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Globalisation by tyC9OW

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									Globalisation of IT
 June 2004, Kota Kinabalu
     By Simon Seow
    Councilor, PIKOM
• Factors that affect the breadth and speed of
  globalisation and the reactions to
  – Technological development
     • Hardware, software
  – Convergence
  – International collaboration-competition
  – Social developments
     • Digital divide & inclusion
• What is unchanging and strategies taken to
  handle the change
         Non technical nature
• If the problems (and opportunities) we are trying
  to address is one of technology, then we cannot
  apply technology to address the issues.
• i.e. this presentation will examine globalisation
  of IT from the perspective of factors that will
  influence the choice of strategy to address the
  issue of global impact of IT on us, more so than
  the transient technology that is facing us at the
  moment.
   Technological development
• Technology that increases the speed of
  information dissemination and influence
• Commercial strategies that push the
  envelope on usage patterns and
  expectations.
              Technology
• Progress of networking technology.
  Architecture and developments in
  increased speed.
  – 1976 Xerox, Intel, DEC jointly developed and
    set the de facto Ethernet standard 10BASE-T.
    transmission speeds of up to 10Mbits/sec
  – Fast Ethernet standard, commonly used in
    LAN backbone systems, data rates up to
    100Mbits/sec
• Gigabit Ethernet, 1 gigabit or
  1,000Mbits/sec
• Late 1999, 10G, or 10 Gigabit/sec
  Ethernet. Initially positioned as alternative
  to WAN technologies like SONET
  (synchronous optical network) and ATM,
  increasing data rates from 2.5Gbits/sec to
  10Gbits/sec.
         Early adopters faced
•   Latency and jitters problems
•   Service quality
•   Below expectation throughput
•   Cost way above norm
           Second coming
• 2003 survey – 40% of users will have 10G
  Ethernet employed within 2 years
                Lesson point
• The latest technology is not the same as the
  latest adopted technology
• The latest technology need time to mature
  before it can become adoptable, provided its
  adopters are still around and interested to
  promote it
  – Business model
  – Application area – backbone, desktop, building-to-
    building, education research, real-time backups, next-
    gen apps like medical imaging
                    RFID
• Radio frequency identification
  – Subset of automatic identification technology
• Non line-of-sight (barcode)
• Every item in the world will be uniquely
  identifiable and traceable during
  assemble, storage or in use
• Set to revolutionise many industries,
  especially retail, manufacturing,
  transportation, security.
• Frost & Sullivan – worldwide RFID market
  expected to be worth US$11.6 billion by
  2010.
• Implications
  – Volume of data that needs to be handled
      How does this affect us?
• Expectations of international businesses and
  international-linked businesses that we may
  wish to attract to, or keep in, the state.
• Any plans we may have to set up an IT out-
  sourcing hub, support centre, etc.
• Any national/state applications we may be
  planning, e.g. e-Medicine.
• What other eco-tourism states/countries are
  offering by way of applying technology to
  promote itself.
                 Software
•   Open Source vs. Propriety models
•   Methods and approaches
•   COTTS vs. Customisation
•   Programming Languages
•   Copyright and pricing models
Open Source vs. Proprietary

– Freedom
  • from cost
     – Initial cost
     – Support cost
  • To examine code
  • To modify code
– Confusion over issue, and even meanings
– Pressure to take sides with long-term
  implications
    Methods and Approaches
• Waterfall
• Iterative
• Spiral
Separating the hype from reality
• All approaches require some structure
• All structures have pattern of
  – Fact gathering
  – Analysis
  – Design
  – Development
  – Deployment
                 Approaches
• Structured
  – Separating collections of processes from collections
    of data
• Object Oriented
  – Seeing everything as elements, each made up of a
    composite of data and processes that act on the data
  – Gaining support because of attractions of claims of
     • “assemble from components” construction mode
     • Extensibility (ease of maintence)
   Evolution of manufacturing
• Craftsman On-off made to order
• Mass production of standard products
  from standard components
• Mass customisation of unique products
  from standards components
 Popularity of either reflects

– Technological developments that enable (or
  force) a “better” way of doing things
– Global strategies of dominant vendors
– Global strategies of dominant multinational
  corporations
– Labour supply
Documentation and methodologies

• SSADM
  – Structured Systems Analysis and
    Development Methodology
• UML
  – Unified Modeling Language
• Best fit for purpose may not be always the
  deciding factor. Commonly used standard
  may be.
    Extending Process & Data
• Process – events
• Data – states

