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Nº 11 04 Set 07 Opisyal na lingguhang pahayagan ng mga mag-aaral ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas - Diliman news | 04 Ayon sa magkapatid na nakatakas mula sa militar Buhay sina Karen, She lathalain | 06 Symptoms of deterioration Diagnosing the decline of the Philippine General Hospital kultura | 08 Mal(l)- formation Deconstructing the modern Philippine mall On its 85th year, the Philippine Collegian looks back at eight decades of headlines that saw print on its pages & sent ripples within and outside the university. Mag-aaral ng public ad, namatay sa hazing 08 set 1983 Over Aquino slaying 3,000 stage rally in UP It took the death of opposition leader Sigma Rho hinihinalang nasa Benigno Aquino Jr. to likod ng trahedya bring U.P. students out Balita / 03 in the streets again. PhilippineCollegian Ika-85 taon Blg. 11 Martes 4 Set 2007 Spiral of violence ness. By remaining aloof to the Editoryal national conditions, fraternities T fail to challenge the prevailing he university has be- system and instead, facilitate its come a site of relent- perpetuation. less brutality. Indeed, the spiraling violence It was supposed to can only spawn further violence. be a rite of passage The tradition of brutality is to “to u gh e n” t h e first cultivated in initiation rites, weak. Yet, in a malevolent turn where the neophytes’ conscious- of events, neophyte Cris Mendez ness is subsequently shaped. Collegian was neither strengthened nor These hazing practices aim to piya constnatino. empowered. Instead, news of his amputate the neophytes from their death was met with a mixture of previous connections, as though disbelief, sorrow and a gnawing the fraternity is their sole source anger over the futility of the of affiliation. Meanwhile, the loss. neophytes, disassociated as they Clearly, within fraternities are, willingly subject themselves thrives a culture incongruous to practices they would otherwise with the logic of justice. Yet, this reject in normal circumstances. brutality has virtually become The members’ punishing show an impregnable practice in of authority further forces the the “ brotherhood” – difficult neophytes into submission, thus lest arrogant display of power finds the flimsiest excuse to create the concerns seldom extend beyond their narrow alliances. And, as the to remove, due, in part, to the reinforcing the fraternities’ strict, fraternities most vicious abuse: ambushes brothers graduate, they bring with existing feudal conditions of autocratic echelon. In the process, develop that target lone members of a them the imprints of the frater - Philippine society that foster neophytes become “slaves” to a social rival fraternity and melees that nity into the national arena. With such violence and to its deep- their dominant “masters.” conscience result from mere eye contact. In their propensity for the unre - s ea te d e n t r e n ch m e n t i n t h e university. Also integral to the brother - hoods’ collective identity is a that performing these acts, the broth- pentant abuse of power, it is no Juxtapose the unabated spate warped concept of masculinity, transcends ers hide their faces behind masks, longer rival fraternities who are of fraternity violence with the which encompasses feudal char - the confines as if to disavow responsibility for such iniquity. in danger but society itself. In this sense, fraternities func- national arena and the escalating acteristics like strength, power, of their narrow For while fraternities are unre- tion as a pathological excrescence human rights violations. Leaders dominance, aggressiveness relations, the mitting in their attacks, they which duplicate a decadent feudal of militant groups are systemati- and a twisted sense of bravery. death of Cris tUngkOl sa Pabal at disenyo ng pahina: k arl castro. falter at the bar of justice. system. cally eliminated by state elements Consequently, slaves are expected Mendez will Despite the prevalence of Years after the deaths of Dennis in broad daylight . Protesting farmers are shot for demanding to withstand their masters’ abuse during initiation, even when the not be the last violence and the passing of the Venturina, Mark Roland Martin, Anti-Hazing Law, many are still Alex Icasiano, Niño Calinao and their right to land. Journalists are pain has become unbearable. attracted to the promises of the Marlon Villanueva, the culture murdered for exposing corrup- Through initiation, the spiral of brotherhood. In this country ’s of brutality has again claimed tion. Fellow U P students are violence is replicated. Those who feudal system, the network of another victim. Lest fraternities abducted for working in peasant survive the brotherhoods’ rite of patronage and benefaction develop a social conscience that communities. passage take it upon themselves to assured by the fraternities serve as transcends the confines of their Despite the national blood- display their new-found sense of guarantees for self-advancement: narrow relations, the death of Cris shed, violence persists within self. The slaves become warlords, employment, resources, promo- Mendez will not be the last. the university. The fraternities’ unafraid of challenging other tion, business and politics. dogged acts of brutality speak of competing fraternities. Often Thus, for all the brotherhoods’ their glaring lack of social aware- mistaken for empowerment, this assertions of collectivity, their Philippine Collegian Opisyal na lingguhang pahayagan ng mga mag-aaral ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas - Diliman Punong Patnugot / Jerrie M. Abella • KaPatnugot / Frank Lloyd Tiongson • tagaPamahalang Patnugot / Karl Fredrick M. Castro • Patnugot sa lathalain / Alaysa Tagumpay E. Escandor • Patnugot sa graPiKs / Ivan Bryan G. Reverente, Alanah M. Torralba • tagaPamahala ng Pinansiya / Melane A . Manalo • mga Kawani / Louise Vincent B. Amante, Piya C. Constantino, Paolo A . Gonzales, Candice Anne L . Reyes • Pinansiya / Amelyn J. Daga • tagaPamahala sa sirKulasyon / Paul John Alix • sirKulasyon / Gary Gabales, Ricky Icawat, Amelito Jaena, Glenario Omamalin • mga Katuwang na Kawani / Trinidad Basilan, Gina Villas • Pamuhatan / Silid 401 Bulwagang Vinzons, Unibersidad ng Pilipinas, Diliman, Lungsod Quezon • telefax / 9818500 lokal 4522 • email / email@example.com • website / http://philippinecollegian.net, http://kule0708.deviantart.com • KasaPi / Solidaridad - UP System-wide Alliance of Student Publications and Writers’ Organizations, College Editors Guild of the Philippines PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007 Mag-aaral ng public ad, sa mga panayam ang inang si Cris- tina dulot ng matinding dalamhati sa pagkamatay ni Cris, ani Andaya, na isa sa mga naging tagapagsalita namatay sa hazing ng pamilya. Nasaksihang hinimatay si Cristina nang tatlong beses sa pa- glilibing kay Mendez, na dinaluhan ng aabot sa 2,000 tao. “Hindi natin kailanman kailan- gang mawalan ng kaibigan dahil sa walang kasaysayang karahasan… Sigma Rho Huling pagsilay Hindi katanggap-tanggap ang gi- nawa sa iyo (Cris) dahil isa kang hinihinalang nasa mabuting tao, tunay na kaibigan, mabait na anak at responsableng likod ng trahedya estudyante,” ang sabi ni Klein Abejo, kaibigan ni Mendez at kasa- mahan niya sa samahang UP Pag- Melane a. Manalo dumala, sa isang martsa noong Agosto 31 upang kundenahin ang I karahasan ng mga fraternity at sang mag-aaral na inaasahang ipanawagan ang katarungan para magtatapos sa pag-aaral ng kay Mendez. public administration ngay- ong taon ang namatay noong Huling pagkakita Agosto 27 sa hinihinalang hazing sa Bandang ikaapat ng hapon kamay ng mga miyembro ng Sigma noong Agosto 25 umano huling Rho (SR) fraternity. nakitang buhay si Mendez, ayon Matapos ang limang araw na kay Gemma Jimenez, may-ari ng burol, inilibing si Cris Anthony tinitirhan niyang boarding house Mendez, 20 taong gulang at kon- sa kalyeng V. Francisco sa Brgy. sehal ng National College of Public Krus na Ligas. Ani Jimenez, nag- Administration and Governance paalam pa sa kanya bago umalis si ( NCPAG ) Student Council ( SC ), Mendez, na lumipat doon noong noong Setyembre 2 sa Tiaong, Hunyo matapos magsara ang dor- Quezon, kung saan siya lumaki. mitoryong Narra ng UP. Sa utos ni Vice Chancellor for Dumalo pa si Mendez sa regular Student Affairs Elizabeth Enriquez na pulong ng konseho bandang noong Agosto 31, pinatawan na ng ikalawa ng hapon noong Sabadong 30 araw na preventive suspension iyon, ayon sa kanyang mga kasa- mula Setyembre 3 ang apat na mahan sa NCPAG - SC. matataas na pinuno ng SR . Dalawa Ani Jimenez, noong gabi ng sa kanila ang mula sa College of Agosto 27, nanginginig na ipinaalam Law at dalawa pa ang mula sa mga ng isang lalaking mag-aaral ng kolehiyo ng Engineering at Social NCPAG na nakatira rin sa kanyang Sciences and Philosophy. n Inihatid sa huling hantungan si Cris Mendez ng kanyang pamilya noong Setyembre 2 sa Tiaong, Quezon matapos ang limang araw na boarding house na nakatanggap Hindi pa umano maipalalabas ng burol. al anah torralba umano siya ng tawag mula sa isang pamunuan ng UP ang mga nakalap nagngangalang Paolo, na nagsabing na detalye ukol sa nangyari kay Mendez habang inaasahang lilitaw tanda ng panahon nasa St. Peter’s Memorial Chapels umano ang bangkay ni Mendez. pa ang ibang mga mag-aaral at Paliwanag ng mag-aaral, na miy- saksi na makapagbibigay-linaw sa embro ng SR ayon kay Jimenez, kaso, paliwanag ni Enriquez. “ Tumawag noon sa akin si Kuya Katarungan na ang ipinanawagan Pao (Ariel Paolo Ante). Hindi siya ng pamilya ni Mendez mula nang makapagsalita noong una, kaya