktura     matingkad na antagonismo ng mga puw-
pamumuhunang dayuhan at upang maging              regulasyon ng Kamaynilaan ay regulasyon ng     at obstruksyon sa lungsod. Samakatuwid,             ersang panlipunan sa lungsod at sa bansa.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            dibuho: ivan rerente. disenyo ng pahina: mark angelo ching.
rehiyunal na sentro ng mga multinasyonal          mamamayan nito para sa pang-ekonomiyang        makikita na ang moda ng urbanisasyon ay             Ang balintunang ito ang mapaghuhugutan
na korporasyon ang Maynila.                       produksyon ng kalunsuran at ng bansa.          nasa programa ng sanitasyon ng lungsod.             ng radikal na inobasyon ng salawikain ng
    Hindi nalalayo ang ganitong imposisyon        Makikita rin sa bisyong ito ang erudisyon ng   Kung susuriin pang mabuti, ang krisis na            naghihingalong lungsod.
ng Batas Militar sa binuong diskurso ng           pagpapanatili ng Maynila bilang primaryang     ito ay sinadyang-krisis at likhang-krisis ng
“demokrasya” ng humaliling gobyernong             kapital ng bansa para sa lokal at global na    oberdeterminasyon ng estado.                        Caoili, Manuel A. The Origins of Metropolitan Manila: A Political
Corazon Aquino. Sa bisa ng Executive Order        kalakalan.                                        Sa madaling salita, ginagawang “normal”             and Social Analysis. Quezon City: University of the Philip-
No. 392 noong Enero 9, 1990, ipinalit sa             Ang “primera klase” ng urbanisasyong        ang krisis ng naghihingalong siyudad upang             pines Press. 1999.
MMC ang Metropolitan Manila Authority                                                                                                                Marx, Karl at frederick Engels. The German Ideology. Part One. In-
                                                  nais itanghal ng MMDA ay makakamit lamang      patuloy na lumawak ang global na kapital sa
                                                                                                                                                        edit ni C.J. Arthur. New York: International Publishers. 1995.
(MMA) na nagsilbing “interim body for             sa patuloy na pagsaid sa kanayunan, at sa      siyudad. Sa intensipikasyon ng “sinadyang           Tadiar, Neferti Xina M. “Manila’s New Metropolitan form.” Dis-
the governance of the Metropolitan Ma-            regulasyon ng mamamayan bilang kapital         krisis,” mas ibinubukas ng estado ang kal-             crepant Histories: Translocal Essays on filipino Cultures. Inedit
nila Area.” Sa loob ng limang taong buhay         ng lakas-paggawa o labor capital para sa       akhang Maynila, ang mga metropolis at ang              ni Vicente L. Rafael. Pasig: Anvil Publishing, Inc. 1995.
ng MMA , mayroong humigit-kumulang                produksyon ng pribadong pagmamay-ari           kanayunan sa pagpasok ng global na kapital             http://www.mmda.gov.ph/history.html
300,000 katao bawat taon ang nadagdag             ng naghaharing lokal at dayuhang uri. Ani      ng mga namumuhunang multinasyunal at
                                                                                                                                                         *si michael Francis c. andrada o mykel ay dating pat-
sa lumolobong populasyon ng kalakhang             Marx, ang antagonismo sa pagitan ng si-        transnasyunal na korporasyong Amerikano at          nugot sa kultura ng philippine collegian at kasalukuyang
Maynila at sa mga problema ng sanitasyon,         yudad at nayon ay mabubuhay lamang sa          Hapon. Sa kasaysayan, tulad nang ipinahayag         guro sa departamento ng Filipino at panitikan ng pilipinas
kalusugan, trapiko at pagbaha. Noong Marso        konteksto ng pribadong pagmamay-ari. Sa-       ni Caoili, makikita ito sa pagpasok ng global       sa up diliman. kasapi siya ng all-up workers’ union at ng
1, 1995, ipinasa ang Republic Act No. 7924                                                                                                           congress of teachers/educators for nationalism and de-

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