• Recognition of duality of things.
              Languages
• Cobol to Java to
• While the language (and platform) war is
  still on, there is a tendency towards
  common integrated development
  environments. E.g. .Net where the choice
  of programming language to use is less of
  an issue
  Copyright and pricing models
• Economies more interconnected and
  interdependent.
  – Issue of ip rights and enforcement more
    important
  – Cost factors
    • Perpetual lisencing model vs. subscription pricing
      or ASP (application service provider) or pay-per-
      use
      How does this affect us?
• Heavier workload on IT
  – Need to handle different conceptual approaches,
    maintaining legacy systems while introducing new
    ones
• Shifting the balance of development effort and
  skill towards pre-programming activities.
  – Requirements analysis and management
  – Design based on readily available off-the-shelf
    components
• Choice of platform may be affected by pricing
  model. Cost estimates more complex
             Convergence
• Brought about by proliferation of internet
• Merging/blurring of borders between IT,
  Telecommunication and Broadcasting
• Influence on our lives and on businesses
  and governments
• Brings to the fore, content
• “We learnt from the papers that the first MPEG
  images of US Tomahawk missiles hitting Iraq on
  March 20 were not sent through satellite. They
  were sent through encrypted e-mails from the
  warship at the battlefront back to Bush’s War
  Room in Washington before they were
  sanctioned for transmission to TV broadcast
  networks that finally reached the living rooms of
  the world”.
Quoted from paper “What Does Convergence Hold For (local) Content?” . by TONY LEE,
   Chairman, Communications & Multimedia Content Forum of Malaysia (CMCF)
• “The same images would later make their way to the newspapers,
  which would upload them to their websites for readers to download.
  Readers who have downloaded the images would later pass them
  around through their normal emails to friends far and near.
• The same content eventually makes a full circle - from e-mail to
  mass media like TV, radio and newspapers, to web portals and
  finally to end-users. The lines that separate the Telco's, ISPs,
  Communication Satellites and Broadcasters not only criss-cross
  each other; they become so ‘Inseparable’.
• I have not forgotten to mention that, by now, billions of SMS
  messages about the War would have been transmitted around the
  globe, back and forth.”

Quoted from paper “What Does Convergence Hold For (local) Content?” . by TONY LEE, Chairman, Communications
    & Multimedia Content Forum of Malaysia (CMCF)
• “The entire process of content gathering,
  generation, storage, retrieval and archiving has
  its backbone on the Internet — a key feature of
  communications and multimedia industry. This is
  where the power of Internet and its capacity to
  interconnect and interact with communities can
  be tapped. In other words, there are various
  touch points to mousetrap the audience online
  and offline.”
Quoted from paper “What Does Convergence Hold For (local) Content?” . by TONY LEE,
   Chairman, Communications & Multimedia Content Forum of Malaysia (CMCF)
• So, the backdrop is set for the TV versus PC battle as
  each try to out manoeuvre the other for more usage by
  consumers. Enter the TV with built-in PC capabilities and
  the PC with built-in TV capabilities. I’ll let you imagine
  the scenario yourselves!
• These examples of how communications technology has
  advanced convergence in our lives are but a few.
  Nonetheless, throughout the various platforms, it is the
  content that is sought and bought. And it is almost
  entirely foreign, be it from the West or the East. Whither
  our local content, if I may ask?
Quoted from paper “What Does Convergence Hold For (local) Content?” . by TONY LEE, Chairman,
   Communications & Multimedia Content Forum of Malaysia (CMCF)
     How does this affect us?
• Context of our IT environment is widened
• Technology neutral areas (e.g. content) is
  a significant factor
• Delivery mechanisms through non
  traditional computing interface devices
  – Influence on interface design of software and
    mulitiplicity of platforms to consider
            International
      collaboration/competition
• Standards organisations
  – ISO, UN/CEFACT
• Countries plans to achieve international
  competitive edge via IT
                 Standards
• Global standards are the basis to
  harmonise interaction between the
  multitudes of networks and technologies.
  – In the marketplace, it is the low cost devices
    that survive, and that can lower the cost of
    entry for smaller players. Standards is the
    enabler.
• Range of areas from Business
  Collaboration Frameworks (BCF) to
  ebXML core components
               Country initiatives
• Korea
   – Embarked on a programme to stimulate the growth of it’s IT
     sector from roughly 15% to 40% of it’s GDP growth
• New Zealand
   – Strategy to achieve sustainable long-term economic growth
     through pervasive electronic connectivity. Since NZ is not
     geographically well placed to compete in distant places,
     connectivity is the tool it needs to participate in world markets.
• SEA
   – Growth of mobile telephony, new wireless technologies,
     convergence, liberalisation and market growth are forcing policy
     makers and regulators to address new issues. Sharing of
     regulatory experience has been of benefit
• Etc, etc
     How does this affect us?
• Need to monitor other countries initiatives
  and appraise our own core strengths and
  weaknesses
• Awareness of standards work
          Social developments
• Digital divide & inclusion
   – Where is the divide
   – Ideal strategy to bridge
   – What problem are we really trying to solve.
      • decoupling separate issues
• Initiatives by corporations as well as world
  bodies, in addition to governments
• Danger of alienating large sections of
  communities vs. need to rush to keep up with
  the rest of the world
What is unchanging and strategies
  taken to handle the change
• It seems that trying to run faster or to work
  harder or to take short-cuts is not helping
  us cope with the increasing levels of
  complexity and change
• Globalisation increases the rate of change
  and complexity
• Increases the need for integration, within
  our own state, country and internationally
Enterprise Architecture
If the Federal Government continues to do
   what we have done,
(i.e. build non-architected solutions),

we will continue to get what we have
(i.e., a non-interoperable expensive, and ever challenging tangle of
    data, applications, and technology).”