ipi- makita ang bangkay ng biktima nasa niya sa iba ang telepono. Ang noong tanghali ng Agosto 28. Ayon sabi, nasa morge nga raw si Cris.” kay Elly Andaya, tiya ni Mendez, Nang matiyak sa mor ge na batbat ng mga pasa ang mga braso kay Mendez nga ang bangkay, tu- at hita niya, may pamumuo ng dugo mawag sina Jimenez sa pamilya ni sa itaas na bahagi ng katawan, at Mendez. tanging ulo at mga binti ang walang Bago dalhin sa St. Peter’s ban- tanda ng pananakit. dang ikaapat ng umaga noong Agosto 27, naunang dinala si Lider-estudyante Mendez ng isang Dr. Francisco Panganay sa dalawang magkap- Cruz ganap na 1:08 ng umaga sa atid, katatalaga lamang kay Mendez Veterans Memorial Medical Center bilang pansamantalang kinatawan (VMMC), kung saan tinangka si- ng NCPAG sa University Student yang bigyang-lunas, ang pahayag Council (USC). ni Jonathan Garduce, guwardiyang “ Tahimik at mabait na bata si nakatalaga noon sa may emergency Cris. Umaasa siyang makakapag- ward ng VMMC. bagong -buhay silang tatlo [ng kanyang ina at kapatid] pagka- Sasali sa SR graduate,” ani Rosario de Ocampo, Ayon sa isang opisyal ng NCPAG tiya ni Mendez. Ayon kay NCPAG na tumangging magpabanggit ng Dean Alex Brillantes, inaasahang pangalan, sa paunang pakikipag- magtatapos si Mendez ngayong usap niya sa mga mag-aaral ng taon nang may honors. NCPAG, napag-alaman niyang si n Sanhi ng pagkamatay ni Cris Mendez, ipinrotesta ng mga estudyante ng NCPAG noong Agosto 31 ang laganap na fraternity-related Hindi naman makapagpaunlak violence sa kampus. timothy medrano sundan sa p.11 PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007 Ayon sa magkapatid na leading the search nakatakas mula sa militar buhay sina karen, she karaang taon sa Hagonoy, Bulacan, John alliage tinio Morales at habang nagsasaliksik sila ukol sa noemi Monterozo gonzales kalagayan ng mga magsasaka sa lugar. S a paglitaw ng magkapatid na magsasaka na biktima Palparan, itinurong nasa ng pagdukot ng militar, likod ng pagdukot Ani Cervantes, mahalaga ang muling may nagpatotoong pagtestigo ng magkapatid na buhay pa sina Karen Empeño at Manalo sa inihaing motion for Sherlyn Cadapan, mga mag-aaral reconsideration ng pamilya nina ng UP na dinukot umano ng mga Empeño at Cadapan sa Court of militar sa Hagonoy, Bulacan ma- Appeals. Nauna nang ibinasura higit isang taon na ang nakalipas. ng korte ang petisyon para sa writ Dinukot ng militar ang mag- of habeas corpus noong Hunyo sa kapatid na Raymond at Reynaldo harap ng kawalan ng matibay na Manalo noong Pebrero ng na- ebidensiya. karaang taon sa Ildefonso, Bulacan Ang magkapatid na Manalo at ikinulong sa tatlong kampo at umano ang mga kauna-unahang dalawang safehouse ng militar desaparecido na lumitaw at nag- bago sila nakatakas noong Agosto patunay na sangkot si dating Major 13. Pinaghinalaan ng militar na n Hundreds of relatives of missing activists, led by Edita Burgos and Erlynda Cadapan, mothers of abducted agriculturist Jonas and UP General Jovito Palparan sa pag- student Sherlyn, respectively, mark the International Day of the Disappeared with a protest action at the Liwasang Bonifacio on August 30. miyembro ng New People’s Army dukot at pagpatay sa mga akti- al anah torralba sina Manalo. bista, ani Bayan Muna Rep. Satur Sinabi ni Raymond na nakita telebisyon kaya ko siya nakilala at sa Camp Tecson at Limay, Bataan.” likod ng mga pagdukot, kabi- Ocampo. at personal niyang nakausap sina doon sinabi sa akin ni Palparan na Pinagbigyan ng Korte Suprema lang dito ang kina Empeño at Ayon sa sulat ni Raymond, “Ha- Empeño at Cadapan sa dalawang sabihan ko sina nanay na huwag noong Agosto 24 ang petisyon ng Cadapan. bang nakakulong ako, kinakausap magkahiwalay na kampo ng militar nang sumali sa mga rally ng mga magkapatid na mabigyang pro - Mariin namang itinanggi ni ako ni [Maj. Gen.] Jovito Palparan. sa San Miguel, Bulacan at Limay, grupong maka-karapatang tao at teksyon ng korte matapos nilang Palparan, dating commander ng Nakita ko na si Palparan dati sa Bataan. Si Raymond ang pangala- huwag nang dumalo sa mga hearing kumpirmahin na militar ang nasa sundan sa p.10 wang testigong nagpatunay na RIPADA: MMDA, walang malinaw na plano hawak ng militar ang dalawang mag-aaral. Ayon kay Raymond, “ Sa ku- lungan nakasama namin ang dala- wang estudyante ng University of Avenue. Ipinag-utos ni Vice Chan- “ Walang saysay ang nangyaring tulan ang demolisyon sa RIPADA . kristoffer C. Reyes cellor for Community Affairs Cyn- usapan dahil hindi naman nailatag Ayon pa sa mga residente, lum- the Philippines na sina Sherlyn Cadapan at Karen Empeño. Napag- thia Grace Gregorio ang pagsusukat nang maayos ang mga plano ng alabas na iniiwasan ng pamaha- M alaman namin kung sino sila dahil atapos magsagawa ang noong Hulyo 27. MMDA ,” ani Noli Anoos, pangala- laang masagasaan ang lupang nakakausap namin sila. Nakita Metropolitan Manila Ayon kay Engr. Ramson Ona, wang pangulo ng All UP Workers kinatitirikan ng mga pag-aari ng namin kung paano sila sinaktan din Development Authority kinatawan ng DPWH , hindi ma- Union (AUPWU) na bahagi ng multi- mga Ayala. Sa naunang plano ng ng mga nagkulong sa amin.” (MMDA) ng konsultas- simulan ang proyekto dahil sa sektoral na Save RIPADA Move- MMDA , dito daraan ang pagapa- Natutuwa ang pamilya nina Em- yon sa mga komunidad ng Ricarte, kakulangan ng mga datos gaya ng ment. Aniya, si MMDA Chair Bayani palawak ng C -5 at mas kakaunti peño at Cadapan sa testimonya ng Palaris at Dagohoy (RIPADA), iginiit kabuuang sukat ng RIPADA at ang Fernando ang kailangang humarap ang maaapektuhang kabahayan sa magkapatid na Manalo na nagpapa- ng mga residente na hindi pa rin bilang ng mga taong maaapektuhan sa kanila upang siya mismo mag- RIPADA . tunay na buhay pa nga ang dalawa, malinaw ang plano ng pamaha- nito. paliwanag ng plano. Ani Corazon Cruz, tagapama- ani Ruth Cervantes, tagapagsalita laan kaugnay ng pagpapalawak ng “ Para malaman ang mga tata- Nanindigan naman si Kap. Isa- hala sa pagpapaplano ng MMDA , ng Karapatan. Circumferential Road 5 (C -5), na maan, kailangan ng topographic belita Gravides ng Brgy. UP Campus walang kinalaman ang Ayala sa Nauna nang tumestigo si Oscar maaaring makaapekto sa kanilang mapping at census,” ani NHA Un- na “ walang galawan hangga’t pagbabago sa plano at iginiit ni- Leuterio, na dinukot noong Abril ng panirahan. dersecretary Froilan Campitan. walang proklamasyon o malinaw yang hindi pa naman naipatutupad nakaraang taon, na nakita umano Sa pakikipagpulong sa mga resi- Aniya, mahalaga ang nasabing hak- na plano mula sa MMDA at iba pang ang proyekto. niya sina Empeño, Cadapan at ang dente noong Agosto 25, hiniling ng bang upang malaman kung ilang ahensiya.” “Iniisip po namin ang pinaka- magkapatid na Manalo nang maku- mga kinatawan ng MMDA , Depart- apektadong tao ang gagawaran ng Ayon kay Shahana Abdulwahid, mura at pinakamadaling paraan long siya ng limang buwan sa Fort ment of Public Works and High- relokasyon. tagapangulo ng University Student para maisagawa ng gobyerno ang Bonifacio bago siya pinalaya noong ways (DPWH) at National Housing Binigyang-diin ni Campitan na Council (USC), bagaman magan- plano [ng pagpapalawak ng C -5 Setyembre 14. Authority (NHA) na maituloy ang wala pa ring tiyak na malilipatan dang nakaharap ang mga ahen- kaya binago ito],” ani Ona. Naiulat din nitong Hulyo na naantalang pagsusukat sa lugar ang mga residente at iminungkahi siyang sangkot sa nakaambang “Makakatipid nga ang gobyerno dumating si Cadapan, kasama ang upang malaman ang lawak ng sa- pa lamang niya ang pagbuo ng demolisyon, hindi pa rin ito naging pero kami naman ang madadamay,” dalawang militar, sa bahay ng kani- sakupin ng proyekto. komiteng kabibilangan ng kina- sapat upang matugunan ang alin- ani Clodualdo Cabrera, pangulo ng yang biyenan sa Bulacan ngunit Hinarang ng mga residente tawan ng mga residente upang pag- langan ng mga tao kaugnay ng kati- AUPWU. Hiniling din ni Cabrera agad ding umalis matapos kumuha noong Agosto 11 ang mga kinatawan aralan ang relokasyon. Matapos yakan sa panirahan. Nakatakdang sa MMDA na ituloy na lamang ang ng mga damit. ng MMDA na magsasagawa ng ang pulong, nagsagawa ng isang pangungunahan ng USC at mga nauna nitong plano dahil higit Dinukot ng mga hinihinalang pagsusukat sa lugar upang simulan noise barrage ang mga residente mag-aaral ng UP ang mga mobil- umanong kailangan ng mga mama- elemento ng militar sina Empeño ang pagpapalawak ng C -5 na mag- ng RIPADA upang tuligsain ang isasyon at signature campaign sa mayan ang panirahan at kabuhayan at Cadapan noong Hunyo 26 ng na- dudugtong sa Katipunan at Luzon nakaambang demolisyon. mga susunod na araw upang tu- kaysa sa proyekto sa kalye. PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007 activists condemn Joma’s arrest noemi M. gonzales rested on August 28 in Utrecht, The ordering from the Netherlands the rebellion case, which includes the Ruth de Leon, executive director Netherlands on “false charges” of murder of Rodolfo Kintanar in 2003 allegations of murder that Sison is of the NDF International Informa- having ordered the murder of two and Arturo Tabara in 2004, both now being accused of having in- tion Office, said the arrest of Sison V arious groups called for former political colleagues in the leaders of the Communist Party of cited, has already been dismissed and the ransacking of the NDF of- the immediate release of Philippines. the Philippines (CPP) break-away by the Supreme Court (SC) of the fice are grave violations of human National Democratic Front Lawyer Edre Olalia, member of group. The widows of the victims Philippines. rights and are bound to terminate (NDF) political consultant Sison’s legal