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  –   What is internetworking?
        Connect multiple networks of one or more organizations
         into a large, uniform communication system.
        The resulting system is called an internetwork or

  –   What is Internet?
        The Internet is the specific global internetwork that grew
         out of ARPA-NET for communication of between
         computer located anywhere in the world

   Each intermediate network must agree to
    handle transit in exchange for the right to
    send traffic throughout the internet.
   Internetworking protocols
    –   All computers and routers in an internet must
        agree on a common set of internetworking
What is a protocol? revisited

       A set of syntactic and semantic rules for communication.
       details of message formats
       How a computer should respond when a message arrives.
       How a computer handles errors or.
       Independent of lower layers or hardware.
TCP/IP protocol

 –   TCP/IP is the most widely used internetworking
     protocol suite.
        TCP: Transmission Control Protocol.
        IP: Internet Protocol.
 –   TCP/IP is now the defacto standard for
     internetworking protocols.
TCP/IP suite

   Here are some of the key features provided
    by TCP/IP suite:
          Packet switching
          Logical addressing
          Dynamic rooting
          Name resolution
Packet switching

       The data is divided in small chunks
    –     The packets are transmitted independently
    –     Possibly by different routes
    –     And reassembled at the other end.
    –     This allows a faster transmission
Logical addressing

   Every computer has physical address
    –   Ethernet address 48 bits (MAC address)
            90:AF:F4:CA:BA:03
            Burned into the chip at the factory
            Physical addresses are of different formats
            With no hierarchical scheme
   Uniform format: IP addresses
            32 bits identifying the network and the host.
            Two systems can not connect to the Internet with the same
             address at the same time.
            Translation of IP to Ethernet address and vice versa.
Dynamic rooting

   Different routes can be taken from source to
   Router can choose a path for the data
    depending on present conditions
          Path taken
Name resolution

   TCP/IP provides a mapping of domain name
    and numeric addresses
    – =

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