Source: FEAF Version 11

__________________________________
                Architecture
• Provides an explicit representation of an xxx.
• Architecture principles have been adopted for
  k’s of years.
  – Greek, Roman and Maya ruins, 10,000-mile Long
    Wall, Stonehenge, Borobodur.
  – Construction industry
  – Engineering industry
  – Medicine – surgery
  – IS industry early 80s
               Enterprise Architecture

• A strategic information asset base, which
  defines the agency’s mission and business
  activities supporting the mission, the information
  necessary for agency operations, the
  technologies necessary to support operations,
  and the transitional processes necessary for
  implementing new technologies in response to
  changing business needs. An enterprise
  architecture is an integrated model or
  representation.
•   Source: Adapted from FEAF Version 1.1
             Purpose of EA
• Foundation for 2 ESSENTIAL activities
  – Doing Strategic planning & Investment
    management.
  – Providing direction for systems engineering
    activities that support business needs.
                      How?
• Effective management and strategic
  decision making, especially for information
  technology (IT) investments, require
  – an integrated view of the enterprise,
    understanding
     • the interrelationships among the business
       organizations,
     • their operational processes, and
     • the information systems that support them.
        An EA formalizes
– the identification, documentation, and
  management of these interrelationships, and
– supports the management and decision
  processes.
  The EA provides substantial
           support
– for evolution of an enterprise as
   • it anticipates and responds to the changing needs
     of its customers and constituents.
– The EA is a vital part of the enterprise’s
  decision- making process, and
   • will evolve along with the enterprise’s mission.
                Central Government
•   Capturing facts about the mission and functions man understandable
    manner to enable better planning and decision making
•   Improving communication among the business organizations and IT
    organizations within the enterprise
•   Achieving economies of scale by providing mechanisms for sharing services
    collaboratively across the enterprise
•   Improving consistency, accuracy, and timeliness of IT-managed information
    shared collaboratively across the enterprise
•   Providing high-level views to help communicate the complexity of large
    systems
•   Highlighting opportunities for building greater quality and flexibility into
    applications without increasing the cost
•   Supporting analyses of alternatives, risks, and trade-offs for the investment
    management process, which reduces the risks of
     – Building systems that do not meet business needs
     – Expending resources on developing duplicative functionality
                 Mapping the enterprise
                 Data     Function   Network   People   Time   Motivation



Scope
planner



Enterp
Mod
owner



IS Mod
developer



Techno
Mod
Builder


Detailed
Rep
Sub contractor

  Functioning System ->
            Why EA now?
• Money no longer unlimited supply
• Wake up to no silver bullet
• Recent world-class news/events
  – 911
  – Enron
  – Dot-coms
  – Consistent message of surveys and reports
• Globalisation’s tendency to require
  synchronisation at multiple levels
             Legislation
• ITMRA / Clinger-Cohen Act 1996
• GPEA - Government paperwork
  elimination act
• GPRA - Government performance results
  act 1993
• FOIA - Freedom of information act
• The Federal Enterprise Architecture
  Framework (FEAF) of 1999
                   Clinger-Cohen
• The Information Technology Management Reform Act (ITMRA) of
  1996 (“Clinger-Cohen Act”) assigns the Director of the Office of
  Management and Budget (0MB) responsibility for improving the
  acquisition, use, and disposal of information technology by the
  federal government to improve the productivity, efficiency, and
  effectiveness of federal programs, including dissemination of public
  information and the reduction of information collection burdens on
  the public. It supplements the information resources management
  (IRM) policies contained in the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) by
  establishing a comprehensive approach to improving the acquisition
  and management of agency information systems through work
  process redesign, and by linking planning and investment strategies
  to the budget process.
                    Clinger-Cohen
• Section 5125(b)(2) of ITMRA states: “The Chief Information Officer
   of an executive agency shall be responsible for developing,
   maintaining, and facilitating the implementation of a sound and
   integrated information technology architecture for the
   executive agency.”
 ITMRA establishes clear accountability for IRM activities by creating
   agency Chief Information Officers (CIOs) with the authority and
   management responsibility necessary to advise the agency head.
   Among other responsibilities, CIOs oversee the design,
   development, and implementation of information systems. CIOs also
   monitor and evaluate system performance and advise the agency
   head to modify or terminate those systems.
The ITMRA also directs agencies to work together towards the
   common goal of using information technology to improve the
   productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency of federal programs and to
   promote an interoperable, secure, and shared government-wide
   information resources infrastructure.
    The Business Case for EA

• Real world examples exist now for
  substantatial savings achieved from an EA
  initiative.
  – E.g. at Ohio Bureau of Workers
    Compensation
                In closing
• Globalisation is speeded up by IT and in
  its turn, will have a profound effect on IT’s
  effect on us
• Issues are well beyond the boundaries of
  the traditional scope of “IT”
• Senior management, involved in the
  strategy of the organisation must know the
  part they play in the relationship between
  management and technical
              Thank You
• Feedback and request for further
  information from
• simonseow@infospec.com.my
• Or
• simon@theanalyst.com

								
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