panel in the Philip- filed a murder complaint that be- In 2007, the SC declared that the the ongoing peace negotiations be- Jose Maria Sison after he was ar- pines, said Sison was accused of came the basis for Sison’s arrest. evidence could not be used again tween the NDF and the Philippine In 1992, Kintanar and Tabara in any court against Sison as it government. broke ties with the CPP due to failed to establish probable cause NDF, with Sison as one of the BOR oks new REPS ideological differences and set up of rebellion. chief negotiators of the peace pro- Rebolusyonaryong Partido ng Ma- Olalia said that Sison main- cess, has been engaged in on-and- sang Pilipino (RPMP). tains he has no power to order the off peace talks with the Philippine tenure rule in UPLB Sison denied all allegations of murder during the first indictment on August 31 but the judge found murder of Kintanar and Tabara because he no longer leads the CPP, which he founded in 1968, and is government to end the 39-year insurgency. Protest actions intensify an average of 12 units workload enough evidence against Sison simply an adviser. John alliage tinio Moralesa to keep him under custody in the “ There are no evidences linking Meanwhile, progressive groups per semester for three consecutive Scheveningen prison in The Hague Sison to the killings of Kintanar led by KMU, BAYAN, and Interna- years prior to being recommended D for further investigation, Michiel and Tabara. The New People’s Army tional League of Peoples Struggles e s p i te c o n c e r n s o ve r for tenure. Pestman, Sison’s lawyer, said in a ( NPA ) already claimed respon- marched towards the Dutch em- excessive requirements Librarians and guidance coun- statement. sibility for the executions. These bassy in Makati on August 29 and while getting little privi- selors are exempt from the pub- During Sison’s arrest, Dutch cases were just conveniently used 30 and continued the protests at leges afforded to aca- lication requirement, but instead police swept through the office of by the US and the Arroyo govern- Welcome Rotonda in Quezon City demic personnel, a new stringent should have a valid license from the NDF and through seven other ment to intensify the so-called war on August 31 for the release of tenure policy was recently adopted the Professional Regulatory Com- apartments of members of the NDF on terror,” according to Kilusang Sison. for the research, extension and mission, or their appointment will peace panel, seizing computer hard Mayo Uno Chair Elmer Labog. “Ang nakakatakot kasi dito professional staff (REPS) in UP Los be terminated. drives, discs, files and books. In 2004, the NPA admitted in sa nangyari [ Sison’s arrest] ay Banos (UPLB). The old rule states that each Sison, who left for the Nether - a statement the killing of Kin- maaring gawin din sa mga kritiko Aimed at putting the REPS on position for REPS requires an edu- lands 20 years ago, had filed po- tanar and Tabara for alleged crimes ng gobyerno ang ginawa kay Pro- equal footing with professors, REPS cational attainment, but without litical asylum but his request was against “the revolution and the fessor Sison,” according to Reyes. would now be required to meet prescribing a fixed time to finish rejected by the Dutch authorities. people”. Karapatan has also docu- Bayan Muna Representatives the requirements of publication in graduate degrees. In the absence They ruled, however, that he could mented various cases of human Satur Ocampo and Teodoro Casiño refereed journals and completion of publication, supervisors should not be sent back to the Philippines rights violations and criminal ac- plan to conduct more congressional of graduate studies before their provide justification for the tenure- because his life could be in danger tivities by the RPMP. inquiries on the arrest, its impact tenure is secured, as affirmed by ship of the REPS. in the country. BAYAN Secretary General Renato on other Filipinos in political exile, the Board of Regents (BOR), UP ’s Temporary appointments, mean- Reyes Jr. added that the Dutch and the Arroyo administration’s while, will still be renewed yearly highest decision-making body, in Baseless allegations authorities and the Arroyo regime alleged role in the incident. Anak- its July 27 meeting at UP Visayas. while contractual appointments In an August 29 press confer - in Manila have conspired to perse- pawis Rep. Crispin Beltran said that Prof. Judy Taguiwalo, national will be renewed six months subject ence at the Bagong Alyansang cute Sison and to pursue political more campaigns will be launched to president of the All-UP Academic to the recommendation of their Makabayan (BAYAN) office, Olalia agenda meant to seek the surrender call for Sison’s release. Employees Union (AUPAEU), con- supervisors. revealed that the case in the Neth- of revolutionary forces. tended that the policy, which has ‘One-sided’ policy erlands is without basis since the not undergone consultation with Taguiwalo said that while the the union, might further disadvan- administration’s effort to recog- “Quelling” dissent tage the REPS. nize the academic status of REPS As of this semester, UPLB has is laudable, the policy containing 82 REPS comprising researchers, comparable faculty tenure require- extension workers, technical spe- ments is still “one-sided” as it does cialists, guidance counselors, and not address the inequalities in librarians. benefits and privileges. President Emerlinda Roman en- REPS have long been calling for dorsed the policy to the BOR after representation in decision-making the proposal was approved on July bodies at college unit levels, sab- 26 by the Executive Committee. batical leaves and automatic pro- ‘Up or out policy’ motion for REPS with doctoral de- The “ Up or Out Policy,” first grees, privileges currently enjoyed adopted for professors, states that by professors. REPS with temporary appointments The union asserted that the BOR must obtain their master’s degree decision essentially lengthens the “within five years” from the date temporary status of REPS from of hiring, or their appointment will six months to five years. Tagui- not be renewed. After completing walo added that the new policy their master or doctoral degrees, would doubly burden REPS as they REPS are now required to publish struggle to meet the requirements in a refereed journal within three for employment while doing re- years from the start of appointment search and extension work at the or from getting their degrees. same time. Likewise, REPS who entered “ The BOR decision making re- UPLB from any UP constituent unit quirements in par with the faculty, must show proof of publication (but) without addressing inequali- as basis for tenureship while em- ties…is an unjust way of dealing n Policemen strike militants with truncheons and shields as they attempt to march toward the Dutch Embassy in Makati on August 30 to ployed in UP. Research and exten- the university’s REPS,” the AUPAEU protest the recent arrest of Prof. Jose Maria Sison in the Netherlands. The group later decried police harassment and brutality as several sion personnel should also satisfy continued on p.11 rallyists were injured and materials such as streamers were confiscated. al anah torralba PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 07 * House Bill 5369 in 2006 for a separate au- tonomous region for Sulu, Tawi Tawi and Basilan met opposition from the MILF and several Islamic groups for allegedly being backed by American interest for Sulu oil. They also condemned the presence of American troops in the region, pointing that the real motives of the US is not to end the ongoing war but to safeguard for- eign interests. However, former Defense Secretary Angelo Reyes justified the entry of up to two thousand American soldiers for the Balikatan military exercise as a necessary move in the elimination of the Diagnosing the Decline of the PhiliPPine general hosPital local positions in ARMM are generally ASG. Five years later, however, the ASG filled by the elite or national govern- remains active with kidnap-for-ransom ment representatives acting as interim and hostage-taking activities. officials. Consequently, the programs the PGH as a provider of af- Meanwhile, the US ’ “war on terror” larissa Mae R. suarez fordable, quality health care and policies of the regional gov- has emphasized Mindanao’s strategic ernment mirror the priorities of is well-established. Such im- location – at the center of Southeast Asia R the national regime. Ramos’ osa Santos* emerged from the Emer- portance, however, seems lost and in close proximity to Middle East and “ Philippines 2000” saw the gency Room (ER) of the Philippine in the government’s continued Northeast Asia, where Iraq and China majority of public spending General Hospital (PGH). She hurried abandonment of the hospital are located respectively. The proscrip- in ARMM geared towards past the long queue of charity pa- as reflected in the allocation tion of separatist groups as “terrorists” commercial infrastruc- tients, her path decorated with the colorful it receives. therefore carries monetary gains for the ture, to the detriment of streamers and flags celebrating PGH’s 100 Arroyo administration. Her “all-out-war” Examination education, health care, against “rebel groups” is largely funded years of existence. Her husband, Virgilio, had and other basic social The budget for PGH is P1 by the American government, receiving met an accident, and she needed to buy his services. billion, and has been since approximately $2 billion as military aid prescribed pills. He had been in pain since 1993 — this stagnancy is in they arrived from Parañaque, where the first itself a budget slash, because territories and is em- Hidden Agenda in 2002 alone. hospital they had gone to, lacking the proper Micaela Papa bodied by the MNLF, The neo - colonial Despite talks of a drastic cut in US aid the cost of annual operations due to the Arroyo administration’s track equipment, referred them to PGH. MILF and the early ASG condition is perhaps even has risen today to P3 billion. A At the PGH pharmacy, the medicine Rosa more magnified in Mindanao of human rights violations, Texas Rep. To address the deficit, PGH n eight-hour skirmish ensued on (see sidebar). needed – sold at a discount to charity patients than the rest of the country. Silvestre Reyes, chair of the US House of Director Carmelo Alfiler dis- July 10 after government troops – was out of stock, forcing her to buy it at full tributed on December 14, 2006 in search of the Abu Sayyaf Group Land of Broken The region is home to numerous Representatives’ armed services com- price elsewhere. At the ER , Virgilio’s X-ray, (ASG) stepped onto Moro Islamic Promises transnational plantations like those mittee, assures that US military aid to a memorandum on increased the Philippines will not be reduced due which had a user fee, indicated the neces- The growing force of the Bangsamoro of DOLE and Del Monte Incorporation, as rates, without proper con- Liberation Front (MILF) territory. The MILF to Arroyo’s commitment and “good track sity of surgery, made expensive by the new movement eventually compelled the govern- well as foreign mining companies and other sultation with the PGH com- suffered four fatalities while the marines 14. record” in the war against terror. This Operating Room (OR) fee of P1,500. However, ment to enter into peace talks and reconcilia- similar business corporations. The Arroyo munity. The cost of blue cards Of the 14 dead, 10 were found beheaded. after the administration sent out five Virgilio is the family’s sole breadwinner. His tory agreements with the separatist groups. administration itself claimed that the nation from the medical records divi- Thus began President Gloria Macapagal- additional battalions against the ASG in income as a tricycle driver scarcely covers But an evaluation of the actions undertaken has over $1 trillion in unexplored copper, gold sion was raised from P7 to P15; Arroyo’s renewed orders for “punitive” ac- an alleged attempt to preempt the pur- the expenses incurred at PGH. by various presidencies suggests a half-baked and nickel. With so much money at stake, the the use of the OR , previously tions against Moro rebel groups, deploying ported cut. Such predicament has now become a attempt at genuinely answering the demands government is under pressure from both for- granted freely to patients, now five extra battalions to Basilan on July 27. The In light of the government’s pro- common scenario in the corridors of the as PGH officials tout “self-sufficiency in of the Muslims. History reveals that it is often eign and local investors to keep its hold on costs P1,500. “ The government should institution- incursion of soldiers in Mindanao, however, hospital, a dismal truth no streamer or flag resources” as a solution to fiscal prob- the government that endorses peace only the “goldmine” of the south. tracted and deliberate failure to Various sectors criticized the move, alize the allocation, instead of releasing has only heightened the clashes against the could gloss over. lems. “‘ Self-sufficiency ’ is a term often to start the war anew. The proposed uplift the Muslims’ condition, the and Alfiler deferred the rates increase it based on our President’s whims,” notes Moro National Liberation Front used to conceal financial abandonment by The Tripoli Agreement rebel groups insist Dr. Nisperos. “ The PGH implemented a Case Presentation Infrastructure projects, new equipment, pending further discussion. On March 29 this year, however, the Board of Regents the government,” says Dr. Gene Nisperos, rates increase knowing that the govern- (MNLF), MILF and ASG. Consequently, the uncer - the rebel groups of 1976 between the Marcos that there is little extended services, and a miscellany of (BOR) authorized the collection of OR fees secretary-general of the non-government organization Health Alliance for Democracy. ment can afford a P100 million increase, tainty and poverty that fueled insist that there administration and the MNLF was supposed to grant reason for them to give up their bid for activities, like a fund-raising concert and from charity patients, to generate an ad- ditional P16 million annually. “ Up to 70% “Another euphemism is ‘fiscal autonomy.’” in effect ceding to the government’s ab- dication of its responsibilities, instead the Muslims’ rebellion have escalated due to the crisis. Al- is little reason autonomy to 13 Muslim areas. To autonomy. It is with a time capsule, serve as markers for the PGH in commemoration of “100 years of of patients undergoing charity surgery,” Instead of fighting for greater state sub- of holding it accountable.” ready, unarmed civilians have for them to give the MNLF’s frustration, however, the territory of the resulting Au- misguided policies that the Arroyo announced the BOR , justifying its deci- sidy, the PGH has channeled its efforts into More than an apparent lack of political been caught in the crossfire; up their bid for photo: timothy medrano. art work: ar chie oclos. page design: mark angelo ching and ivan excellence.” increasing its rates. A smokescreen used tonomous Region in Muslim administration will on the part of the PGH administra- The PGH was born on August 17, 1907 sion, “are covered by the Philippine Health Insurance, Inc (PhilHealth).” is “modernization”: new equip- tion, the rates increase only abets more than 40 towns in Basilan and Sulu have been vacated; autonomy Mindanao (ARMM) as pro- has virtually guar- through the passage of Act 1688 by the Phil- ippine Commission. Construction began in Jossel Ebesate, head nurse at PGH ment comes with new fees. For instance, after the “moderniza- the rates the growing neglect of social thousands of families have been vided by the Organic Act was reduced to four provinces: anteed the persis- tence of the war in Manila, and the hospital officially opened on and president of the Manila chapter of tion” of the Sentro Oftalmologico increase services by the government, to the detriment of disadvantaged displaced. The casualties are expected to increase along with the mounting violence of Sulu, Maguindanao, Tawi Tawi and Lanao Mindanao. September 10, 1910. It underwent numerous reorganizations and emerged in the 1950s the All-UP Workers Union, challenged the accuracy of BOR’s defense. “A survey that Jose Rizal, almost everything only abets Filipinos like Rose and Virgilio, the three-decade Mindanao conflict. del Sur. REfERENCES: as an administratively autonomous unit of we conducted showed the opposite. 70 from cardiac monitors to anes- thesia machines had new user the growing whose financial status should Continuing Colonization Various attempts have been made for the expansion of the ARMM . However, Abubakar, Carmen (1999). Ang Hijrah ng MNLf: 1974-1996. the University of the Philippines-Manila percent of charity patients don’t have Phil- Health coverage. Only 30 percent do.” fees. “Ironically,” said Ebesate, neglect have made them the primary beneficiaries of accessible health The roots of the Moro rebellion can be Simeon Ilago, director of the UP Center for Tan, Samuel (2003). History of the Mindanao Problem. (UPM) College of Medicine. Accordingly, the PGH became a venue for the learning and Meanwhile, Marikris de Guzman, a “after upgrading the Sentro Oftalmologico’s facilities, less of social care from PGH. traced to as far back as the American oc- Local and Regional Governance, comments that the system of inclusion through plebi- Jacinto, Al (2003). Mindanao practicing of the profession by the best and councilor of the UPM student council from patients have been able to make services After a hundred years of ex- istence, the PGH has failed to cupation, when the colonizers prevented the Muslims’ democratic participation in scites is problematic. The city of Cotabato, for Peace Process timeline. Wadi, Julkipli (2003). They’ve brightest minds, imbuing them with a com- mitment to serve the underprivileged. the party Alternative Students Alliance for Progress–Katipunan ng mga Progresibong use of them.” by the ensure that enough of the un- local administration. Instead, it allowed only example, remains the administrative capital Come So far. One of them, Honorato Quisumbing, Mag-aaral, points out the parallelism be- More glaring irony is the fact government derprivileged can avail of the foreign and Filipino elites to participate in of the ARMM although it is not part of the region’s jurisdiction. Meanwhile, Basilan is a R M E D C O n f l i C t worked at PGH during World War II even tween the PGH’s rates increase and UP ’s tuition hike. “In both cases, the institu- that, for lack of space, most pa- tients are refused a room in the topnotch medical services it can provide. For the PGH to continue the region’s politics. Americans also crafted policies and programs that sequestered now included in the region even though one •Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) – created over the 1976 Tripoli. The MILF contested that the after many of his colleagues left the area. of the province’s municipalities, Isabela, is in March 1968 after the Jabidah Massacre, in which agreement only provided for regional autonomy hospital unless they offer to pay its legacy of service to the poor, it must ancestral lands, voided Sultanate property, He was shot in 1945 by soldiers as he at- tions suffered from inadequate budget government troops gunned down about 28 recruited instead of the separate Islamic republic originally — indicating that in the PGH, “service to the and awarded deeds to landless families from not. The factions within the region creates given by the national government. Both re- first cure the symptoms of its own deteri- Muslims to cover up military operations in Sabah. advocated by MNLF. tempted to secure medical supplies for the sick. Another was Johnny Escandor, chief sorted to fee increases to offset the deficit, poor” has taken a back seat to revenues. oration. It must reaffirm its integrity as an Luzon and Visayas. problems with governance as well as politics. Ilago adds that, despite the “autonomy” of The MNLF later relinquished its goal of independence • Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) – collapse of peace establishment which “seeks only to serve During the Commonwealth period, the after the 1976 Tripoli agreement and RA 6734 or talks between the MNLF and the government in of a research department at the PGH, who in spite of opposition by their communi- Prescription Filipino administration still adhered to the the ARMM, its politics is largely determined Organic Act, which created the Autonomous Region 1988 aggravated Muslim youth to revolt under ties; both are victims of administrations the Filipino, for whom it exists.” offered free medical services to poor bar - In 2006, as the PGH geared for its cen- by outside influence. According to Prof. Mu- in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Leader Nur Misuari is Janjalani Abubakar, a veteran of the war against with mistaken priorities.” previous colonizers’ system, further ne- rios and indigenous peoples. He was killed tennial celebration, President Gloria Ma- hammad Abdulnazeir Matli of the Institute of currently detained with charges of rebellion. Soviet Forces in Afghanistan. Both the MNLF and glecting the plight of the Muslims. This ig- in 1983, after going underground to lead the Diagnosis capagal- Arroyo pledged to release P100 *Not her real name nited the Bangsamoro separatist movement, Islamic Studies, although Muslims are already • Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) – created in MILF have denied affiliation with the ASG, which resistance against the dictatorial regime. million annually to PGH until her term’s under -represented in national government, 1977, when Sheikh Salamat Hashim led the separa- employ extreme methods such as beheading and These mistaken priorities are evident which sought to regain control over ancestral In light of its history, the importance of end in 2010. tion from the MNLF after an internal disagreement mutilation. PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007 If, indeed, much of the West thinks physi- to a mall, you are expected to spend. And glenn l. Diaz cally shopping for goods is already a thing of contrary to how the concept of the malling the past with the advent of online commerce, experience is advertised, it does not come J erico just came from a grueling three- it is the exact opposite for the East. Fourteen for free. hour class. He gets on a jeepney and of the twenty biggest malls in the world are in As with most modern capitalist prod- heads for the newly opened mall Asia. Half of this are in China alone, in what What used to be a ucts, malling is easily an archetypal es- fronting his former favorite. Huffing appears to be a showcase of the country ’s recent economic expansion. In the Philip- largely theocratic capist practice. It offers a retreat, no matter how fleeting and artificial, to people living and puffing, he negotiates several layers of people, some smartly dressed, others pines, the case is no less different. Trinoma, social order has in dire conditions. It appears that going quite disheveled. He notices the façade for instance, rose directly in front of a hugely been transformed to parks to relax is no longer enough. first. While the typical concrete and metal- lic interior tell him this is indeed a mall, popular rival mall, indicative that the market has yet to be fully satiated. to a communal The stresses of modern living have con- sequently formed these new needs to oases of exotic flora and foggy streams of We’ve got it all for you reverence toward satisfy. water, with fountains that wet the adjacent Tolentino likewise commented on the consumerism Love ‘em all pavement, make him feel weird somehow. illusory sense of refuge that malls offer. Ac- The modern mall has likewise been Like how the mall has encroached on the cording to him, “sa loob ng mall, maaliwalas touted as the new center of the localities territory of parks in terms of scenery. ang kapaligiran, maliwanag kahit saan, today. From it, many high-rise condo- Still everybody competes for a piece parang parating tanghaling tapat, malinis, miniums have risen with the promise of of the air-conditioning inside, hordes of starts choosing this sheltered existence over walang basura sa kalye, malamig, may mga putting all of modern man’s needs, such people pour into the lone metal detector by the harsher conditions outside. The more a puno rin naman, nagpa-flush ang toilet, as shelter, dining, and leisure, under one the entrance. When he finally gets in, his mall beautifies its inside premises to con- maayos ang serbisyo, at walang krimen.” roof. It has replaced the plaza, which used body quickly notices the change in temper- trast the bleak appearance of the outside, Such pockets of first world in a third world to flank the church and the town hall, ature and begins to relax. He inhales the the more successful it is in reinforcing this country are enough to drive hordes of people as a town’s nucleus. The malls of today perfumed air and drags his feet along the dichotomy. into these places day in and day out. Inside, have gone beyond offering the customary tiled floor. He clutches his backpack and Some factors, though, suggest that this time stops being a factor as one loses sight trades like food and clothing. One can go embarks to explore, the sweat that dripped altered “reality” comes with a price. After a of the outside. The enclosed space is crucial to a mall to hear mass, view art exhibits, down his back now a thing of the past. long day of roaming around its shiny inte- in maintaining this artificial reality. Filipinos get a perm, buy a book, go to school, even riors, admiring the high-end goods for sale, Like no other mall in the world get a taste of the first world - they finally and using its first-rate facilities, one will breast feed one’s baby. Indeed, one can go The first mall in the country was the experience winter via skating rinks, eat to a mall to undergo minor surgery such American doughnuts through Krispy Krème, notice that there are hardly any seats for tired as liposuction. Ali Mall, named after Muhammad Ali, wear British apparel thanks to Debenhams. shoppers. The mall forces its customers to be And the change is not literal alone. It and inaugurated during his visit to Ma- The maller becomes enamored with his constantly on their feet. The message that also implies a shift in the prevailing value nila in 1975. Today, the mall still stands, current surroundings and, at some point, such arrangement sends is simple: if you go system. What used to be a largely theo- although its former grandeur now vastly overshadowed by the supposedly posh cratic social order has been transformed malls of late. to a communal reverence toward con- From less than ten malls in the 1980s, sumerism, a culture that emphasizes the today there are more than 250. Among the power of money in acquiring goods and ten biggest malls in the world in terms of services. In so doing, these malls are stra- gross leasable area, three are located in tegically placed where volumes of people the Philippines. In fourth place is the SM predictably amass, such as routes of public Mall of Asia. Opened in 2006, the imposing transportation systems. They have stopped structure occupies a sprawling 4.1 mil- being mere optional conveniences. The lion square feet of leasable space by the goal is to make them vital. bay. The other two in the top ten, SM City Weary from walking all day, he decides North EDSA and SM Megamall, take up it is time to go. And as he steps outside, some additional 7.5 million square feet. his body quickly notices the sharp change Another four Philippine malls land in the in temperature. At once, black noxious top thirty. fumes from a passing dump truck block The recently opened Triangle North of his vision, offend his nostrils. At once, he Manila (Trinoma), Ayala Malls’ answer to feels beads of sweat form on his back. He walks a few distance and hails a decrepit photos: candice anne reyes. page design: mark angelo ching and k arl castro. SM City North EDSA , is already at number 25. According to pop culture theorist jeepney. He squeezes in between an overly Rolando Tolentino, the shopping mall made up mall employee and a middle-aged boom, which has gathered renewed steam man in rags. He craves for the elbow room in recent years with the opening of the he earlier had but for now he knows he has colossal SM Mall of Asia and Trinoma, is this harshness to confront. The jeepney indicative of the Philippines’ faith in these speeds through, and the proud mall lights structures. “Sobra ang kompyansa sa mall get dimmer by the second until they are bilang tanda ng pagkaunlad ng bansa na completely out of sight. ang mismong bansa ay nilalayong maging REfERENCE isang hypermall,” he said. Rolando Tolentino, Kulturang Mall, Anvil Publishing, 2004. PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007 Pamamaalam ivan Rerente P agod na ‘ko. na ginusto kong muling magmakaawa Alam ko, kaya nga ayoko na, dahil pagod Wala na akong ibang masabi sayo, pero libong ulit ko ring naiisip ang na ‘kong umasang babalik ka pa. Pagod na pa. Naubos na ang mga salitang sinabi mong masaya ka ngayon. Masaya ‘kong lagi na lang lumuha. Pagod na ‘kong dapat kong bitawan at tila pagal na ka na ngayon, kaya kailangan ko nang magtago sa mga panaginip kong kapiling ang aking isipan sa pagtatanong at sa pag- magpatuloy nang mag-isa. Sa ngayon ay natatapos na lang ang ka. Pagod na ‘kong unawain ka pa. Pagod Chris S. unawa sa mga bagay na nangyari sa atin. Paano tayo nakarating dito? Ang sabi mo ay bawat araw ko sa mga di-mabilang na na ‘kong kalabanin ang sarili ko. Pagod na ‘ko na lagi na lang ganito. Pagod na kong Agrava ayaw mo na kaya ka nagpaalam. Kasunod buntong-hininga. Panay ang dalaw ng unawain pa ang mga nangyari at wala na masasaya nating News of a death nito ay sinabi mong mahal mo pa rin ako kong mabibigay pa. Pagod na kong magdusa pero di na tulad ng dati. Sinabi mong kai- kElan kaya alaala kasunod ng nang dahil lang sayo. Ayoko na, kelan kaya DaRating ang D langan mong maging mag-isa. Nagulat napakasakit mong darating ang panahong ako naman ang na lang ako nang bigla kang naghanap ng PanaHOng pamamaalam. Ma- sasaya? Kailangan ko nang bumitaw, kai- bagong daan at kasabay nito ang pagkaka- akO naMan hirap ang unti- langan na kitang palayain. Kailangan ko eath has become trite, at least roon mo ng ibang kasama. Iniwan mo kong ang sasaya u n t i n g p a g b u ra nang magsimulang muli para muli ko na- for me. The newspaper headlines kulang sa pagpapaliwanag, iniwan mo sa mga text mo sa mang mahanap ang sarili ko. Matagal-tagal scream of activists murdered by kong walang laban. Iniwan mo na ‘ko. cellphone ko, habang patuloy ang pagpa- na kong nagbababad sa aking kalungkutan, the government on a daily basis. Nagdaan na ang isang taon pagkatapos padala ng mga “moving-on quotes” ng mga panahon na para lisanin ko ang parteng ito The recent spate of typhoons left ng iyong paglisan, akala ko noon magiging kaibigan ko. Ang istorya natin ay naging ng sarili ko. a number of people dead, mostly madali lang ang paglimot sayo, nagkamali paboritong usapan ng ating mga kakilala at Pagod na ‘ko at wala na akong ibang ma- from the countryside. Closer to home, a student ako. Sa anim na taon na naging tayo hindi sa mga pagkakataong nakakasalubong ko sabi pa. Naubos na ang mga salitang dapat was beaten to death in yet another sequence ko inakalang hindi pa rin pala kita lubu- sila sa daan ay naging napakahirap sagutin kong bitawan at tila pagal na ang aking of bloodshed in that vicious cycle of fraternity sang kilala. Aaminin kong mahirap takasan ng tanong nilang “kumusta ka na?” Paulit isipan. Mahal kita pero ngayon sa huling violence. ang mga alaala mo at mahirap magpatuloy ulit na lang na ganito, pero oo, alam ko... pagkakataon… mahal ko, paalam na. He could have been a classmate. I swear I nang wala ka. Dumaan na ang libong saglit wala ka na kaya talagang ganito. could have seated beside him in one of the banal rooms in AS. Or I could have rubbed elbows with him in a Toki jeepney on the way to Math. He tourists could have been in that UAAP game, cheering the Maroons on to no avail. We could have been in the same line to borrow a book from the Main Piya Constantino Library. It’s futile, this attempt at trying to remember T him other than that lifeless mass of flesh. The he first few weeks, you’d want to the places in other countries that she has the road, all of whom were cheering and blue marks and broken bones were haunting either jump out the window or been to, and always her stories would re- running after him, the American with the reminders of the violence he went through, the pack your bags and go home. But volve around how clean and beautiful they video camera riding the tricycle which, extent of which I will never fully fathom. I took then you see the growing figures in are; how nice and honest the people there according to him, was rather tight but oth- photos of his limp body; the specter will forever your bank book, and you’ll decide that it’s are. Always, of course, in comparison to this erwise fun to ride in. He got the same treat- assault me. worth the loneliness and the ingratitude place where, according to her, people have ment everywhere; people would turn their I am tempted to call for an end to all of this, and all the other crap that will be thrown no discipline and would, given the chance, heads to look at and watch the American, but we’ve been doing the same for decades at your face. This was what I gathered from try to cheat or steal from you. And of course, and would smile and wave at the camera now. The slogan “End fraternity violence” rings my sister’s musings after she received a you would never hear of that kind of be- he always carried. Filipinos are so nice empty; it never halted the deaths of Lenny Villa, message from a colleague who had just havior in ________ [insert First World and friendly, he would say while reviewing or Dennis Venturina, or Mark Martin, or Alex accepted a work contract as a doctor in country ’s name here], where she stayed the footages. Icasiano, or Niño Calinao or Daniel Reyes. Cer- Singapore, and was already dying to return a few days and took He concluded, before returning home tainly, it never saved Cris Mendez. home. She was right, though. He didn’t p h o to s o f a l l t h e HOw after a three-week stay, that he didn’t For slogans leave much unsaid. It doesn’t say come home. Neither did my sister when beautiful places and COUlD believe that poverty existed in the Philip- that Cris is expected to graduate this year, or she signed a similar contract. beautiful people she anyOnE gO pines. For how could anyone go hungry that he leaves behind a mother and a younger She packs cans of Purefoods Sisig and encountered. HUngRy when there is so much food being sold on brother, or that his frail body was beaten black packets of Boy Bawang after every vacation I have a half- wHEn tHERE the streets? We pointed out to him people and blue, his left wrist broken, and the only parts here, and during her stay would eat Rodic’s brother, too, who is sO MUCH sleeping on cardboard flaps by the side of Tapsilog or fishballs and isaw. Yet she would lives in America; who fOOD bEing the road. He pretended not to see. He didn’t of him that looked normal were his head and his shake her head at the ugliness or filthiness has almost always sOlD On tHE videotape them either. legs. It doesn’t capture the brutality of it all. of the places I would take her, and would lived in America . stREEts? You could make postcards from photos I may not have known or met him, after all, but the thought of him having once walked watch the news or read the newspaper and During his last visit my sister took of the countries she has been the streets of UP somehow brings solace. The shake her head in contempt. “Mga Pilipino here, he came to see the ‘real’ Philippines. to, and those that my brother took of the memory of a person persists through the images talaga…” she would always start, and And so he went to Banaue to live, for a Philippines. Tourists bank on the perfec- we conjure of him, as if the loss of him never would not finish the sentence. As though night, in an ‘authentic, native’ hut. It was tion of places and countries as advertised happened, as if lifelessness were just a dream- those three words were self-explanatory. As the real thing, he boasted. The tarpaulin on posters of travel agencies; the shortness like phase. We so abhor death precisely because though we weren’t part of her generaliza- advertising it said so. of their visits ensures that they would not of its permanence. tion. As though she were not. He wanted to see the ‘real’ Manila as see beyond the polished surface. Pictures But deaths are never the same. I was never She works, she says, not for the money well, so he tried the ‘exotic’ street foods deceive, for they are dependent on the eyes hysterical when my grandmother died of old itself but for the money to be able to travel such as buko juice and taho, and rode a behind the lens. age. More than grief, rage took hold of me and see the world. She would tell us of all tricycle while videotaping workers along upon receiving news that my aunt was stabbed dead. If GMA were to die right now no matter Justice for Cris Mendez. the cause, not a few of us will find reasons to celebrate. More lasting than death itself are the circumstances that made such death peaceful or violent, worthy or senseless. End fraternity violence. Death has become trite. I am tempted to weave moving narratives of denunciation, but when death so confronts us, we can only look askance to heavens, seething with rage at such harshness. PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007 Contact us! write to us via snail mail or submit a soft copy to Rm. 401, Vinzons Hall, UP Diliman, Quezon City. ••• email us firstname.lastname@example.org. Save Word attachments in Rich Text Format, with INBOX , NEWSCAN or CONTRIB in the subject. ••• Fax us 9818500 local 4522. Always include your full name, address and contact details. ••• Contributions We are open for contributed articles from student writers, subject to the approval of the Editorial Board. All submitted articles should have a maximum length of 400 words. Justice for Cris Send in your opinions and feedback via SMS! Type: KULE <space> YOUR MESSAGE <space> STUDENT Mendez NUMBER (required), NAME and COURSE (optional) and send them to 0915.941.4460 T he Student Alliance for the Ad- vancement of Democratic Rights Non-UP students must indicate any school, organi- zational or sectoral affiliation. WARNING: We don’t in UP (STAND UP) joins the family, entertain textmates. friends, and colleagues of UP student We welcome questions, constructive criticism, Cris Anthony Mendez in the pursuit for opinions, stands on relevant issues, and other sa tingin MO, nakatUtUlOng lng tlga ang manunulat. 06-78766 phile justice of his most unwanted death. reactions. Letters may be edited for brevity or ba ang “HOliDay ECOnOMiCs” astig tlga ung “For chris s. a.” hehe.hrap- STAND UP, as the largest student clarity. Due to space constraints, letters must ni glORia aRROyO? hrapang bwelthan n to tsong! miss ko n tlga alliance in UP Diliman, recognizes Cris’ have only 400 words or less. ok lng.prmkpgphnga ang mga manggagawa. “system of a down” mas nk2-relate kc ako dun contribution to his fellow iskolars ng pro in a way ayw q rn kc wlng mggng pasahero eh.. 06-31599 Fraternities, together with the rest ang tatay q..06-45935 para kay chris s. agrava,ang sinusulat mo bayan as an active College and University Get free publicity! Email us your press releases, anng 2l0ng nagawa nun?!nagkasabay ay tila nagku2wento skin ng buhay mo..hgt Student Council member. of the studentry, should unite against invitations, etc. DON’T TYPE IN ALL CAPS and, sabay exams ko..tsaka ala na k0ng na222nan s lhat,nr2mdaman q ang bwat slita..inspire His death is allegedly due to frater- the true killers and oppressors of their go easy on... the punctuation!? Complete sa mga subjects ko pag m0nday.. 04-13896 more!! 06-29276 nity hazing, but decisive investigations ranks. Amidst intensified state terrorism, sentences only. Dnt use txt lnguage pls. tnung ko lng.. hndi kya mgkapatayan n Please provide a short title. Be concise, 100 holiday econ?bwiset,panira s sked! wla ng should be accomplished by the police fee increases and commercialization of ntu3hn ung students, nli2to p kng kelan tlg mga yng cna chris agrava at noel hernaiz? tg0s 2 words maximum. and the UP administration to bring light education, issues which may have been celebration. tpos nun mg-mke up clas p! waah! d b0nes ung bira ni n0el ah! haha.. pero prang his case. actively fought by Cris, a unified and 06-31599 kampi ako ky n0el.. may hal0ng sh0wbiz nrin progressive student body is demanded kalayaan DORM REnOVatiOn holidays were set so that we could celebrate pla kule! hehe.. 0l in 0ne baga..:) 06-27393 STAND UP, having 13 member-frater- UP Space Innovations and Lifestyles by it on that day. matakot na lang tayo kung pati to chris s. agrava and noel pacis hernaiz, nities and sororities, pose a reminder to to engage. Interior Design (SILID), the graduating Inte- pasko,i-move nya. naguguluhan lang ako sa nagkakaangasan lng kayo. parehong walng such brotherhoods of their progressive We call on all fraternities, students, rior Design Majors of the College of Home sense ng pag-move ng no classes. 06-07372 kwenta mga columns nyo. 05-78011 history and orientation, which commonly faculty, and general public to extend Economics has chosen Kalayaan Resi- 0o nman!ang sya kya nun lalo n s mga w0w! praise 2 anonimo! u rily gv names 2 adhere to the service of the nation and greatest possible support for the im- dence Hall to be this year’s beneficiary of estudyante!haha.. wla kyang ps0k!kelan nga pip0l ho r tkn 4 grntd nd th0se who thnk they of the people. Living up to these ideals mediate resolution and justice of Cris’ their free interior design service. b ung nxt holiday? haha.. 07-04466 hav d0ne n0thing sgnfcnt nd ds w0rld. thanks will not only avert fraternities from the death, as well as its solemn and valuable The aim is to entrance their interior holiday economics?haller hnd cla ngwork 4 gvng us s2ries of dr lives! paper trail article’s deeply embedded culture of violence, remembrance. design skills by providing first-hand ex- for a day.m0st filipinos daily wage earners.no 1 of d best article i’v read! kip on inspiring us! Vanessa Faye Bolibol perience on the field of design and con- work=no money=no pnggastos 07-19330 06-25674, breccia ba el but will also mark their significant place- struction and at the same time develop ok lng nman ang holiday ec0n0mics ni glo.. sana mgkar0n kau ng segment s paper ny0 ment in society. STAND UP Chairperson solidarity through service. dirediretso ang trabaho s mga opisina.. wlang kung san ung student eh maka2pasa ng article Help us fund this renovation project. Let hassle,hba pa bkasy0n..”, 06-02735 jumpps, kht hndi nmn xa member ng kule. t0pic can be us make the residence hall the Iskolar’s eng’g anythng. mas masaya sna un. para pg tinupak home away from home. For inquiries, con- para sa akin oo. nagkakaroon ako ng pana- ako,msu2lat k0h sa kule pti nrin ibng isko ung tact: Melissa Manzo 0916.456.2270 hong habulin ang tambak na plates, mag-ipon th0ughts nmn, kht wla p kmng komitment. bOR frOm P.5 UP JPia’s CaRniValE ng energy,bonding kasama ang mga mahal sa buhay,at magmuni-muni hanggang sumayad please! para hndi lng png txtback ang msu2lat nmin! 06-27393 Party with UP JPIA as we bring CARNI- sa utak na ang oras ay mahalaga at dapat gina- ang liit ng mga letra ng mga kule! mskit s VALE– a breathtaking night filled with ac- gamit ng wasto para maging produktibo, mas mata! ndi b pwdng i-edit ang mga article 2 robatics, magical illusions, belly dancin, gugustuhin mong pumasok nang muli kaysa mke it short,concise & brief? in a way, mggng capoeira arts and energy-pumping dance tumunganga lang sa isang tabi.wow. nakatutu- magaan ang kule.. un lng, 06-02735 showdowns on Sept. 7, Friday 7:30pm at long nga. 04-61750 wow, saktong-sakto yung collegian chron- Warehouse 135, Yakal St., Makati. Pro- uhm, in a way, nkktulong naman xa lalu icles nitong linggo a. hazing. sana next issue ceeds will be for the Hotchkiss Learning na if type mu ang long vacation, haha, at least, may linaw na sa nangyari kay mr. cris mendez. Center in Surigao del Sur. Free-flowing dre-dretso phnga mu. but d bad syd is, nwwla 06-03962 mamon drinks for 1 hour. Purchase tickets before n ung sgnfcance nung mism0ng holiday. 07- c0ngrats to pup!buti pa kau...natalo nio ang 11pm on Sept.7 at P250, just contact Cha- 78013 music tofi!smantalang sa up...p2l0y n nghhrap ang rie @ 0916.405.9337 mga estudytante!sna mgng sintapang din ng anO’ng Masasabi MO mga taga pup ang mga upians...b0ycotttau!. DUP’s “as yOU likE it” sa Pagbabalikan nina haha! 07-30923 Dulaang UP, on its 32nd theatre season, RUffa at yilMaZ? sna po ndi mgmintis ang pgddliver ng kule stages William Shakespeare’s “As You Like their reconcliation s nevitable..they hav s kalai ze mnsn ndi kme nka2kuha, we l0ve It” as well as its Filipino translation by the kids kc, nd wen ther r kids nvolvd, ms mhrap kule!kulang ang week pg ndi aq nkpgbsa n2, late National Artist for Literature Rolando maging selfish. their marriage brawl ws just 07-46665 Tinio, “Paano Man Ang Ibig.” Directed by too publiszd kya lumaki ng sobra. nd to anabel José Estrella, the romantic comedy fea- rama, stay out of it! she’s s nytmare, honest- sagUtan tures Richard Cunanan, Gary Lim, Mailes ly..03-28574 to 03-21181: ang point ko lng naman, kai- Kanapi, Paolo O’Hara, Randy Villarama and s tngin ko drma lng nla yn.. showbiz tlga! langan na mag mit hafway ung rich at poor para Nathasia Garrucha. The play runs Aug 29- ikanga ni annabel, ‘wg nu ng guluhn ang anak magdcyd regrdng sa tofi.dba, kaya dapat merng Sep 16 at the Wilfrido Ma. Guerrero Theater, kong c rowpah!’..hehe..07-76207 sisa unity para maadres ang tofi…06-07841 popito 2/F Palma Hall. For more info, please con- nagbalikan pala cla. well, godbless po sana to 06-55312: its a gud thng 2 feel dprssed tact the DUP office 926.1349 or 433.7840, s kanila. para n rin s mga anak nila iyang gna- wen u read kule.it means u still feel 4 wat is hap- or Sir Anril Tiatco 0917.858.0734. gawa nila. 04-11599, nana bsce pening arnd u.d nxt step,i hope,wud b 2 act on hwahaha! c ylmaz at rufa na2man?!nak0w, dem. 99-15413 cgurad0ng masayang masaya nanaman c kng cno man nagsbng puro nega ang kule: buhay mUla P.4 anabelramz dhl marami na naman xang gin2. (getz?) haha. 07-10761,d0ng un lng nman po ang 22ong nangyayari.ano png sense kng puro positve lng nkadyaryo? un nga oh?ngkblikan na cla?ala nk0ng blita dhl nagbbunga ng “indignation” dat mkes us act. 1 month nk0ng alang tv,.nwei,mlmang 4 pub- pro d nman ibg sbhng ineexaggerate nla issues. licity purposes lng yan.. 07-48221 d i2 gya ng pngkraniwng tabloid n puro pacute keber qng ngkblikan cna ruffa at yilmaz,wla lng.07-38848 ba psych nmn aqng mpa2la s knila..mas mbuti qng mg- to 06-57162: hahaha! wild nman pla c mir- ptayan n lng cla,pra mbwasa mga pa2ncn d2 s iam santiago. no wonder ‘ganun’ ang mga labi mundo. 04-46643 stat niya. 06-02806 COMMEnts Panawagan lagi akong dprsd 2wng nagb2sa ng kule dhl ung nkuha ng buk n elmntary principle of naa2wa ako s klgayan ng atng pamantasan at chem procss by felder (green,hrdbound) n gling ng atng bansa n prehong pnmu2nuan ng mga eng’g lib, pls pkibalik, tx me sa 09064684972. ganid s pera at mga walang pakialam s edu- thnx! 05-12473 engg kayon. hay kule,ipagp2loy ang pagl2had ng ung freshie shirts nmin n bnyaran nung k22hnan 2 kip me dprsd. amen. 05-12890 Fopc wla p rn sembreak n. sbi s block handler ganda ng komiks. napakaprofound. Finally. dw kunin wla nman. 07-38848 ba psych something worth reading and sending a mes- sage for. 05-10934 nEXt wEEk’s QUEstiOns kay noel pacis hernaiz, inaabngan ko dn dti 1. paano mawawakasan ang fraternity- ang system of a down, at relevant dn nmn mga related violence? columns m. okay dn yung style ni chris s. a. n 2. ano’ng masasabi mo sa “hello papi” mgsulat s column nya ng tungkol kung saan scandal at ang umano’y pandaraya sa mga tv saan, pra ibng tikim nmn. may iba’t ibng atake gameshow? PhiliPPine Collegian | Martes 04 Set 2007 Mag-aaral mUla P.3 Pagninilay alanah torralba bUkas Pa Rin ang kUlê PaRa sa Mga bagOng layOUt aRtist, ilUstRaDOR, wEb staff, at Mga ManUnUlat sa balita, latHalain at kUltURa [ W r i t e r S ] Bring two bluebooks, a pen, and a portfolio of sample works (may be submitted later). You may join News, features, or Kultura. filipino and/or English writers welcome. [ a r t i S t S ] Submit a portfolio of your works. illustrators, bring bond paper and art materials of your choice. Web staff and layout artists, bring 2 bluebooks and a pen. exams may be taken anytime at the Kulê office, room 401, Vinzons Hall. freshies are most welcome! for questions, text Jerrie 0920.308.2303 or email email@example.com Philippine Collegian nº 11 LAGOT ANG KUYAGOT Martes 4 set 2007 Michael francis C. andrada MMDA at ang Salawikain ng na kapital bilang pinansiyal na kapital na isinusubo ng International Monetary Naghihingalong Siyudad Fund, Asian Development Bank, at iba pang S a Maynila, ang Metropolitan Manila institusyon. Development Authority (MMDA) ang pangunahing tagapagtakip Walang Pagbabago Ito mismo ang masasaludsod na tunay ng krisis at kabulukan ng estado. makatuwid, ipinagpapatuloy ng MMDA ang na layunin ng urbanisasyon ng MMDA Sa samu’t saring proyekto ng MMDA sa ganitong operasyon para sa akumulasyon ng – ang paghikayat ng pamumuhunang da- pamumuno ni Bayani Fernando, makikita pribadong pagmamay-ari ng estado. At yuhan, ng pagpasok ng global na kapital sa ang lisyang urbanisasyon ng estado. mananatili ang ganitong operasyon sa pamamagitan ng turismo. Kung kaya hindi Kabilang sa mga proyektong ito ang pamamagitan ng pagsaid sa murang nakapagtataka na dalawang pangunahing mga patakaran ng MMDA na mistu- lakas-paggawa na kalakhan ay proyekto ng MMDA ang inihingi ng pondo lang “salawikain” o “kasabihang ” nagmumula sa kanayunan at mula sa dalawang higanteng imperyalistang nakapaskil bilang istiker sa dyip o maralita ng lungsod. institusyong pinansiyal. Ang “Metro Manila metalikong pink/blue na poster sa Upang ipalaganap ang Urban Transport Integration Project” ay kalsada. Nakapakete bilang “Metro mantrang ito ng MMDA , pinopondohan ng World Bank, habang ang Gwapo / Tao Ganado / Sukatan ng nakatutok ang na- “ Metro Manila Air Quality Improvement Kalidad ng Pamayanan,” lantad na turang awtoridad sa Sector Development Program” naman ay ipinatatalos ng mga panitikang ito paglilinis at pagsa- pinopondohan ng Asian Development Bank. ang nomenklatura ng urbanisasyong saayos ng siyudad. Ang ganito ring iskema ang siyang tiyak nakahulma sa layaw ng gobyerno at Kabilang sa “Metro na magpapanatili ng kronikong krisis sa ng mga dayuhang korporasyon: G wa p o” a n g ( 1 ) Maynila at sa buong bansa. 1.) Walang Sagabal. Street Nomads Sa gitna at ilalim ng itinatambol na Lansangan ay ligtas, mabilis, Care Program, (2) proyekto ng urbanisasyon ng MMDA , walang nakakainis. Sidewalk Dwellers hindi ang mga pagbabago sa pisikal na 2.) Walang Kalat. Inventory and Al- heyograpiya ng kalakhang Maynila ang Wa l a n g k u ya g o t , wa l a n g location, (3) Wa- mas pumaimbulog. Bagkus, naranasan ang basura. terways Dwellers intensipikasyon ng kahirapan, ang pagrami 3.) Walang pook na bulok. Relocation, (4) ng taong lansangan, ang pagsulpot ng mga Maganda, hindi nakakatakot. Pook na Bulok, karitong-tindahan-tahanan sa mga bang- 4.) Walang sakit. Negosyo Di Pa- keta, ang paglala ng trapiko, ang pagrami ng Ha n g i n , t u b i g a t p a g k a i n a y pasok, (5) PGMA mga iskwater na bunga ng rural-urban na malinis. Workers’ Inn- migrasyon, at ang paglabas ng mamamayan 5.) Walang mabaho. bed-bath and Shop, sa lansangan para sa demonstrasyon tulad Kanal at sapa, malinis. ( 5) Metro Padyakan, (6) ng rali at mobilisasyon. Sa katunayan, ayon 6.) Walang bastos. EDSA Organized Bus Route kay Neferti Tadiar, ang ganitong sitwasyon May urbanindad. Project o OBR , (7) Seven Major ng metropolis ay bunga ng pagbalikwas at 7.) Kaisa. THE METRO WAY. Roads, (8) New Modern Southrail antagonismo. Ang paglobo ng populasyon na bumuo System, (9) Flood Mitigation in Metro The Metro Way: Siyudad ng “pinal na Manila, at (10) Metro Safe (Protecting Lives sa siyudad ay ang pagsasakatawang-tao ng ng Kamay na Bakal and Properties). pang-ekonomiyang kalabisan. awtoridad para sa Ka- l - Samakatuwid, ang lantad na balintuna Noong Nobyembre 7, 1975, pinirmahan akhang Maynila,” ang MMDA . Simula noon, ni Ferdinand Marcos ang Presidential ang MMDA na ang nagpapatakbo ng “serbi- Walang Bulok, Walang Bastos ng “naghihingalong siyudad” ng Maynila ay Decree No. 824 at pinag-isa ang 17 lokal Inaasinta ng proyekto ng urbanisasyon ng matingkad na manipestasyon ng tunggalian syong urban” sa kalakhang Maynila. ng mga puwersang panlipunan. Maging na gobyerno ng kalakhang Maynila bi- MMDA ang mga itinuturing na manipesta- lang Metropolitan Manila Commission Walang Kuyagot, Walang syon ng krisis ng siyudad – ang “marurungis” ang pagpapangalan sa mga penomenon ng (MMC). Si Imelda Marcos ang itinalagang Pangit sa Paningin at “marurumi” ng lungsod: ang mga iskwater krisis na ito ay nakatali sa pangunahing gobernador at general manager ng MMC. Sa kasalukuyan, makikita ang bisyon ng sa tulay, railway at waterway, mga batang lan- daluyan ng urbanisasyon ng lungsod: ang Nakaayon ang pagtataguyod ng MMC sa MMDA ayon sa dikta ng malakolonyal at sangan, sidewalk vendors, at pulubi. Ang la- lansangan. Kaya maging ang nomenkla- “Bagong Lipunan” na siyang politikal na malapyudal na gobyernong Arroyo. Ayon kay yunin ng MMDA ay protektahan ang lungsod tura ng mga krisis-lansangan (batang lan- mantra ng Batas Militar. Ani Manuel Caoili, Fernando, nilalayon ng MMDA na gawing mula sa lahat ng uri ng obstruksyon. Upang sangan, putang kalye, illegal street vendor, ang pagtataguyod sa Maynila bilang “Si- “makatao at world class” ang Kalakhang maisagawa ito, kaugnay na layunin ng MMDA krimeng-lansangan) ay masisipat bilang yudad ng Tao” ay upang mang-engganyo ng Maynila. Malinaw sa bisyon ng MMDA na ang ang tanggalin ang lahat ng iligal na istruktura matingkad na antagonismo ng mga puw- pamumuhunang dayuhan at upang maging regulasyon ng Kamaynilaan ay regulasyon ng at obstruksyon sa lungsod. Samakatuwid, ersang panlipunan sa lungsod at sa bansa. dibuho: ivan rerente. disenyo ng pahina: mark angelo ching. rehiyunal na sentro ng mga multinasyonal mamamayan nito para sa pang-ekonomiyang makikita na ang moda ng urbanisasyon ay Ang balintunang ito ang mapaghuhugutan na korporasyon ang Maynila. produksyon ng kalunsuran at ng bansa. nasa programa ng sanitasyon ng lungsod. ng radikal na inobasyon ng salawikain ng Hindi nalalayo ang ganitong imposisyon Makikita rin sa bisyong ito ang erudisyon ng Kung susuriin pang mabuti, ang krisis na naghihingalong lungsod. ng Batas Militar sa binuong diskurso ng pagpapanatili ng Maynila bilang primaryang ito ay sinadyang-krisis at likhang-krisis ng SANGGUNIAN: “demokrasya” ng humaliling gobyernong kapital ng bansa para sa lokal at global na oberdeterminasyon ng estado. Caoili, Manuel A. The Origins of Metropolitan Manila: A Political Corazon Aquino. Sa bisa ng Executive Order kalakalan. Sa madaling salita, ginagawang “normal” and Social Analysis. Quezon City: University of the Philip- No. 392 noong Enero 9, 1990, ipinalit sa Ang “primera klase” ng urbanisasyong ang krisis ng naghihingalong siyudad upang pines Press. 1999. MMC ang Metropolitan Manila Authority Marx, Karl at frederick Engels. The German Ideology. Part One. In- nais itanghal ng MMDA ay makakamit lamang patuloy na lumawak ang global na kapital sa edit ni C.J. Arthur. New York: International Publishers. 1995. (MMA) na nagsilbing “interim body for sa patuloy na pagsaid sa kanayunan, at sa siyudad. Sa intensipikasyon ng “sinadyang Tadiar, Neferti Xina M. “Manila’s New Metropolitan form.” Dis- the governance of the Metropolitan Ma- regulasyon ng mamamayan bilang kapital krisis,” mas ibinubukas ng estado ang kal- crepant Histories: Translocal Essays on filipino Cultures. Inedit nila Area.” Sa loob ng limang taong buhay ng lakas-paggawa o labor capital para sa akhang Maynila, ang mga metropolis at ang ni Vicente L. Rafael. Pasig: Anvil Publishing, Inc. 1995. ng MMA , mayroong humigit-kumulang produksyon ng pribadong pagmamay-ari kanayunan sa pagpasok ng global na kapital http://www.mmda.gov.ph/history.html 300,000 katao bawat taon ang nadagdag ng naghaharing lokal at dayuhang uri. Ani ng mga namumuhunang multinasyunal at *si michael Francis c. andrada o mykel ay dating pat- sa lumolobong populasyon ng kalakhang Marx, ang antagonismo sa pagitan ng si- transnasyunal na korporasyong Amerikano at nugot sa kultura ng philippine collegian at kasalukuyang Maynila at sa mga problema ng sanitasyon, yudad at nayon ay mabubuhay lamang sa Hapon. Sa kasaysayan, tulad nang ipinahayag guro sa departamento ng Filipino at panitikan ng pilipinas kalusugan, trapiko at pagbaha. Noong Marso konteksto ng pribadong pagmamay-ari. Sa- ni Caoili, makikita ito sa pagpasok ng global sa up diliman. kasapi siya ng all-up workers’ union at ng 1, 1995, ipinasa ang Republic Act No. 7924 congress of teachers/educators for nationalism and de- mocracy.
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